The homeland of this indoor ornamental plant is China, India and Southeast Asia. Aglaonema is a relative of dieffenbachia and therefore is somewhat similar to it, differs only in narrower leaves, the size of the aglaonema is much smaller than dieffenbachia, and the plant itself has the shape of a bush. In addition, at home, aglaonemas bloom much more often and for a rather long time and form fruits. Aglaonema is one of the most suitable plants for hydroponic culture.
Аглаонема. Farmer Burea-Uinsurance.com Curiosity thrills
Description of aglaonema
Aglaonema (Aglaonema) Is a genus of evergreen grasses and shrubs of the Aroid family (Araceae), or Aronnikovs.
Genus Aglaonema (Aglaonema) has, according to various sources, from 20 to 50 plant species of the aroid family. The name of the genus comes from the Greek. aglaia – shine, nema – stamen. Aglaonems grow in tropical rainforests or monsoon forests, in the lower tier of the forest, on wet plains, along the banks of rivers and streams. The range of the genus covers the tropics of India, China, Southeast Asia, the Malay Archipelago, New Guinea.
These are evergreen herbaceous plants with erect short fleshy stems, in some species the trunk branches out at the base. Young aglaonema practically do not have a noticeable stem; in adults, a short stem is formed, on which traces of the bases of fallen leaves remain.
Leaves on long or short petioles are dense, leathery, whole-edged, from broadly ovate to oblong-lanceolate, patterned, the median vein is depressed, protruding from the lower part of the leaf. Aglaonema leaf color varies by species and cultivar.
The inflorescence is an ear with a greenish-white veil. Inflorescences develop 1-3 in the axils of the upper leaves. Depending on the type of cobs, they are thin, cylindrical (0,3-0,5 cm in diameter, 4-6 cm long) or thick, clavate (0,8-1 cm and 3-4 cm, respectively). Fruits – berry, juicy, bright orange ruby color, less often – white, oblong, containing one seed. Ripen within 6-8 months.
Aglaonema is cultivated as an ornamental deciduous plant in rooms and greenhouses with moderate air temperatures.
Features of growing aglaonema
World: bright, diffused for variegated forms, for plants with a uniform color of leaves – shading.
Temperature: in summer + 20… + 25 ° C, in winter not lower than + 16… + 18 ° C.
Watering aglaonema: plentiful in summer, in winter, watering is reduced, making sure that the substrate does not dry out, but also is not very waterlogged.
Air humidity: high, spraying with warm water in winter.
Aglaonema feeding: from March to August every two weeks with mineral and organic fertilizers, in autumn-winter – without feeding.
The rest period: (September-February), the temperature is not lower than + 16 … + 18 ° C, regular watering, do not feed.
Transfer: in spring, young annually, adults as needed every 3-5 years.
Reproduction: in spring; seeds, apical cuttings, offshoots (shoots), division during transplantation.
Home care for aglaonema
All aglaonems grow in tropical rainforests. This determines their growing conditions. In natural habitat, aglaonema grows in the lower tier of the forest, where little light penetrates. For aglaonem, partial shade is preferable, they are shade-tolerant, do not tolerate direct sunlight, as this threatens to burn the leaves. But for variegated forms, in order not to lose the decorative pattern of the leaves, a bright diffused light is needed.
The optimum temperature for growth is + 20… + 25 ° C. In winter, the temperature should not drop below + 16 … + 18 ° C, it is advisable to avoid sudden temperature changes. Drafts must be avoided, as they are destructive for aglaonema.
During the growing season (spring-summer), aglaonema is watered abundantly, as the upper layer of the substrate dries up. In the autumn-winter period, water is regularly watered, after a day or two, after the top layer of the substrate dries up. Watering is carried out with well-settled soft and warm water. Overdrying an earthen coma, as well as waterlogging (especially in winter), are dangerous for aglaonema.
Aglaonema requires high humidity. In dry air, the leaves are deformed, poorly unfold, their tops and edges dry out. Therefore, aglaonema needs to be sprayed regularly. To increase moisture, you can group plants or place the plant on a pallet with damp pebbles, peat, or expanded clay. In this case, the bottom of the pot should not touch the water. In the autumn-winter period, if the air temperature is low, then spraying should be done carefully.
During the growing season (from March to August) every two weeks they feed, alternating mineral and organic fertilizers of the usual concentration; in winter, the plant is not fed.
Aglaonema needs a substrate that is well permeable to moisture and air for successful growth. The substrate should be light enough, it consists of 3 parts of leafy earth, 0,5 parts of humus, 1 part of peat, 1 part of sand and 0,5 part of charcoal (3: 0,5: 1: 1: 0,5); or sheet soil, peat and sand (2: 1: 1) with the addition of crushed charcoal. Good drainage is essential.
Grows well in hydroponics.
Aglaonems are propagated in spring and summer by stem cuttings, offspring, less often by seeds.
