For residents of megalopolises, blackberries have been in the shadow for a long time
more familiar raspberries, looking more like an exotic berry.
And her taste is not as sweet as that of her “relative”, and she is rarely grown.
But the situation has changed in recent years. Blackberry is active
used in medicine, cooking, dietetics and cosmetology. And wide
the prospects for its application are confirmed by scientific research.
Useful properties of blackberry
Composition and calorie content
Fresh blackberries contain (in 100 g): .
Calories 43 Kcal
The study of the composition of blackberries shows that berries contain quite
a lot of vitamins E, K and C – about 15%, 17% and 25% of the recommended
daily requirement (RDA), respectively. Specifically vitamin
K, which ensures blood clotting and strengthens bones,
one 100 gram serving of raw blackberries contains on average
The mineral composition of blackberries is widely represented. In relatively high
concentrations in berries, magnesium (5-7% of the RDI), potassium (5-8%
RDA) and especially manganese (30-40% RDA), which helps prevent
control blood sugar, reduce epileptic
manifestations. In addition, one of the enzymes found in blackberries,
helps manganese to form collagen and heal wounds.
Laboratory analysis shows that the fruits also contain
salicylic acid, and in the seeds – about 9-12% of fatty oils.
Blackberries owe their inky black color to anthocyanins.
– polyphenols. Thanks to them, the health of the blood vessels is maintained,
cells receive protection from mutations and cancers, antioxidant
the properties of plant compounds can reduce the risk of certain
chronic conditions, which include diabetes.
Blackberry extracts are also anti-mutagenic in
vitro (“in vitro”, outside a living organism) and in vivo (“inside
living organism “), changing the pathways of signal transmission in cells and
suppressing factors that stimulate the tumor.
In support of this, scientists evaluated berry extracts according to their ability.
inhibit the growth of a number of human cancer cells: adenosquamous cell line
carcinoma of the oral cavity (CAL-27), breast (MCF-7), thick
colon (HT-29, HCT116), and prostate tumor cell lines (LNCaP)
in concentrations from 25 to 200 μg / ml. Researchers have confirmed
that with an increase in the concentration of the berry extract, an increase in
inhibition of cell proliferation in all cell lines with different
the degree of activity between cell lines. .
Blackberry phenolic compounds have a protective effect on cells
the brain, preventing age-related neurodegenerative diseases
., cognitive and motor problems caused by aging.
PhD from the Tufts HNRCA Neurology and Aging Laboratory,
Barbara Shukitt-Hale, who experiments with polyphenols of various
berries, conducted an experiment and with 2% blackberry extracts, checking
the effectiveness of such a diet in the fight against age-related changes in
laboratory animals. The results showed that the blackberry diet
improved motor ability when solving balance problems,
coordination and memorization. Animals fed with blackberries
demonstrated better short-term memory and greater performance.
Blackberry extracts help reduce the likelihood of blood clots.
Antithrombotic effects found in laboratory experiments
were associated with the regulation of the active substance of the vascular endothelium,
activation of blood flow and a decrease in blood clotting (anticoagulant
There is also evidence that the daily addition of blackberries to the diet
allows less frequent visits to the dentist. 2013 study
has shown .that extract
blackberry has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties
for certain types of bacteria that cause cavity diseases
mouth. Researchers warn more
studies, but suggest that blackberry extract may help
prevent tooth decay
and control gum disease.
In addition to antimicrobials, antidiabetic,
and anti-inflammatory properties of blackberry phenolic compounds.
It is also necessary to establish the exact physiologically effective
concentration of phenolic compounds of blackberry in vivo. However, already
it is now clear that the healing potential of blackberry concentrates is very
The potential of blackberry extracts in therapeutic
programs aimed at stopping hair loss and revitalizing
hair follicle growth. Moreover, positive results are demonstrated by
extracts of various parts of the plant: fruits, seeds, flowers, roots,
– although the most pronounced effect is achieved with the help of extracts
In animal experiments, preparations containing plant extract
at a concentration of 90-300 mg / ml, after application for 5-7 days
begins to stimulate the development of the hairline in the selected
area. It is important that noticeable changes were recorded in the phase
regression of the hair follicle (telogen), and in the active phase
hair growth (anagen).
Use in medicine
In official scientific medicine, blackberry preparations are not yet used,
but extracts of berries of this plant are widely represented in the dietary supplement industry.
