Cucumber, Calories, benefits and harms, Useful properties

This is a close relative of zucchini, watermelon and melon, belongs to the family
pumpkin… Its scientific name “cucumis sativus»
translated from Latin as “sowing cucumber“. According to the information
from botanical reference books, the fruit of this plant is considered a berry.
True, with a proviso – to false berries. For culinary and gustatory
characteristics of the cucumber is still considered a vegetable crop, which,
by the way, it ranks 4th in the world in terms of cultivation among vegetables..

Useful properties of cucumbers

Composition and calorie content

Raw cucumber contains (in 100 g): .

Calories 15 Kcal

It is most useful to eat cucumbers together with the peel, in which
contains many useful substances. However, both peeled and pickled,
cucumbers retain some useful properties. True, it is worth considering
which in salted or pickled form jumps sharply in them
sodium levels, which can negatively affect human health,
renal sufferers
failure. At the same time, the proportion of vitamins decreases,
the level of potassium, magnesium, zinc and calcium decreases. BUT
too much salt
can lead to the destruction of tooth enamel, fluid retention in
the body and disruption of the gastrointestinal tract.

Medicinal properties

Cucumber is inferior to many vegetables in the content of vitamins, because
almost entirely
of water. However, cucumber water is rich in mineral salts.
and biologically active substances. For example, in cucumber fruits
there are enzymes
promoting the assimilation of proteins and B vitamins, as well as maintaining
normal blood reaction. Moreover, cucumbers contain an enzyme that
similar to insulin, which makes it an important staple in the diet of diabetics.

In addition, cucumber water helps cleanse the body by dissolving
toxins. That is, the cucumber should not be used as an independent
food, but it plays a significant role in the absorption of other foods, for example
meat. Due to its low calorie content, cucumbers are recommended
people prone to obesity.

Although in small quantities, cucumbers contain phosphorus, potassium,
calcium, sulfur, magnesium, sodium, iron, zinc and iodine (in an easily digestible
form). Due to this, they have choleretic and diuretic
properties, help to improve the activity of the cardiovascular
systems recommended for people suffering from thyroid diseases
glands. In addition, such a set of trace elements contributes to
improving the condition of nails, hair, teeth of a person and reduces acidity
gastric juice. By the way, fiber
included in cucumbers, has the best effect on the process
digestion. A mild laxative effect helps to get rid of
from constipation.

As for vitamins, cucumbers can boast of being in
its composition of carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, folates, etc. The last
take an active part in the regulation of homocysteine ​​levels
– amino acids,
which is formed in the body during metabolism, and increases
the risk of atherosclerotic vascular lesions and thrombus formation.

Another useful component of cucumber is phytosterol (phytosterol)
– a steroidal alcohol that does not dissolve in water. Essentially, speech
it is about the vegetable double of cholesterol. Its advantage is
that it is safe for humans and does not provoke development
atherosclerosis.
Once in the body, phytosterol inhibits up to 10% of cholesterol absorption
and instead enters the bloodstream without causing any harm to the body.

Use in medicine

In traditional medicine, cucumber, despite the presence of beneficial
elements and properties, not used by the pharmacopoeial plant
does not count. However, green fruits have been active for a long time.
and is successfully used in folk medicine and cosmetology.

First, the simplest popular use of cucumber is external.
If you receive minor burns,
abrasions or wounds, it is recommended to attach a cut to the damaged area
cucumber or brush this place with fresh cucumber juice. This guarantees
powerful antimicrobial effect (even in case of suppuration). Secondly,
on the basis of cucumber, various decoctions, infusions are prepared, from which they make
compresses. Moreover, not only the fruits and juice themselves go into circulation,
but also flowers, leaves and whips of a plant (usually in dried
form).

Cucumber smoothie

Decoctions and infusions

A decoction of fresh cucumbers can help get rid of
from edema due to cardiac pathologies or
varicose veins.
To do this, finely chop 100 g of washed cucumber, pour over it
200 ml boiling water and cook over low heat for 5 minutes. Half a glass
such a broth should be drunk before meals three times a day for
7-10 days.

In case of jaundice
it is recommended to chop 50 g of ripe cucumbers and 20 g of dry leaves
the same plant. Pour this mass with 500 ml of water and cook in a bath
within 20 minutes. Then filter the resulting broth and take
4 times a day for 14 days.

For malaria
and fevers, an effective method is considered to be a decoction of cucumber
flowers. 1 tablespoon of dried flowers should be poured with 250 ml
hot water and cook over low heat for 10 minutes.
Then strain through cheesecloth and divide the portion into three even
parts to be taken three times a day for 10 days.

