Thanks to the work of breeders, today there are a huge number of breeds of cows. Scientists set themselves the task of breeding a highly productive cow, which will be distinguished by good health. A universal breed that would have high indicators of both meat and dairy productivity has not yet been bred.
- Species of the breeds
- Zebuvidnaya <
- Istobenskaya <
- Shorthorn <
- Angler’s <
- Aberdeen of Angus
- Lebedinsky <
- Alatau <
- Features of the selection
- Cattle breeding
- Conclusion <
All breeds of cows that were born thanks to the tireless work of breeders , we will not consider, we will consider only those that have already attracted the attention of farmers.
Species of breeds
There are dairy or meat cows. Separately, you can select a universal group. This includes burenki, which have average indicators of meat and dairy productivity. We will consider representatives of all three groups, highlighting the most popular representatives of each.
The following cows belong to meat breeds:
- Dmitrievskaya ;
- Aberdeen of Angus;
Dairy breeds include:
- Lebedinsky .
You can record the following breeds in the universal group:
Appearances Suksunsky cows contributed to the work of local breeders. When breeding, a red Danish burenka was used, which was mixed with burenki of local breeds living in the same name. Suksun. During the period of improvement of the breed, the blood of the Latvian, red steppe and Estonian cows was mixed in. This has had a positive effect on cow productivity. A representative of the universal group was obtained.
Cows of this breed have a deep and narrow chest. The body is slightly elongated to match the chest, but the back and lower back, unlike the chest, are wide. In general, the animal is proportionate. On the head of a small size are horns that have a curved shape. With an animal height of 1.30 m, its length is 155 cm.
Suksunskiye Burenki produce 3,500 thousand kg of milk per year.The fat content of the product does not exceed 3.9%. The weight of an adult heifer is 480 kg, while the bull weighs 300 kg more. Productivity is average, so the Suksun breed of cows has not gained wide popularity around the world, although Russian farmers love Suksun cows and bulls.
Breeding of the Suksun cows is mainly in the Perm region. The animal is unpretentious in grooming and adapts well to cold Russian winters, so it can be kept in any region of Russia. The only drawback of cattle of this breed is their weak legs.
This burenka is from Germany. It is believed that when breeding German burenki representatives of the Shorthorn breed were used. The dairy-type cow became the fruit of the breeders’ work.
Outwardly, the Angler breed of cows looks massive and stately. A slightly elongated body is in harmony with a small and neat head, on which small horns are located. Powerful skeleton is well built, legs are elastic, ribs are wide. The udder is shaped like a bowl. This form helps to increase milk yield. The suit is dark red, sometimes red. In this case, the legs, head and neck are pigmented more strongly. Here the color changes from red to cherry, but the transition is smooth.
With proper care, the cows produce 5500 kg of milk each year. At the same time, milk has a fat content of 5.1%. With such fatty milk yields a delicious cheese, so we can safely say that the breeders have worked wonderfully.It is worth mentioning about the taste of milk, which has a delicate aroma and a sweet aftertaste. In addition to excellent tastes, the saturation of Angler’s milk with a large number of trace elements useful for the body is also noted.
In addition to large milk yields, Anglers can boast a good yield of meat. This provides the breed with worldwide popularity. Anglers are most common in Europe, although they can also be found in the southern parts of Russia. As for the content, the Angler cows are unpretentious. However, they have a specific character, which is quite possible to get used to. Anglers do not tolerate drafts and high humidity. This should be taken into account when constructing the barn.
The Dutch burenka deserves special attention, since it is one of the oldest and still popular in the whole world. Scientists reasonably believe that it is the Dutchwoman who is the progenitor of many breeds of cattle. In addition to the fact that the Dutch breed of cows is popular in Europe, it is cultivated in Russia. If we talk about the type of cattle, then the Dutch burenka gives large milk yields. At the same time, meat productivity indicators exceed average characteristics.
The Dutch burenka is well-built, has developed muscles and a strong skeleton. The back line is even, the length of the neck is average, the head is quite large. Earlier in the appearance of the breed representatives, one could meet flaws.But, thanks to the work of breeders, today the animal looks almost impeccable. His suit is black and white.
During the year, Dutch cows produce 4,500 thousand kg of milk (fat content – 4%). Heifers grow fast enough, and already at the age of 1.2 years they can be mated. The weight of an adult heifer slightly exceeds 0.5 tons, and a bull – 790 kg. Today, breeders continue to work on improving this breed.