For example, CO2-extract of blackberry is marketed by manufacturers
as a remedy for diarrhea
hysteria and insomnia,
as well as for the treatment of various kinds of skin pathologies.
Cosmetic brands release berry extract to fight rosacea
as a product capable of strengthening when applied externally
vascular walls, improve microcirculation and eliminate redness
Blackberry leaves can also be purchased pre-packaged
as a herbal supplement or tea substitute. In the product description
listed are bactericidal, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic,
sedative and restorative properties of the plant.
In folk medicine
In folk medicine, blackberries are famous for their anti-inflammatory,
antibacterial, tonic, blood-cleaning and wound-healing
properties. Due to the sedative effect that is found
when eating berries, blackberries are often recommended to be consumed when
disorders of the nervous system (hysterical and pre-hysterical conditions,
But in general, this plant is considered as a universal remedy.
for indoor and outdoor use.
The fruits and leaves of blackberries have been in demand in folk medicine for a long time.
as a therapeutic agent for the normalization of the gastrointestinal tract:
- getting rid of stomach pains,
- improvement of intestinal motility,
- stopping bloody diarrhea and stomach bleeding,
- treatment of inflammatory diseases of the stomach and small intestine (gastroenteritis).
For enteritis, diarrhea, gastritis and gastric bleeding, crushed
leaves (1 tbsp. l.) were poured with boiling water (250 ml) and infused
about 3 hours. The therapeutic effect was achieved with 3 times
taking funds in the amount of 100-150 ml before meals. Bleeding also
stopped by decoction of blackberry roots in the ratio of 100 g of raw material
for 500 ml of water. This mixture was first evaporated by half, and then
straining, topped up with about 250 ml of infused red
Ukrainian herbalists in the treatment of chronic enteritis prescribed
use calendula leaves and flowers
in a ratio of 2: 1 – such a remedy was taken three times a day for
teaspoon. Bulgarian folk healers decoction of leaves (up to 20
g of raw materials per 1 liter of water) was prescribed for gastritis, ulcers, diarrhea.
Blackberries in folk medicine are still used to restore
work of the digestive tract, but unripe berries are recommended for fixing
effect with diarrhea, and overripe, on the contrary, as a laxative
In addition to gastrointestinal pathologies, blackberries are included in therapeutic programs for:
- colds, tonsillitis, chronic cough
(rinse with a mixture of decoction of leaves and fruit juice in a ratio of 4: 1
throat, and blackberry leafy teas are drunk as diaphoretic),
- diseases of the kidneys and liver,
- bleeding and inflammation of the gums (in a mixture of St. John’s wort
and blackberry leaves),
- female diseases accompanied by menstrual disorders
cycle (use infusion of blackberry leaves in the form of douching),
with chronic inflammation of the vagina, leucorrhoea,
- physiological sexual dysfunction in men.
Blackberry in folk medicine and dropsy are treated.
Moreover, as a urine and diaphoretic, modern healers
infusions of dried blackberries are used less often and more often decoctions and infusions
leaves or roots of the plant. To do this, chopped blackberry root
(15 g) is poured with boiling water (15 ml) for 20-300 minutes and then taken
1 tbsp. l. every two hours.
Outwardly, in the form of compresses from the leaves, blackberry remedies are used
for the healing of purulent wounds, eczema,
chronic trophic ulcers, elimination of lichens and elimination of bacterial
Ripe blackberries and young leaves are harvested for cooking
medicines throughout the summer. Dry the leaves
in shady ventilated rooms or in ovens at a temperature
not exceeding 50 ° С. In this case, the leaves and after drying should
keep its natural color.
There is another way to prepare blackberry leaves for
- 1 First, fresh leaves are left in a closed jar until wilted.
- 2 Then the leaves are kept under steam for several minutes until
until they turn black.
- 3 The resulting hardwood blanks are air dried.
Such a blackberry leaf is stored in the same way as classic teas
sheets – in a sealed glass container.
In scientific research
In recent years, blackberries are increasingly becoming an object of scientific
studying. Scientists are also interested in the opportunity to use the potential
berries in medicine, and progressive ways of protecting plants and crops,
and new formats for the use of blackberries in the food industry.
In the last year alone, dozens of works have appeared in which the central
place is occupied by blackberries or extracts produced from them. As
as an example, we give a list of only five recent works of 2019,
associated with the healing effects of blackberries:
- “Antioxidant potential and phenolic profile of the extract
blackberry anthocyanin followed by fermentation of the intestinal microbiota
human. “ In this study, scientists showed that anthocyanins
blackberries under the influence of intestinal microbiota enzymes are able
form active metabolites with potential antioxidant
activity against oxidative stress. .