Traditional healers believe that cucumber is useful for
hemorrhoids. To alleviate the condition of patients, it is recommended to pour
green fruits with slightly salted water and leave in the refrigerator. On the
for 14 days, drink this pickle one glass at a time between doses
food (3 times a day). To get rid of uterine bleeding
advise 70 g of dry cucumber stalks pour 500 ml of water and cook
in a water bath for 20 minutes. Let the broth brew for 2 hours, and then
strain. Drink half a glass 3 times a day for 5
days.

Finally, cucumber tincture is considered an effective remedy.
fight against trophic ulcer. To prepare it, grind
in a blender 100 g of cucumber seeds (from ripe fruits) and pour over them
a glass of water. Infuse the mixture in the dark for 10 days,
shaking it regularly. Strain before use. Further wet
gauze swabs and apply them to the ulcer for 30 minutes. Cucumber
the seeds are also helpful in relieving pain when urinating.
Pour a tablespoon of ground seeds with 600 ml of water and insist
in a thermos for 2 hours. Drinking such a tincture, adding to it
honey to taste, three times a day for a week.

Cucumber juice

Juice

Cucumber juice is considered a cleansing agent that helps
dissolution of toxic substances in the body. Also traditional healers
claim to be effective against small kidney
stones and crystals of uric acid. In addition, it is believed
that it quenches thirst well, has a positive effect on
nervous system and strengthens memory.

Cucumber juice has diuretic and laxative properties. Such
the purpose is to take 3 tablespoons 3 times a day.
Mix of cucumber juice with carrot juice
advise to use for rheumatic diseases. And together
with honey, cucumber juice is used to relieve coughs and
stomach pains. One tablespoon is usually taken for 100 ml of juice.
honey. Drinking such a remedy is necessary for one tablespoon three
times a day.

In oriental medicine

By the effect that the product has on the body, once inside,
Oriental medicine classifies the cucumber as a cold food.
Food with cold properties has an antipyretic effect,
cleanses the body and slows down energy metabolism. Products in the East
are also divided by color, each of which corresponds to a certain
body. Green vegetables actively interact with the liver,
removing the load from it. In addition, cucumber is believed to contribute to
relieve both physical and mental stress and prevent
headache.

In Indian Ayurveda, cucumber is also prized for its cooling qualities.
Even in tropical climates, this vegetable can maintain temperature.
20 degrees lower than the environment. Back in ancient times
cucumber has been used to treat poor eyesight and diabetes. From his
with the help of lowering the pressure, they also saved themselves after being bitten by scorpions.
Now in India, oil is made from cucumber, which has the broadest
range of applications. It treats constipation and urinary
system, duodenal ulcer and rheumatism,
erectile dysfunction and vaginal infections. Moreover, it
considered effective against dandruff, sunburn, and dark
circles under the eyes..

Cucumbers in the greenhouse

In scientific research

Cucumber is very popular all over the world, it grows in a variety of
climatic conditions, so it is not surprising that it becomes
the object of scientific research. Mostly scientists are improving
existing methods of planting (terms and schemes), growing, harvesting
and storage of cucumbers. Breeders are breeding new,
more disease resistant varieties.

So, it turned out that the yield and quality of hybrid cucumbers
influences the origin of their paternal and maternal forms. For the best
harvest is recommended to involve in the selection process forms from the Asian
ecological-geographic group..

As for the storage of greenhouse cucumbers, then with unfavorable
conditions, the development of pathogenic fungi is often observed. Scientists
found out that the increase and decrease in temperature, from the considered
normal 12-14 ° C, lead to an increase in the infection of cucumbers in the process
storage. The packaging method is also an important factor.
and gas composition of the atmosphere..

Scientists have achieved success in scientific and technical research.
Now it is not necessary to use soil for growing cucumbers,
there was an alternative way – installing a multi-tiered hydroponic
plant that allows you to grow vegetables based on nutritional
solutions. Now new forms of cucumbers are being developed, more adapted
for new equipment.… Also, the first
two-handed robots that perform the function of automatic collection
cucumbers..

Finally, recently, cucumber has appeared not only in agricultural
research, but also in medical, since scientists have come to the conclusion
that the glycoside cucurbitacin contained in the vegetable has the property
suppress the vital activity of cancer cells..