The result of the work of Russian breeders was the Sychevskaya breed of cows. In our country, this is one of the most common breeds of cattle. This popularity is explained by the high milk yield and the simplicity of keeping cows.
The height of the Sychevskaya cow is 1.35 m (average). It is folded proportionally and, thanks to its wide chest and large head, looks powerful. The well-developed musculature of cows is noteworthy. Decorate the head of the Sychevsky cow horns, bent in the form of a crescent and directed forward. Her suit is brown with white spots.
Milk productivity – 4 thousand kg of milk (fat content – 3.8%). The weight of the heifer reaches 550 kg. The bull weighs 350 kg more. At the moment, there are varieties of this breed of cattle that have a milk and meat orientation.
Representatives of the Sychevsky breed are able to adapt to any environmental conditions. It is also worth mentioning about good health and resistance to many diseases. However, calves should receive a well-balanced diet.With a lack of certain mineral substances, the animal will grow weak and painful.
The Galloway breed of cows was formed back in the XVII century, but at that time the exterior was Within the breed, as well as color, was significantly different. The breed has improved over the years. Galloway is a large and yet compact animal that has rounded shapes, which is not very much like a cow. A feature of the burenka is a wavy short coat. On her head there is a small cup (kaptur), falling to the eyes. A peculiarity is impassability.
There are cows of different colors, but black predominates. There are both one-color Burenki, and representatives of 2 or 3 color colors. If we talk about representatives of 2 color colors, then, as a rule, animals have a wide white “belt” from chest to lower back. The rest of the coat is brown or black. Representatives of the same 3 color colors do not have a clear pattern. There is white color, brown and black.
Galloway cow gives 1,500 kg of milk per year (fat content – 4%). Perhaps lower milk production is not to be found. If we talk about meat productivity, then the Galloway cow gains an average of 500 kg, the bull weighs 300-350 kg more. But it is worth saying not only about quantitative indicators, but also about qualitative ones. Gallovei meat is appreciated in the market for its palatability.
Unfortunately, today cattle of this breed is extremely rare. It is suitable for grazing.
Zebuvidnaya breed is unique. It turned out as a result of crossing Holstein cows and zebu bulls. A feature of the zebu-like burenka is resistance to many diseases that affect cows, goats and other livestock. The fat content of milk, and this cattle is valued because of high milk productivity, exceeds the fat content of milk, which gives the rest of the breed. As for appearance, the compact animal has a tubercle in the withers area called zeb. And farmers simply say that the cow is hunchbacked. In this hump, it accumulates nutrients.
One burenka produces about 9000 kg of milk per year. At the same time, the life expectancy of zebu cattle in large farms is 10 years. It is difficult to find a second breed that would have at least approximately such characteristics. On average, the life expectancy of cows and bulls in large farms does not exceed 6 years.
Unfortunately, in our country this breed is extremely rare. This is due to the fact that new breeds require improvement and technology, and farmers who keep up with the times and are ready not only to maximize profits, but also provide cattle with proper care, unfortunately, are few.
Istobenskaya cow does not belong to large breeds. Despite this, she looks quite rude.The reason for this is a rough head with an elongated front part. The height of the animal does not exceed 1.30 m, while his legs are quite high. Burenka is painted in black and white, while black is more than white.
Istoben cattle can be attributed to universal breeds, since it has average indicators of both meat and dairy productivity. One heifer gives a year no more than 3700 kg of milk, the fat content of which is on average 4%. But sometimes the fat content of milk reaches 5.5%. To achieve such fat content, you need to monitor the diet of the heifer and the conditions of its maintenance. The weight of the Istoben cow does not exceed 500 kg. If we talk about the average, then it is 450 kg.
It is worth noting that these animals can adapt to almost any climatic conditions and have strong immunity. As for the shortcomings, it is worth noting that this cattle has a sagging back and rather poorly developed muscles. Therefore, animals do not differ in stamina.
Holstein is a universal cow. She is good in every sense. She not only gives good yields, but also pleases with weight gain. The birthplace of this animal is America. Thanks to the black or red-motley color on the pasture, the Holstein burenka is not difficult to notice. As for the exterior, the body in shape resembles a wedge, shoulders and lower back wide. Noteworthy is the large udder, which, despite its size, is pulled up.In general, the exterior corresponds to milk cows. The suit is often red-motley. There are individuals of black-and-white suit.