- “The effect of blackberry juice (Rubus fruticosus L.) on anxious
behavior of rats “. As a result of experiments with various
dosages of juice, and observations of animals in acute
stress, scientists have concluded a potential therapeutic
the effect of blackberry juice on stress-related anxiety
- “Blackberry extract suppresses telomerase activity in cells
human rectal cancer ”. In this study, the anti-telomerase
the activity of the crude blackberry extract was analyzed
in six human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines with
using TRAP analysis. Scientists noted that blackberry extract
significantly inhibited the growth of six CRC cell lines in a dose-dependent manner
way, and concluded that telomerase inhibition is
the key mechanism by which blackberries have anti-cancer
action of CRC cells. .
- “A blend of blackberry leaf and fruit extracts relieves
non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (steatosis), improves integrity
intestines and increases the number of beneficial bacteria Lactobacillus
and Akkermansia in rats. “ In the experiment of rats with artificial
caused by steatosis for 12 weeks were fed 50% ethanol
blackberry fruit or leaf extracts (450 mg / kg body weight).
As a result, scientists concluded that blackberry extract reduces
the level of triglycerides and lipid peroxides in the liver, increases
the number of genes associated with beta oxidation reduces the amount
those genes that are involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids. Besides
in addition, blackberry extract will also alleviate intestinal dysbiosis,
by increasing the amount of Lactobacillus and Akkermansia in the feces.
For losing weight
Blackberries, like some other anthocyanin-rich berries, prevent
weight gain in obesity models in laboratory rodents. but
this does not mean that people will experience
the same effect. Therefore, scientists set out to assess the impact of the use of
blackberries for the use of energy substrates and glucose regulation
in human volunteers on a high-content diet
27 overweight or obese men were included in the randomized
placebo-controlled crossover study consisting of
two stages. .
The diet that the volunteers followed contained 600 g of blackberries
per day, introduced into the diet according to a rather complex program for
the possibility of a comprehensive analysis of the effect of berries on obesity indicators.
The results of measurements of various markers indicated that the use of
blackberries can promote increased fat oxidation and increase
insulin sensitivity in overweight men.
Blackberries with its 43 kcal / 100 g are indeed often included in programs
healthy eating aimed at weight loss. This berry
quite low – up to 25 units. – glycemic index (GI), – what
allows even diabetics to use it in their meal plans.
Moreover, according to a more progressive system for assessing the impact of the product
blood sugar levels, indicating more than just the amount,
but also on the quality of carbohydrates – Glycemic Load (GL) – blackberries are gaining
only 4 units, which is also very small.
Blackberries have a sweet and sour taste, but the sourness in the berries is expressed
stronger. A resinous aftertaste may also be felt, although accurate
the combination of flavors varies greatly depending on
on the type of plant, variety and growing conditions. Sweeter
creeping blackberry varieties are considered. More sour and spicy –
upright plant varieties.
Blackberries are eaten both raw and processed. From berries
make jam, marmalade, filling or decoration for baking (puddings,
cakes, pies). Blackberries are often added to fruit salads,
mixed with milkshakes.
A separate and very popular culinary destination in the last
time has become the preparation of blackberry wine. Moreover, it is manufactured
it is both industrially and at home. For creating
wine at home will need 1 kg of blackberries, 1 liter of water, 250-300 g of sugar
and 3-4 g of yeast.
- 1 Ripe berries are pre-peeled from the stalks, folded
in a glass jar and poured with water heated to boiling.
- 2 Blackberries are infused for 4-5 days in a dark, warm place.
- 3 At the end of the period, the infusion is filtered through cheesecloth for separation
berries from juice mixed with water.
- 4 The liquid (juice + water) is poured into a clean glass jar,
where sugar and yeast are added.
- 5 In a dark place at room temperature, the mixture is kept
for about a month, until fermentation ends.
- 6 After that, the wine is bottled, tightly corked
cork and infused for about 4 more months until fully ripe
in a dark, but already cool room.
Among the most common cosmetic effects of blackberries
when applied externally, the ability of the various parts can be called
- fight inflammation of the skin,
- reduce sebum production
- soften the epidermis, providing conditions for regeneration,
- nourish and moisturize the upper layers of the skin.