Cucumber rolls

In dietetics

Considering that cucumber is almost entirely water,
it is considered a dietary product. Its main value is low-calorie content,
but at the same time it also slows down the process of carbohydrate conversion
into fats and helps the assimilation of proteins. It should be noted that there are
useful mineral elements and vitamins that are positive
affect the functioning of the kidneys, liver, heart, help to strengthen
vessels.

Some nutritionists recommend for people looking to lose weight or
cleanse the body of toxins, arrange unloading in the summer
cucumber days. This should be done no more than once a week.
and on this day, you should reduce physical activity as much as possible.
You need to eat about 2 kg of fresh cucumbers per day. However, it is necessary
be careful with pickles or pickles. Their immoderate
use leads to the ingestion of an excess amount
salt.

In cooking

Cucumbers are actively used in cooking, adding them to salads, soups,
a variety of snacks and sauces. They are also salted, canned
and pickle. In order to choose the right cucumbers to match
for your purpose, you should know that breeders divide them according to
shirt – the surface of a cucumber. There are 3 main types of shirts: Slavic
– with sparse thorns on the surface (the marinade penetrates slowly,
which makes the vegetable firm and crispy), German – with densely spaced
thorns (brine gets inside quickly) and Asian – with a smooth
surface and thick skin – good for salads).

When adding cucumbers to a salad, housewives are often faced with the fact that
that the vegetable is bitter. Such bitterness is provoked by the glycoside cucurbitacin,
which appears in a cucumber after a stressful situation (lack of
water, too much sun, too high temperature). No
bitter cucumber does not harm the body, on the contrary – it is believed that
that cucurbitacin is involved in suppressing the functioning of cancer
cells. But in order to still avoid buying bitter vegetables, do not
you need to take too thick cucumbers with thick skin and dark green
edge.

Interestingly, you can use cucumber instead of cucumber in cooking.
borage grass (for example, in the season when there are no fresh cucumbers). This
the herb has a high nutritional value and contains vitamins.
It tastes like a cucumber with onions.

Combination with other products

Poor combination of cucumbers and tomatoes

Cucumbers go well with almost all foods except tomatoes.
Once in the body, tomatoes form an acidic environment around them,
and cucumbers are alkaline. As a result, this combination leads to
the formation of salts, which negatively affects the functioning of the kidneys. Also
ascorbic acid, which is found in tomatoes, is not absorbed
due to the cucumber enzyme ascorbinase, as a result of which the body
lacks vitamin C. But cucumbers are very useful to eat together
with meat, as they promote protein absorption.

Beverages

Cucumber juice has a lot of useful properties, therefore it is recommended
drink in its purest form. However, thanks to the refreshing effect that
cucumber is often added to various summer drinks.
For example, a lime cocktail
and watermelon
(200 g watermelon pulp, 1/2 lime, 12 cucumbers, a bunch of mint and water)
or spinach and celery smoothie (grind in a blender: 100 g spinach,
1 green apple, 1 cucumber, 1 celery stalk, 1 ginger slice,
2 tbsp lemon juice). Cucumber is also popular.
water (1 cucumber, 1 bunch of mint, half a lemon, 1 liter of water).

In cosmetology

Cucumber is considered a good cosmetic product that has
refreshing and rejuvenating effect on the skin. Thanks to phytosterol,
moisture retention occurs and there is a slight lifting effect.
And alkaline salts provide skin nourishment and whitening
action by removing plaque.

Cucumber face mask

Now there is a huge selection of all kinds of masks, lotions,
tonics, gels based on cucumber, but in the summer prepare a cosmetic
the remedy can be done at home.

In order to refresh the skin of the face after overwork, lack of sleep
or stress, you need to take 1 cucumber and 1 chicken protein. Should
grate the cucumber on a fine grater and take 2 tbsp. gruel, combining
them with whipped egg white. Then apply the mask to the face
for 15 minutes and rinse with water. And for the skin around the eyes it is recommended
mix 2 tbsp. grated cucumber with chopped parsley.

To achieve a rejuvenating effect, you must mix 1 tbsp.
grated cucumber with 1 tsp. white clay. Moisturizing effect gives
mask made from 1 tbsp. grated cucumber, 1 tsp. shredded
mint
and 1 tsp. chopped basil.

Dangerous properties of cucumbers and contraindications

Cucumbers are a dietary product, but even they can sometimes cause
harm to the body. It is recommended to refuse their use in such cases:

  • exacerbation of stomach ulcers;
  • acute and chronic gastritis and enterocolitis;
  • acute and chronic nephritis
    and pyelonephritis, as well as hepatitis and cholecystitis (should be avoided
    eating pickled cucumbers);
  • feeding the baby (can cause upset stomach and colic in the baby).