Milk productivity is about 7000 kg per year. At the same time, cases were recorded when the burenka gave 10,000 liters of milk. Milk productivity is influenced not only by the conditions of detention and quality of care, but also by climatic conditions. The higher the milk yield, the lower the fat content of milk. The average fat content of milk is 3.5%.
Heifers grow up to 700 kg, and bulls grow up to 900 kg, but this is average. If you provide the livestock with proper care and proper nutrition, then you can increase meat productivity by 200-300 kg.
Shorthorn – cattle meat direction. England is the birthplace of the Shorthorn cow. In order to improve the exterior and productivity indicators, the breeders had to spend a lot of time and effort, but the result was worth it. The result was a well-built animal with an interesting color. The cow is medium in size. Its height does not exceed 1.30 m. The legs are of medium length, the body is moderately massive, the head of medium size is proportional to the body, short horns. The color is brown with white, while the brown or white color does not always prevail.
The adult Shortgorn chick weighs 600 kg, and the goby weighs 1000-1200 kg.But such indicators can only be achieved with proper care. Shorthorn meat is appreciated for its delicate taste with fatty layers (marbled meat). As for milk production, the annual milk yield is 2400 kg. The fat content of milk does not exceed 4%.
A Yorkshire cow came to us from Scotland. This country is not with the mildest climate. Accordingly, Burenka is good in that it can adapt to almost any climate, which allows it to be kept in regions of Russia with severe weather conditions. Despite the fact that the body of the Yorkshire cows is slightly elongated, it looks good. The short neck does not spoil the exterior. Her legs are of medium length, her head is not large. The suit can be varied. You can see representatives of the breed with black, red and even chocolate color. Often there are 2-colored cows.
Friendly and flexible character – a feature of the breed. This burenka can even be called sentimental.
The weight of the heifer is 510 kg, the bull is 750 kg. Milk alone produces 4.5-5 thousand kg per year. In this case, the fat content of the product varies from 4 to 4.5%. Accordingly, it is beneficial to keep cattle of this breed both in small and large-scale farming.
The advantages of the breed are fast weight gain, unpretentiousness in leaving and the possibility of grazing. These animals do not need a barn. It is enough to build a building that protects the wards from rainfall.It is also worth noting that the Yorkshire cow needs less feed than many other breeds.
Auliekol is a rather unusual breed. And its uniqueness lies primarily in the fact that the wool is dyed or ivory. They contain representatives of this breed mainly in Kazakhstan, which is the birthplace of this cow. The number of Auliekol cows does not exceed 13,000 heads.
It is rather difficult to keep representatives of this breed. This is due to the fact that they are very demanding on food, so you need to be responsible in compiling the menu.
As for the exterior, the Auliekol breed has developed muscles, a large body, a powerful neck with sagging skin, short legs and a compact head . The Auliekol cow has no horns.
If we talk about directionality, then this is a meat type. Heifers weigh 550-600 kg, and bulls weigh 400-450 kg more. The Auliekol breed attracts farmers by the fact that calves quickly gain weight. It is also worth noting the high quality of beef.
The blue cow is not just the most popular breed in Latvia, but a visiting card of the country. In all of Russia, unfortunately, there are no representatives of this rare breed. Already from the name of the breed you can understand that the peculiarity of the burenka is an unusual color. Today it is difficult to say something about the origin of this miracle of nature.According to legend, the breeders did not put their hands on the origin of the blue cow.
This is a milk-borne burenka. The annual milk yield is about 5000 kg. The advantage of this breed is its resistance to diseases and adaptability to various climatic conditions.
Buryat cow is a leader in terms of profitability. The advantages of the Buryat cow are its unpretentiousness, resistance to various diseases and energy. This cattle is suitable for both grazing and stall keeping. At some point in time, scientists thought that the Buryat breed disappeared, but today work is underway to restore it.
It is difficult to say specifically what indicators of milk and meat productivity are characteristic of a Buryat cow. Scientists will be able to give an exact answer after completion of the restoration of the breed.
One of the modern breeds is Dmitrievskaya. To date, the Dmitrievskaya cow is not as good as scientists expected, so the work on the selection of meat breeds continues. Initially, scientists wanted to get a breed that quickly gained weight and survived in any permissible climatic conditions. For the most part, scientists coped with the task. They worked on the breeding of this breed in Russia.
