Apple, Calories, benefits and harms, Useful properties

Many have already heard that, contrary to popular belief, there is
almost no iron in apples . This is true. But on the other hand, apples have something that reduces the risk of
cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancer, removes radionuclides
and gets rid of warts. Due to some contraindications, it is better to
know in advance under what conditions it is better to refrain from apples. But it is
too early for lovers of these fruits to worry – there are more benefits from apple fruits and juice,
and it is confirmed not only by the practice of traditional medicine, but also by scientific
research.

Useful properties of apples

Composition and calorie content

Fresh Golden apple comprises (100 g) .

Calories 57 Kcal

Vitamin
B4 5.1 Potassium, K 100 Vitamin E 0.18 Phosphorus,
P 10 Vitamin
B3 0.094 Calcium, Ca 6 Vitamin B5 0.074 Magnesium, Mg 5 Vitamin
B6 0.051 Sodium,
On 2

Full composition

The chemical composition of apples is different for fruits of different varieties, it is determined by the
degree of maturity, the conditions in which the apple tree is cultivated,
depends on the shelf life and other factors. The amount of water in
fruits can vary from 84 to 90%, sugars – from 5 to 15%,
fiber – from 0.59 to 1.38%, and tannins – 0.025
to 0.27%.

Medicinal properties

For medicinal plants include the forest apple. Its fruits contain
carbohydrates: phytoglycogen, pectins;
organic
acids: malic, tartaric, citric; carotenoids, vitamin
C, chlorogenic acid, tannins, catechins, flavonoids,
anthocyanins, leukoanthocyanidins, essential oil, organic compounds of
iron and phosphorus. The leaves include dihydrochalcones: phloretin,
phloridzin; flavonoids: hyperin, quercetin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin,
rutin, naringenin; catechins, ascorbic acid.

Forest apple tea is prescribed for urolithiasis
, gout,
rheumatism,
cough and hoarseness, stomach catarrh and colitis.
Baked apples are recommended for chronic constipation. Fresh apples
are indicated for
gastritis with low acidity (hypoacid gastritis),
spastic colitis, hypokinetic biliary dyskinesia
, and
vitamin deficiencies. Outwardly freshly grated apples are used to
treat abrasions, burns,
frostbite, long-lasting healing ulcers, cracks in the nipples of nursing mothers.
In dermatology, apple applications are used for inflammatory
skin diseases. A decoction of the leaves of apple trees are used as a source
of vitamin C. The .

In medicine

The medicinal preparation Extractum
ferri pomati is
made from the fruits of the forest apple . An extract of malic acid iron is prescribed for
hypochromic anemia.

In folk medicine

For urolithiasis, gout, rheumatism, stomach catarrh,
colitis, cough and hoarseness, tea from the fruits of the forest apple tree is useful:
10 fruits are crushed and boiled in a liter of water for 10 minutes.
Add honey or sugar to taste.

In
case of hypovitaminosis, for the prevention of vitamin deficiency, a decoction is prepared from the leaves of the forest apple tree:
finely chopped raw materials are poured with water (1 part of the leaves of the apple tree
and 4 parts of boiling water) and boiled for a quarter of an hour. Strain and take
a dessert spoon three times a day.

With dysentery, vomiting, you need to eat several sour
fresh apples during the day .

Apples and honey

As a mild laxative, a recipe is used:
cut two medium apples into pieces, pour 200 ml of milk and 100 ml of water.
Simmer for at least 5 minutes. Let it brew. Take
in the morning on an empty stomach.

Apple cider vinegar-based products are popular in folk medicine.
Among them are apple cider vinegar treatment regimens and recipes according to the system of
D. Jarvis, B.V. Bolotov.

Outwardly:

With increased sweating of the palms, a bath with the addition of a
few teaspoons of apple cider vinegar is recommended .

Brittle nails are treated with trays of vegetable oil and apple cider
vinegar (1: 1). The duration of the procedure is 10 minutes.

The following drug helps from cracked heels: an apple is boiled
in milk and ground into a gruel. The resulting mass is spread
on the damaged areas, covered with a clean cloth and kept for
half an hour.

An ointment made from mashed apples and softened butter
is used for cracked lips, for healing wounds
and scratches.