We have collected the most important points about the benefits and possible dangers of cucumbers.
in this illustration and we will be very grateful if you share
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Useful properties of cucumber

Interesting Facts

One of the first countries where the cucumber was domesticated and began to be consumed
for food was China. There is a legend according to which the Chinese
introduced this vegetable to Turkey. Among other presents, they sent
Turkish Sultan Magomed II as a gift with several exotic fruits
– cucumbers. The Sultan liked the outlandish vegetable, and he called
seven of the best court guards to guard it. However,
one cucumber disappeared, and all the guards denied any involvement
to theft. Then the enraged sultan decided to arrange a kind of search,
giving the order to rip up the bellies of all seven.

Perhaps that is why the saying “For
to look after a cucumber with an ax. ” True, now such words are usually
are addressed to a person who commits stupidity. In English and Russian
In languages, proverbs about cucumbers have a rather positive meaning.
So, the English say “as cool as a cucumber“, Which literally
translates as “calm as a cucumber“And means absolute
equanimity. … you can often hear the expression “be
like a cucumber
», Which means to be cheerful and look good. BUT
Brazilians use the word “little chuchu“(Port.
chayote or Mexican cucumber) for an affectionate appeal to loved ones
to people.

By the way, about love. In 2011 . a series was filmed called
Cucumber Love, which tells the story of life in a small village
Gorelkovo, famous for its cucumber fields. In addition, back in
1985 in the Soviet Union according to the tale of Galina Lebedeva was created
cartoon “Cucumber horse”. Plot-forming role green crispy
vegetables are also played in the instructive story “Cucumbers” by the children’s prose writer
Nikolai Nosov. The writers Vladimir also addressed the topic of cucumbers.
Klimenko (story “Crazy Cucumbers”) and Vsevolod Ivanov (story “Nezhinsky
cucumbers “).

Pictures with cucumbers: "Cucumbers" (Mikhail Makhalov), "Summer" (Giuseppe Arcimboldo), "Madonna and Child" (Crivelli)

This green vegetable was not ignored by the great painters.
Still lifes “Cucumbers” by Kondrat Maksimov and Mikhail became famous
Makhalova (1), as well as the painting Still Life with Vegetables by Ivan Khrutsky.
Moreover, artists began to depict cucumbers on their canvases.
Middle Ages. So, the Spaniard Luis Mendeles painted a still life “Cucumbers,
tomatoes and dishes “. And the Italian Giuseppe Arcimboldo used
cucumber for the image of the character’s nose in the painting “Summer” (2).

And Carlo Crivelli distinguished himself by inscribing cucumbers in Christian
plots of their paintings. Until now, scientists do not agree on
on the symbolism of cucumbers on the series of paintings by Crivelli “Madonna and Child” (3)
and “Annunciation”. Since the cucumber is often located next to them
with an apple, it is sometimes interpreted by analogy as a symbol of temptation
and original sin. Although some researchers believe that
the cucumber, on the other hand, symbolized the Resurrection and vitality.

Apparently, modern people also believe in the vitality that a cucumber gives
residents of the Fiji island. They not only absorb cucumbers, but also cook
their reserves in case of crop failure or natural disaster. Usually,
vegetables are wrapped in banana leaves and buried in the ground. Besides
in addition, the size of the stock of cucumbers can help a man to get married, because
parents of girls are usually more willing to marry their daughters to “cucumber
magnates “.

By the way, in Fiji, as well as in Asia, not only cucumbers are popular in
in the form in which we are used to seeing them, but also the so-called sea
cucumbers. In fact, we are talking about holothurians – invertebrates
type of echinoderms. Eaten species are usually collectively referred to as
“Trepangi”.
These oriental seafood are considered extremely healthy delicacies,
therefore they are often caught illegally and sold on the black market..
There, the price for 1 kg of sea cucumbers can go up to $ 500.

True, their records are quite legitimate, and our traditional
green vegetables. In the UK, two retirees are independently each other
from a friend, they grew fruits 1,2 m long in their beds.. But
the longest cucumber is considered a vegetable ripe in one of the greenhouses
Hungary. The record 1,83 m are included in the Guinness Book of Records.

Photos of huge cucumbers and other products you can see in
our photo article Record-breaking products.