Dmitrievskaya cow has an elongated torso, a neat head of medium size, a flat back and lower back. Color – red with white.The red color prevails.
The weight of an adult heifer reaches 550 kg, the bulls are 100-150 kg more, but work is still underway to improve the breed. This concerns not only the exterior of the cows, but their productivity.
Angler’s is a dairy cow. She comes from Germany, and more precisely, from the island of Angler. Initially, no one was engaged in raising cattle of this breed, but, noting the virtues of the burenki, scientists had a hand in improving the breed.
The color of Angler’s cows is red, although there are also burenki with cherry-colored wool. The decoration of this cattle are long curved horns that “look” up. Not only the shape and length of the horns, but also their color attracts attention. At the base they have a light shade, almost black at the ends.
The thin neck, on which the skin is taken in small folds, also attracts attention. A fairly narrow back harmonizes with a thin neck, the body is elongated. However, this is characteristic of all cows of the dairy direction. The body is muscular and the skeleton is strong.
This highly productive breed produces 5000 milk a year, the fat content of which is 5-5.5%. Often it was possible to obtain a product with a fat content of 6%. A heifer weighs about 550 kg, and the weight of a bull of this breed is 800-900 kg, but this figure depends on the quality of food.
Angler bulls are often used for breeding because they have excellent genetics.
Aberdeen Angus the cow has a black color and the gene of colostrum. This means that all calves are born hornless. As for the exterior, there is a mismatch between the small head and the massive body. The forehead slightly protrudes forward, and the nape is narrow. The neck is large and massive, the shoulders are muscular. There is also disharmony between a long body and short legs. But for breeders, it was not the appearance of the Aberdeen of the Angousses that was important, but the indicators of their productivity. Color – black.
The heifer weighs 520 kg, and the bull – 850 kg. These are average indicators with good nutrition. Often, heifers gain 650-700 kg, and the weight of the bulls is 1000 kg.
Their productivity is influenced not only by the quality of care, but also by genetics, therefore, when conducting breeding, gobies with exceptional genetics should be taken.
Lebedinsky cows are characterized by high milk productivity. Their homeland is Ukraine (Sumy region). Accordingly, Lebedinsky Burenka is the creation of breeders, not nature. When conducting breeding, Schwyz cows were used. The gray-brown color of cattle is pleasing to the eye, and it is proportionally complex. The color is more intense on the front and sides of the animal than on the stomach and back.The height is slightly more than 1.30 m, and the length is 1.60 m. Accordingly, the animal has a rectangular format.
As for the characteristics that are important for the farmer, weight gain is fast enough. Heifers weigh an average of 525 kg, and calves weigh 950 kg. The one-year milk yield is 5000 liters with a milk fat content of 3.8%.
Alatau is a combined type of burenka. Accordingly, it can be kept both for milk and for high-quality beef. In appearance, the Alatau Burenka resembles beef cows. It has rounded shapes, well-developed muscles and a powerful skeleton. At the same time, the udder of the average volume has the shape of a bowl, which is typical for cows of the milk direction.
Like all cows of the combined direction, Alatau have good milk and meat productivity. The weight of the heifer is 550 kg, and the annual milk yield is 4500 kg (fat content 4%). Sometimes milk has a fat content of 1-1.5%. The weight of the bull is 900-950 kg.
The Belgian pigeon cow has a specific appearance. It turned out as a result of crossing bulls of meat direction and dairy cows. Maybe the goal was to get cattle of a combined direction, but in the end a good meat breed came out. This is a muscular animal with legs of medium length, a short head and neck, an elongated body. His height is 150 cm (plus or minus a centimeter does not matter).Despite the somewhat frightening appearance, the Belgian burenka has a meek disposition and gentle character.
Large cows of the Belgian breed are striking in size. The weight of an adult heifer reaches 900 kg, but bulls sometimes weigh more than 1000, or even 1300 kg. Milk with a fat content of 4% heifer gives no more than 4000 kg per year. Unfortunately, this breed is not cultivated in our country.