True warts are rubbed with a fresh apple cut for several
minutes up to 6 times a day for a month. [5.8]

In oriental medicine

In the ancient “Canon of Medicine” by Avicenna, recommendations
for the daily use of apple fruits are preserved : the famous healer highly
appreciated the healing potential of apples.

In the Tibetan medical system, the apple is called Kushu. Tibetan
physicians attribute to the fruit the function of reducing gas production
in the intestines and indicate the absorbing properties of the apple.

Chinese medicine, which classifies food products according to the degree of
content of Yin and Yang principles in them, defines an apple as a product
with a predominance of the beginning of Yang and denotes its coefficient as “+2”.

Apple in the laboratory

In scientific research

Apple Against Cancer: Do Apples Help Fight
Cancer? Yes, the use of apples in the treatment of
cancer is not unreasonable, as evidenced by
research at the University of Cornwall. For more than 3 weeks
in laboratory conditions, it was found that the condition of experimental
animals with a breast tumor improved by 17% in the group that
received a daily dose of one apple, and by 30% in that part of the
subjects who received an apple per day. extract three
times more.

Human trials have also shown a direct link between eating apples and preventing cancer . According to the results of a
study by Boeir J., Liu R. (2004), the inclusion of
one or more apples in the daily diet of patients reduces the risk of developing
various types of cancer, as well as the occurrence of cardiovascular
diseases.

In dietetics

Apples are free of saturated
fat and cholesterol and are therefore an excellent food
for the core and
obese. The apple diet can reduce blood cholesterol
levels by 30%. Apple varieties (sour), which contain a small
amount of sugar, are useful for patients with diabetes mellitus
.

Apple pie

In cooking

Apples are a unique product used in desserts, main courses,
baked goods, salads, sauces. Poultry is stuffed with apples; they are baked
with meat or fish; stew with vegetables; fried with liver; add
to herring in forshmak. Apples are delicious in casseroles, pancakes, cheesecakes,
cereals and puddings. Apples are pickled, dried, pickled apples are harvested for future use
.

Fruit soups made from apples are useful (as a mono-variation
or with the addition of other fruits). They are prepared on the basis of applesauce
from baked apples, juice or pureed raw fruits. Served
with honey,
sour cream or cream.

Soft and sweet varieties of apples are suitable for making jams,
marshmallows, marmalade. When baking, the culinary specialist prefers
hard and green apples with a dense skin. Such fruits do not add
excess moisture to the dough and it does not have to be additionally thickened.

Apple recipes:

Туфахия

This is a Bosnian dessert (apples stuffed with nuts
and raisins).

Required: 4 medium hard apples, 2 cups sugar, 3 cups
water, juice of half a lemon, half a cup of
shelled walnuts, tablespoon of raisins, whipped
cream for serving.

In a deep frying pan or saucepan, prepare the syrup: bring
water to a boil, add sugar and add lemon juice. Peel the apples
, make a hole in the place of the stalk and carefully
cut the core. Dip the whole apples into the prepared
boiling syrup and cook for 5 to 10 minutes (the finished apple should be
easily pierced with a fork, while remaining intact). Remove the apples
from the syrup and let cool. Put the peel of the apples in the syrup and simmer
over low heat for about 20 minutes, until the volume of the liquid is
halved. Drain off remaining syrup and refrigerate. Chop nuts
and raisins, mix. Fill apples with nut-raisin filling
, pour over the cooled syrup and decorate with cream.

Apple chutney with meat

Apple Chutney

Chutney is a traditional Indian sauce, often very spicy and spicy,
cooked from vegetables or fruits.

You will need products: 30 medium-sized sweet and sour apples,
60 g of salt, 300 g of cane sugar, 100 g of onion, 1 clove of garlic,
80 g of ground ginger,
14 g of dry chili peppers,
28 g of mustard seeds, 100 g of raisins,
900 ml of vinegar.

Peel and seed
apples , cut into slices, put in a deep saucepan, add sugar and vinegar, and boil until the apples are soft. Soak mustard seeds in vinegar and then
dry thoroughly. Mash the raisins. Cut the peeled garlic and onion into
slices, mix with chopped chili, ginger and mustard
seeds and grind everything in a mortar. When the apples are boiled, combine
all the ingredients with the apple mass, mix well and let cool.
Arrange in jars and store in the refrigerator. Apple chutney is served
with fish, poultry, pork, rice,
tortillas or homemade bread.

In cosmetology

Cosmetic recipes use apple peel, apple
juice, or fruit pulp.