In different parts of the world, people perpetuated the cucumber by erecting it
monuments. For example, there is such a monument in Poznan, Poland. Also
in the Ukrainian Nizhyn there is a monument to a non-female cucumber, and in the Belarusian
Shklove – bronze cucumber “Napoleon”. This vegetable is revered in Austria
– in Salzburg there is a whole installation “Cucumbers”. Yours faithfully
include and., because in addition to the monument, in the Moscow region Lukhovitsy
there is a whole museum dedicated to the cucumber.

But in London, the cucumber was honored on a grand scale. There is no monument here,
but in 2004 there was a high-rise building 30 St Mary Ax (St.
Aix 30), which the British themselves are due to external resemblance and greenish
the backlight is called “The Gherkin” (English cucumber). Interesting that
in fact on the creation of this architectural project of the creators
inspired by the bump.

Monuments to a cucumber in cities: Poznan (Poland), Nizhyn (Ukraine), Shklov (Belarus), Salzburg (Austria), London (England)

History

Cucumber is considered one of the oldest representatives of vegetable crops,
which appeared four thousand years ago. Although there are bold speculations
that the cucumber is more than 6 thousand years old. There is no unambiguous information
and about the homeland of this vegetable, but, most likely, it was tropical
and subtropical regions of Ancient India and China. You can definitely
say that originally the cucumber grew wild. Only in
second millennium BC the ancient Indians domesticated him and gradually
introduced into your diet..

Due to the increase in the volume of cultivation and the established trade
connections, from India and China, the cucumber went to conquer the world. Exactly
so he got to Egypt, Ancient Greece, and much later to Roman
Empire. There is reason to believe that it is from the Greek name
this green vegetable “ἄγουρος” (goes back to “ἄωρος” – unripe) and
the word “cucumber” happened. By the way, the English name is “cucumber”
comes from the French word “concombre”, which, in turn,
was borrowed from Latin (“cucumis”)..

Pickles

The fact that in ancient times the cucumber was an important part of the diet of people,
his images on frescoes in Greek and Egyptian
temples. In addition, the health benefits of this crispy vegetable were
described by Aristotle and Hippocrates. In ancient Rome, cucumbers were used
as food for both the elite classes and the lower classes. And the emperor Tiberius
ordered to serve him one cucumber every day of the year. Then
cucumbers began to be grown in boxes on wheels in order to
was to move them after the sunlight. It is believed that while
At the same time, the first salting recipes appeared.

From the Roman Empire, the cucumber spread throughout Europe
(in France – from the .th century, in England – from the .th century). In the .th century, thanks to
Columbus, the cucumber reached the shores of the New World, where it also very quickly
gained popularity among the locals. However, at the beginning of the XVII
in. in America there was information about what to eat
raw vegetables and fruits are dangerous to health, so a cucumber for some
time lost ground and received the mocking nickname “cowcumber”
(English cucumber for feeding cows). Only about a hundred years later
the green vegetable is back on the American tables..

It is not known for certain when and how the cucumber got to Russia. Exists
the theory that this vegetable came to us from Europe after baptism
Rus. Although some scholars believe that our merchants bought
cucumbers in East Asia as far back as the .th century. Anyway, one of the first
written mention of this vegetable dates back to the first half
XVII century (notes of the German traveler Elschläger). In the same
time Peter I issued a decree on the cultivation of this crop in the royal garden.
It was then that the first greenhouses began to appear.

How to Pick a Good Cucumber

How to choose

In the summer season, it is better to buy cucumbers in the morning, before they have time
lose their freshness, lying in the sun. If the cucumbers are already a little
withered, you can “revive” them by leaving them in cool water for 2-3 hours.
By the way, soaking in cold water (about 30 minutes) helps
elimination of nitrates. For heightened effect, put cucumbers in
transparent dishes and leave in a bright place (the sun’s rays promote
accelerating the elimination of harmful substances).

Purchased cucumbers must be firm, without visible damage.
and yellow spots. When buying cucumbers out of season, you should pay attention
for an unnatural shine. Imported vegetables are often in transit
covered with a thin layer of paraffin for better preservation. In that
case, before eating the vegetable, you must cut off the peel.
And if there are no seeds inside at all, then such a cucumber is better
thrown away, due to the presence of a large amount of hazardous substances.

In general, the choice of cucumbers depends on your goal. For salad you can
use almost all cucumbers, but are considered the most suitable
specially bred smooth fruits with a thick skin, about
13 cm. They have a rich aroma. You can take cucumbers with white
thorns.