Berry extracts are positioned by manufacturers as effective
vasoconstrictor to improve microcirculation and get rid of
from rosacea. Blackberry seed oil is widely available in natural
cosmetics as an antioxidant,
inhibiting the destructive processes of oxidation, due to which it
included in the composition of anti-aging creams and masks, medicinal preparations
for problem skin, ulcer and wound healing agents.
Dangerous properties of blackberries and contraindications
Blackberries have few contraindications. But with increased acidity
gastric juice, the use of these berries and juice should be limited.
In addition, blackberries can potentially harm allergy sufferers,
provoking a skin rash, swelling, diarrhea, or vomiting.
In the list of products containing oxalates (salts and esters of oxalate
acid), blackberries are included in the “red zone”, which includes those berries,
which it is desirable to exclude from the diet to reduce the likelihood
exacerbation of urolithiasis
disease, rheumatoid arthritis, gout.
However, to call the blackberry the record holder for the “oxalate” indicator
it is impossible, therefore, in the absence of obvious contraindications, the fruits of this
plants in moderation (about ½ cup per day) are
We have collected the most important points about the benefits and possible dangers of blackberries.
in this illustration and we will be very grateful if you share
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Selection and storage
When choosing blackberries, preference should be given to black and dry
berry. If you come across wet blackberries covered with their own juice,
then this means that she lay on the counter for at least three days and,
most likely began to deteriorate. Indirect sign of spoiled
there may be a swarm of flies near the tray. But sourish
the smell of spoiling berries, if you smell it, you can catch it yourself.
Usually blackberries are sold without stalks, but if a berry is caught
with “tails”, then it is better not to take this, since there is a high probability that
that the harvest was harvested too early and ripen at home “on the windowsill”
he won’t be able to.
It is better to wash blackberries just before eating. Moreover, to
rid the fruits of natural moisture, they can be laid out on paper
towel in one layer.
When buying a blackberry, it must be borne in mind that fresh berries are not stored for a long time.
Even in the refrigerator, they should not be kept for more than 3-4 days. An exception
– low temperatures, close to 0 ° C, at which the berry can lie
almost a week, and also – temperatures below freezing, allowing you to freeze
berries until next season. So that you can easily extract the required amount later
blackberries from the freezer, it is advisable to freeze berries
on a baking sheet or cutting board laid out in one layer, and already
when they are frozen, pour them into a common container.
Blackberries can also be dried for long-term storage.
In the traditional way, such drying is carried out under the sun’s rays.
or on special fire-heated dryers at a temperature
about 60 ° C. Similarly, blackberries can be dried in ovens.
with a slightly ajar door for the escape of evaporating moisture. Store
dried fruits in paper bags or cardboard boxes.
Varieties and cultivation
As a fruit plant, blackberries are cultivated only from the end
XVIII century. Mexico, USA, Serbia, Hungary, England, Romania, Poland,
Croatia, Germany and some other countries, it is grown in industrial
scale, but the number of countries producing blackberries in recent years
Today there are many types, varieties and hybrids of blackberries.
Breeders have bred and thornless varieties of blackberries that bear fruit
even more active than thorny varieties, however, as a rule, they are less tolerated
One of the most popular varieties of thornless blackberries – “Thornfree” –
prized for its ability to withstand temperatures down to -20 ° C.
In this variety, up to 20-30 fruits grow on each cluster so that
it is possible to collect up to 30 kg of berries from one bush.
In the USA, Marionberry berries are very popular – varieties of blackberries
(a cross between the varieties “Chehalem” and “Olallie”), developed in the framework of
joint breeding program of the Ministry of Agriculture
USA and Oregon State University.
Blackberry and raspberry hybrids are also widespread. So, back in 1883
year lawyer James Harvey Logan accidentally crossed on his plot
blackberries of the “Texas early” variety and raspberries “Red Antwerp”, in
as a result of which he received a product that was subsequently honored
named Logan’s berry. Another common hybrid is
Boysen’s berry (ezhemalina, bred in 1923 by Rudolf Boysen).
Sweet taste, pronounced blackberry-raspberry aroma and rich
dark cherry color of large (average 8,5 g) fruits provided
they are in high consumer demand.