Apple hair mask

Peel and seed 2 large apples and
puree them. Mix the applesauce with 2 tablespoons of apple cider
vinegar, a teaspoon of lemon juice, and a tablespoon of cornmeal
, until smooth. Apply the mixture to dry
hair and hold the mask for half an hour. Rinse off with warm water and then
wash and dry your hair as usual.

Apple face masks

Apple and other fruits in a homemade face mask

Apple mask for normal skin:
grate the peeled apple on a fine grater. Mix the grated apple with a teaspoon of
sour cream
(or any vegetable oil) and the same amount of starch.
Apply a homogeneous mixture to face and neck for 20 minutes. Wash off with warm
water.

Vitaminizing mask for any skin type:
apply the crushed apple gruel to the face, soak for a quarter of an hour and rinse with
cool water (for dry skin, apply a
little emollient cream on the face beforehand ).

Anti-Aging Mask

Boil the apple in a little water, puree, mix
with a couple of drops of olive oil and a teaspoon of honey. Apply
to cleansed face for 15 minutes.

For facial skin care in the cold season: prepare a mask
from a tablespoon of oatmeal
, the juice of one apple and a small amount of milk. Apply
to face and neck for 30 minutes, then rinse with warm water.

Apple masks for dry skin

Mix the apple crushed into gruel with a teaspoon of honey and a
tablespoon of chopped oatmeal. Apply to face, hold the
mask for a quarter of an hour, rinse with warm water.

Combine 2 teaspoons of cottage cheese
with a teaspoon of apple juice, half of the yolk and a teaspoon of
camphor oil. Apply to face and leave for 15 minutes.
Wash off first with warm, and then with cool water.

Apple masks for oily skin

Mix a tablespoon of baked apple puree with a tablespoon of
beaten protein. Leave the mask for at least 15 minutes, then rinse with
cold water.

Grind the apple and boil
a tablespoon of raw apple for a couple of minutes in 40 ml of milk or cream. Let it brew for
half an hour. Add whipped protein to the mass. Apply to face
and rinse off after 15 minutes with cool water.

Combining apples with other foods

Combination with other products

In a culinary sense, an apple works well when paired with semi-
sour and sweet fruits, citrus fruits, carrots, fermented milk products
(yogurt, kefir). Good compatibility of apple with meat and protein products
enriched with fats: cheese, low-fat cottage cheese, nuts.
But starchy
foods in combination with an apple cause fermentation.

Beverages

Tea, kvass, juices, cocktails, punches, fruit drinks are prepared from various varieties of apples (with the addition of other components) . Apple juice
perfectly quenches thirst, acts as an aperitif. It is drunk neat
or mixed with a variety of fruit or vegetable juices
(carrot, tomato, pumpkin, parsley or celery juice).
Compotes are made from fresh and dried apples. Some varieties of apples
boil quickly, so you do not need to boil them, but should be dipped
in boiling syrup and immediately cooled. Apples are used in the basis of
both non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages (Calvados,
Apfelwein).

Fresh apple kvass

To prepare kvass, you
will need: 15 medium-sized sour apples, 2.5 cups of sugar
or honey, half a glass of black currant juice, 2 tablespoons of raisins,
20 g of yeast, a tablespoon of ground cinnamon, zest of one orange
and lemon, 5 liters of water.

Peel the apples, chop together with the peel, add
water and cook for a quarter of an hour. Then strain and let the broth cool
to 20 0 C, add sugar or honey, yeast, cinnamon, citrus zest,
currant juice, raisins and leave in a warm place for 2 days. After
kvass pour into bottles and store in a cool place. Serve
with crushed ice.

Crushed apples

Ingredients: 1.5 kg of sweet apples, 2 lemons, 2 liters of cold strong
tea, 2.5 glasses of sugar, a bottle of champagne. Peel the apples
, cut into quarters, cut the seeds, then grind
into thin slices, put in an enamel saucepan, squeeze the
juice of 2 lemons and grated zest of half a lemon, pour in chilled
strong, freshly brewed tea, add sugar, stir, cover
and leave in cold place for 5 hours. Before serving,
transfer the mass to a crock pot and pour champagne.

Apple Cider

Apple Cider

Required products: 10 apples, water, ¾ cup sugar, a
tablespoon each of powdered cinnamon and ground allspice.