We have considered far from all breeds of cows. Noteworthy is the Kian breed, and the Aquitaine, and the Azherol, and the Frisian, and the Stavropol breed of cows. Representatives of the Gomitinogorsk breed, Hungarian sulfur, Braford, Salers cow, Schwyz (Swiss breed), Kyanina, fluffy or plush burenka are rarely found. Also left unattended were a white-faced, Ayrshire, Herzey and Altai cow, Highland rock (you can endlessly enjoy the graceful movement of this cow in the video), representatives of the Canadian, Moscow, Swedish and Australian breeds, Tagil burenka, Smolensk gobies, Charolais (French burenki), cows The obrak breed is popular in Tatarstan, although it appeared in southern France. It is worth noting that in France, the breed is cultivated today. The red-motley cow, which was recently bred, is considered promising. Selection of red-motley work continues at the present time.
Features of the choice
You need to choose cow breeds based on several factors.
- Features of the climate. So, say, even within Russia and Ukraine, climatic conditions differ. And if we consider only Russia, the climate in the Urals is more severe than in the central regions, so you should pay attention to those breeds of cows that can adapt to a cold climate or were bred specifically for keeping in such conditions.
- Livestock size. We did not consider mini breeds that are inappropriate to grow on large farms, but are quite suitable for home maintenance. It is easier to care for them, and as for their productivity, it is slightly inferior to the productivity of large breeds, if we are not talking about elite representatives. In addition, small cattle do not need a lot of space, respectively, to build a barn will be easier and cheaper. Just watch the video to cope with this task yourself.
- Habitat. It is advisable to pay attention to the popular breed of cows in Russia. Those cows that have been bred in a particular country for more than a year are adapted to climatic conditions, which is important. And with climate change, it is not known how animals will behave and how this will affect their productivity. So, let’s say, do not breed French, Danish or Swiss breeds in Russia or Belarus.Their productivity indicators will not be as high as in their historical homeland, even if the acclimatization process is successful.
- Genetics. It is worth buying calves on farms where specialists are engaged in cattle breeding. Thoroughbred individuals are more stable and have strong immunity. You should go shopping for your own, in order to operate when choosing not calves’ photos, but to see them live, although studying the breed of cows with names and photos will not be superfluous. They are engaged in the breeding of elite cattle in the Voronezh, Bryansk and Leningrad regions, and the Krasnodar Territory. If we talk about Ukraine, then you can go to the Poltava region for the acquisition.
If we talk about the spread of cattle in a specific territory, a black and motley cow, a brown Latvian and a red one are popularized in Belarus (Belarus) Motley Holstein. Black-and-white Burenka can be called Belarusian, due to the fact that it is bred on farms and gives more than 90% of the annual milk yield of the whole country. Such breeds as Aishir, Holstein, Sychevsky and Yaroslavl are considered Russian. The number of livestock is also great, which is the result of the work of Russian breeders. For Ukraine, a red-pocked cow, a red steppe and a white-headed cow is productive.
If you can choose small or even dwarf breeds for domestic use, then it is better to farm breed the so-called “large” breed of cows.This is due to their high productivity. Representatives of breeds of different directions should be bred, including the combined type. It is important to determine what production needs a farm, and for this you need to study the demand in the market.
It is also important how care is taken for the burenki. We will not deal with the description of how to provide care, since this is a separate topic, but one point should be noted: it is necessary to monitor the productivity of animals. If the indicators are below the norm, then the reason lies in the improper care or nutrition.
Tribal work requires the observance of certain rules. It is important to use pedigree gobies with a good genotype. You can cross representatives of Caucasian or American breeds with local Burenki. As a rule, such experiments give a good result and positively affect not only the exterior of the animals, but also their productivity.
It cannot be said which breed is the best or the most promising . It all depends on the purpose of raising cattle. It is not in vain that pedigree cattle breeding works all over the world are carried out in different directions. If we consider the classification, then only the cows from the same group are subject to comparison. Everyone must decide for himself which breed will be the most optimal, based on personal needs.
We have considered far from all breeds of cows, since this would take a huge amount of time.We did not stop at rare breeds (Angora and the head, for example). When choosing a cows, you should pay attention not to the appearance, but to their productivity, although the appearance should not be ignored, since the animal will give large milk yields and growth only if the owner cares for it with love. Their productivity depends on whether the owner satisfies all the needs of the animals: how much milk they will give and what quality the meat obtained from them will be.
Accordingly, the burenka should be liked in all respects, and the breed of cows should be considered with their photo. It will be useful to watch the video. When choosing, it is worthwhile to carefully study the characteristics of each breed of cows, their productivity, familiarize themselves with the available photo and video materials. This is the only way to make the right choice.