Reproduction by cuttings
The cuttings are rooted in warm soil. All aglaonems are excellent cuttings, and for species with a vertical stem, it is not the usual cutting of the top that should be recommended, but the cutting off of most of the stem almost at the soil level, followed by planting in a high pot.
Roots are actively formed from the dormant buds on the stem, and the aerial part of the mother plant gives rise to new shoots. Watering the newly planted cutting until it is completely rooted should be done carefully, not allowing it to lock. The substrate should be as loose as possible.
Aglaonema is stripped from below and is “overwhelmed”. Such a plant needs to be rejuvenated – cuttings.
- Cut off the most overgrown stem at a height of 2-3 cm from the soil level.
- Divide the long shoot into several 10-15 cm pieces with a pruning shears.
- Remove the bottom leaves from each cutting by hand.
- Pour drainage into the container, then the rooting substrate – coarse river sand or a mixture of peat and sand.
- Pour the prepared mixture with plenty of water.
- Submerge the cuttings in the substrate at half their height, water abundantly and place the container in a warm place.
- After 2–3 weeks in spring and summer, or 4–6 weeks in winter, the plant will be sufficiently rooted.
- Plant rooted cuttings several pieces in small pots or plant separately in different pots.
Propagation of aglaonem seeds
The efficiency of seed reproduction of aglaonema is high. Abundant fruiting in indoor conditions is not only amazing in itself and pleases the eye with large red single-seeded berries, but also guarantees the germination of seeds of mature fruits (do not pick berries ahead of time: completely ripe fruits have an intense red color and remain in the hand when touched). Artificial pollination is not required.
Aglaonema moderate, or Aglaonema modest (Aglaonema modestum). Homeland – mountain slopes covered with tropical rainforests on the Indochina Peninsula and the Malay Archipelago. Plant height 40-50 cm. Branched stem. Leaves are oval, 15-20 cm long and 6-9 cm wide, obtuse at the base, pointed at the apex, with 4-5 protruding veins on each side of the midrib, uniform green color. The fruits are red, reminiscent of dogwood fruits.
Aglaonema altered, or Aglaonema is changeable (Aglaonema commutatum). Homeland – Philippines, Sulawesi (in the Malay archipelago in Indonesia). Plant with upright stems, the length of which ranges from 20 to 150 cm. Leaves up to 30 cm long and 10 cm wide on long petioles. Flowers are collected in inflorescences of 3-6 flowers. The ear is thin, up to 6 cm long, the cover is pale green, longer than the ear. The fruit is a red berry. The emerging fruits increase the decorative qualities of this aglaonema.
Varieties with different shapes and colors of leaves are especially popular.
Aglaonema brilliant (Aglaonema). Homeland – Thailand, Malaysia, Sumatra, Kalimantan. In nature, it grows in damp forests, on low-lying plains. A large plant with stems up to 1 m high. Leaves are bright or dark green, shiny above, often oblong, up to 45 cm long, up to 20 cm wide. Flowers are collected in 2-5. The ear is approximately equal to the coverlet, its length is 6 cm.Fruits are white
Aglaonema ribbed (Aglaonema costatum). Homeland – tropical rainforests of Southwest Malaysia. Herbaceous low-growing plants, branched at the base. Leaves are oval-ovate, about 20 cm long and 10 cm wide, dense, green, with white spots and streaks on the upper side.
Aglaonema painted (Keyword depiction). Homeland – tropical rainforests on the islands of Sumatra and Borneo. Plant height is about 60 cm. The stem branches strongly at the bottom. Numerous shoots are densely covered with leaves. The leaves are oblong-elliptical, 10-20 cm long and 5 cm wide, dark green, with irregular grayish spots on the surface, rather large. In some forms, the leaves have silvery-white spots, very beautiful. The fruit is red.
Aglaonema oblong-leaved (Aglaonema marantifolium). It grows in the tropical rainforests of Singapore, the Philippines, the islands of Borneo and Penang. The leaves are dark green, large, up to 30 cm long, located on long (up to 20 cm) petioles. Some varieties have a silvery-gray pattern on the leaves.
Possible growing difficulties
Aglaonema has shriveled leaves with brown tips:
- Cause – too dry air.
Aglaonema has curled leaves with brown edges:
- Cause – too cold air or drafts.
Aglaonema leaves have white-yellow spots:
- Cause – burn from direct sunlight. Move the plant to the shade, let it cool, and then spray it with room temperature water.
Slow plant growth and brown leaves around the edges:
- Cause – too hard and cold water. Plants should be watered with settled water (they defend the water during the day). You can reduce the hardness of the water by removing calcium salts by adding 0,2 g of oxalic acid per 10 liters. water, after which the water must settle to precipitate salts (for irrigation, use the upper transparent part). Citric acid can be used to reduce the hardness of the water.
Gets damaged: spider mite, mealybug, aphids, whitefly, thrips.
Safety measures: Aglaonemes contain substances that are irritating to the skin and mucous membranes. The sap and berries of the plant are poisonous.