Cut the apples into quarters and core. Put the
prepared apples in a saucepan, add water so that the
apples are covered by about 5 cm. Add sugar, cinnamon and allspice.
Bring to a boil and simmer over medium heat, uncovered, for
60 minutes. Then cover and boil over low heat for another
2 hours. Let cool and strain. Keep the finished cider in the refrigerator.

Apples in winemaking

The best varieties for winemaking are apples of autumn and winter
varieties: the level of sugar, tannins and
acids they contain is higher than in summer varieties. Excellent wines are obtained from
varieties Antonovka, Parmen winter golden, Slavyanka, Anis .
This exquisite wine is made from the summer variety Grushovka Moskovskaya.
Wines of excellent quality can be obtained from Chinese and Ranetki, but
given the high acidity of these apples, the juice of their fruit should be
diluted with water or the juice of sweeter apple varieties. The
blends use the juice of wild apples.

Apple wines tend to lose flavor and freshness during storage,
so they are best consumed in the year they were made. This does not
apply to the wine product from Ranetki and Chinese women: due to their astringency,
these wines should be aged for at least 2 years. During this period,
their taste softens.

Apples are best used for making semi-sweet
or dry wines.

Apple and healthy teeth

Other uses

  • An apple successfully replaces toothpaste with a brush: having eaten a fresh
    hard apple, you can not only have a snack, but also brush your teeth.
    The fruit used for this purpose must be quite hard,
    sweet and sour.
  • The skin on your hands that has darkened from the hassle of the kitchen can be whitened
    and peeled with apple peels.
  • The ability of apples to remove radionuclides justifies one of the
    ways of “cleaning” food: in order to reduce the radioactivity of any
    food product, it can be covered with layers of thin apple slices
    and left for several hours (from 3 to 6). Instrument readings
    indicate that the radiation background of the product after such a
    procedure decreases.
  • Many types of apple trees are highly productive honey plants. Apple
    trees of certain types and varieties are decorative.
    In turning and joinery, apple wood has found wide application: the
    material from it is strong and dense, easy to cut and polish.
  • Apples are a great craft material. You can create
    funny little animals from them , make stencils for
    color printing from apple halves , cut a recess in the fruits and get original
    decorative candlesticks for tablet candles. 

We have collected the most important points about the benefits and possible dangers of apples
in this illustration and we will be very grateful if you share
a picture on social networks, with a link to our page:

In the botanical aspect, an apple
is the fruit of an apple tree (tree or shrub), a representative of the tribe Apple trees , Plum
subfamilies , families Pink (Rosaceae) . The name of the genus Apple-tree in Latin – ” Mālus ” – according to one of the versions goes back to borrowing from the Greek (gr. ” Mêlonmeaning both ” apple ” in particular, and any fruit).

The word “apple” in Russian, according to a group of linguists, is
derived from the Indo-European ” albho ” – (” white “).
A less popular variant connects the etymology of the word “apple” with the ancient
city ​​of Abella (Campania region in modern Italy), famous
with their apple harvests.

Within the genus, there are 62 species of apple trees. Among them, the most common
and significant in terms of the degree of use in various industries or are the
ancestors of modern varieties are the following species: domestic apple
(cultivated), forest (wild), low, pubescent, Caucasian (eastern),
Almaatinsk (Sivers), slate (Chinese) , Siberian berry.
[1,2]

The apple tree has been a companion of mankind since time immemorial. The
Tien Shan Mountains in the south of Kazakhstan are considered the homeland of the wild apple tree.

It is believed that the apple tree ended up on the territory of Europe thanks to the
Greeks, who developed intensive trade and business relations with the most
distant peoples. Over time, the wild apple tree
was cultivated by man: the best samples were selected, the
growing conditions were improved .

In the 4th century BC. Theophrastus describes
apple varieties bred by gardeners and the most popular in Hellas. Later, the Romans Cato, Varro,
Callumella, Pliny and Virgil named 36 apple
varieties in their works , indicating the techniques of grafting cultivated fruit
plants.

The apple culture migrated to the population of the Western European region
from Ancient Greece and Rome. By the beginning of the 16th century, the development of this branch of
fruit growing accelerated. Less than a hundred years later, a
detailed description of 60 apple varieties was given in Europe , among them those that are
still cultivated in our time: Stettinskoe red, Calvil white, Short-legged
red, Zvezdchatoye.