In our country, preference is often given to such varieties of kumanik
(erect form) as “Ruben”, “Ouachita”, “Apache”. Among the dews
(creeping form) popular are “Abundant”, “Lucretia”,
Oregon Thornless. But in general, out of several hundred options for upright,
creeping and transitional plant forms, every gardener can choose
When growing, after choosing the type and variety of blackberries, you need to highlight
in the garden, protected from the wind, sunny area from the south or south-west
sides. At the same time, by the time the fruits appear the next year,
you will need to consider the possibility of shading the bushes, since the bright
the sun can burn the berries and ruin their appearance. Is landed
blackberries in April-May into a well-drained light saturated with humus
soil with an optimal pH of 6.
In general, it is believed that it is not difficult to grow blackberries on the site.
Previously, gardeners often did this not so much for the sake of the harvest as
to create a decorative and at the same time irresistible fence.
However, now, with the dissemination of information about therapeutic, nutritional
and the cosmetic properties of blackberries, people began to appreciate more and useful
the fruits of this as yet underestimated plant.
What is the difference between blackberries and black raspberries?
Despite the growing popularity of blackberries, for many people it is still
remains an unfamiliar berry for now, although more experienced consumers
can easily confuse a blackberry with a black outwardly very similar to it
Black raspberries are a special variety of the more common red
raspberries, native to North America. Most of the plantations
commercially produced black raspberries are located in the northwest
USA, near the Pacific coast. This plant prefers more
cool climate and not as common as blackberries. Besides
Moreover, the harvest of black raspberries is harvested once a year – in July, which is also
distinguishes it from the blackberry available several months of the year.
It is believed that it happens on a bush to distinguish blackberries from black raspberries
even harder than assembled. And the thorny stems of the plant in
this does not help, since different types of blackberries can be both
more or with fewer thorns. But after the harvest
the difference between fruits is more noticeable:
- At the junction of the berry with the stalk in the black (like in red)
raspberries will remain a cavity. It appears because the core
the fruit (fruitful) remains on the plant part. And here are the fruits of the blackberry
completely separated from the stalk, keeping the inside white or greenish
fruitful, with the help of which the berries were attached to the “tail”.
- Both black raspberries and blackberries when ripe are soft to the touch
and are not stored for a long time. However, black raspberries are even softer and faster.
spoils than blackberries.
- The fruits of both plants, at first glance, seem smooth, but,
if you put them side by side, then, unlike blackberries, which really
absolutely smooth, on black raspberries it will be possible to notice a barely noticeable
- When comparing tastes, blackberries will be distinguished by a slight astringency,
and black raspberries – a pronounced sweetness of the fruit.
Some of our compatriots met with blackberries on the shelves
supermarkets relatively recently, but in general human relationships
with blackberries have a long history, which is reflected and
in language and in mythology.
- By the typical name of the blackberry, you can understand what shape of the bush
we are talking: an erect plant is called kumanik, and a creeping
on the ground – a dewdrop.
- The Russian name “blackberry” was probably due to its
“Hedgehog” thorns on the branches. In related languages and regions
dialects they call her ozhina, azhina, syrbalina, chill,
deaf raspberry, turquoise (probably for the bluish shade of the fruit).
- The very name “berry” in relation to blackberries from a botanical point
view is wrong. It is more correct to call the fruit of this plant a polystyrene,
since it consists of many fruits grown together
with a bone (drupe).
In myths and beliefs:
- Celtic mythology attributes the ability to establish
connection with fairies.
- In England, superstitious locals try not to pick blackberries.
after October 11, because, according to legend, on this day the devil spits
on the fruit of the blackberry, and the person who eats them will be cursed or defiled.
- But the fruits harvested before September 29 could be used
in rituals to add wealth. For this, the blackberries were placed on the altar.
and cast a spell, after which the welfare was to
grow with the same activity as a thicket of a plant.
- Thorny impenetrable thickets served in mythical rites even
one goal: the blackberry bushes planted along the edge of the forest should
were to protect the villagers from forest spirits.
- Some peoples have a ritual of getting rid of rheumatism,
according to which on a sunny day, a sick person should three times
crawl under the thorny blackberry bushes first with your back from the west
to the east, and then facing forward – from east to west.
Blackberry horticulture fashion in Western Europe, which peaked
for 60-80 years. XX century, led to the fact that thorny bushes began to uncontrollably
spread over the territories of cities. This, among other things,
contributed by birds, which, together with the beloved fruits of the plant
carried seeds. As a result, now on the outskirts, wastelands and in industrial
zones of large European cities, you can find large-scale impassable
blackberry “jungle”, which sometimes beekeepers use, because from
of blackberry nectar, a light and tasty honey is obtained.