The apple tree got to the eastern and southern Slavs in the 10th century through another
intermediary – Byzantium. Increased
attention was paid to the cultivation of apple trees in the Kiev principality; the apple orchard
founded by Anthony Pechersky (1051) was widely known . In the 12th century, Yuri Dolgoruky
initiated the laying of apple orchards in the Moscow region. Apple
culture entered a new stage of development under Peter I. The 18th century was marked by the
discovery of the science of pomology and the activities of its founder, A.T. Bolotov, a
detailed study of the varieties of apples and pears known at that time.
Years later, the works of
Michurin I.V. were devoted to the development of new varieties .

There are more than 10 thousand varieties of apple trees. All their variety is divided
into summer, autumn, winter and late winter varieties.

Summer varieties include: Moscow Grushovka, Melba, Papirovka.

Velvet, Bessemyanka Michurinskaya, Borovinka, Cinnamon striped,
Streyfling, Kitayka form a group of autumn apple varieties.

Winter apple varieties: Antonovka, Minskoe, Slavyanka, Welsey, Delicious,
Jonathan.

The varieties Aurora Crimean, Babushkino, Bananovoe, Golden Delicious, Saltanat,
Boyken are considered late winter varieties.

For planting apple seedlings, a sunny site is chosen.
Lighting requirements are reduced to a simple rule: trees must receive a
portion of direct sunlight for at least 6 hours a day.
The distance between individual planted trees is from 4.5 to 5.5
m. Before planting, it is necessary to make sure that the seedlings do not fall
into the so-called “frost pocket” – a lowland fragment of the site,
in which cold air usually settles.

You should also clear the soil: remove weeds and grass. If the roots of the seedling are dry,
they need to be fed with water on the eve of planting. Young apple seedlings are planted
in autumn (second half of October) or early spring. The planting hole is
dug up to 0.6 m in depth, the width is calculated as follows: the
approximate diameter of the root system of the seedling is multiplied by half. Fertilizing
during planting is possible, but without the use of nitrogen
fertilizers and lime, since they cause burns to the root system.
After planting and backfilling of the planting pit, the stem of the seedling is fixed
at the peg support. Form a hole and water abundantly. Then mulch.
Young apple trees are pruned annually in spring (for the first, second,
third, fourth and fifth year after planting). Watering seedlings is rare,
but abundant. According to the schemes for the years of planting, top dressing,
preventive spraying are performed .

There are two degrees of fruit ripeness: removable (botanical) and
consumer (edible). Removal maturity of the fruit coincides with the
completion of the growth process and the accumulation of nutrients in the
apple pulp. The fruit no longer grows in size and is easily
removed from the branch. Consumer maturity of the fruit is determined by the moment
the apple displays the aroma,
taste and color inherent in this particular variety . These two degrees of maturity occur simultaneously
in summer varieties. In autumn and winter varieties, the removable maturity is ahead of the
consumer one by a month or more. Harvesting of summer varieties is timed
to the stage of consumer fruit ripeness. Eating apples in autumn and winter
varieties should be strictly timed: too early harvesting
does not leave sour fruits time to “ripen”, and untimely
late harvesting leads to the fact that apples become unsuitable
for long-term storage. It is wrong to pick apples by shaking
or knocking them off the tree. The apple must be carefully removed into the branches,
without damaging the stalk.

A ripe apple, during the cultivation of which they did not use
nitrates, has a pronounced aroma. The
color of the fruit is also important : the apple should not be “colored” in one color. If the surface of the
apple (peel) is slipping, sticking, or moisture is felt,
this is a sign that the fruit has been treated with chemicals
. When buying, apples with small
brown spots should also be sorted . A soft peel, on which traces of dents
or partially wrinkled peel are easily left, indicate that the fruit
begins to wilt and loses its juiciness: the taste characteristics of such
fruits have already deteriorated significantly.

Fresh apples are kept in the refrigerator. At room temperature, fruits
can also last long enough if you put them in a plastic
bag and sprinkle with water periodically (once every 7 days). Summer varieties
remain fresh for about
3 weeks under optimal storage conditions . The shelf life of autumn and winter varieties is from 60 days to
six months.

Apple pulp is a comfortable breeding ground for
microorganisms, the only barrier for which is a whole
and intact skin. If the fruit is spoiled and begins to rot,
it must be immediately transferred to a separate container, since rotting

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