The best pickled cucumbers are obtained from fruits that are 9-12 cm long.
with dark spikes (they are easily removed when washing, which allows the brine
soak the cucumber intensively). For pickling, it is recommended to take cucumbers
up to 9 cm in size (short-fruited gherkins) of dark green color
with light tips or light stripes on the side. Also fit
fruits with dark thorns.

How to store

As for storing fresh cucumbers, they can usually lie
in the refrigerator for about 3-5 days. It is important to provide them with air supply.
and do not store them next to ripe fruits and vegetables. To increase
shelf life up to 10 days, they are placed in a plastic bag, on top
covered with wet gauze and sent to the refrigerator. About two weeks
the refrigerator can store cucumbers wrapped in paper towels
and packed in an unclosed bag.… To keep the vegetables
fresh for 3-4 weeks, they are dipped with tails in a cool
water by 1-2 cm and put in the refrigerator. Water in the tank is necessary
change every day.

Rare varieties of cucumbers - Kiwano, Dragon Egg, Red Hmong, Gak, Hedgehog

Sorts

Despite the fact that for normal ripening, cucumbers need
a set of certain conditions, thanks to the efforts of breeders, now
they are cultivated in different climatic zones and in different
composition of soils. The main thing is to choose the right variety.

Depending on the timing of ripening, cucumbers are divided into early ripening,
ripening up to 45 days (cupid, artist, Hector, Masha), mid-season,
ripening up to 50 days (competitor, non-feminine, table, mother-in-law),
and late ripening, ripening for more than 50 days (phoenix, Aquarius, Alice).
There is also a division of cucumber varieties by purpose: for
fresh consumption, for salting or preservation and universal,
suitable for both purposes.

Interestingly, the oblong green vegetable we know has
many exotic relatives that are considered to be its species.
For example, the African cucumber Kiwano has a yellow peel with thorns.
and juicy green pulp, a bit like our traditional cucumber.
The dragon egg is characterized by smoothness and light color of the shell, rounded
shape and sweetish taste. And Red Hmong cucumbers when ripe
turn red, and taste a little like a melon.

A cucumber called Gak or Spring Bitter has an orange-red
peel and soft red flesh. It contains a large amount
antioxidants, which makes it very useful, however, it is bad
carries transportation, so it can only be found in places
cultivation.… There are also decorative wild cucumbers that
the people are also called hedgehogs. They are wrapped around hedges and fences,
and their fruits are covered with needles. The peculiarity of these cucumbers is
the fact that at the time of ripening, the peel on the fruit is stretched as much as possible
and bursts. In this case, from two small holes under pressure fly out
seeds and some mucus.

Peculiarities of growing

The cucumber is a liana-like plant with a creeping stem that
can reach two or more meters in length. From the main stem
lateral shoots and antennae depart, with the help of which the plant can
fixed on supports, taking a vertical position. Thanks to
for this, cucumbers can be grown on trellises (usually this method is used
in greenhouses and on balconies), although if the space in the garden / garden allows,
then the stem is allowed to travel on the ground. The length and degree of branching depends
from variety..

During flowering, male (with stamens) are formed on the plant
and female (with pistils) flowers of yellow color. Female flowers are different
the fact that there is an ovary under them and they are located singly or along
2-3 pieces on lateral shoots, while male flowers (barren flowers)
form inflorescences of 5-7 pieces, mainly on the main stem.
Fertilization occurs mainly during the opening of flowers.
(1-2 days). Pollen is carried by bees and other insects
who are attracted by the bright yellow color and the presence of nectar.

In cold weather or greenhouse conditions
the pollination process becomes more complicated – it is done manually, so breeders
began to breed hybrids. They are obtained thanks to artificial
pollination of flowers of different varieties. In its name, a hybrid is required
has a distinctive character – F (filli – Italian children) and a number that
denotes the generation number. Moreover, cucumbers have appeared in our time.
not requiring pollination at all – parthenocarpic, as well as self-pollinated
– their flowers have both a stamen and a pistil at the same time..

Cucumbers are usually harvested when the fruits are still biologically
not ripe, therefore they are called zelents. Mature and acquire
a yellow-brown tint is given only to those cucumbers from which they take
seed material for planting or breeding.

Planting cucumbers can be carried out both as seedlings and seeds.
Usually seedlings provide an earlier harvest, but also require more
attention. After planting in the beds, young plants need to be wrapped
in the event of a drop in temperature. In general, the cucumber is thermophilic,
a moisture-loving and light-loving plant that does not tolerate drafts
(note for those who grow vegetables at home on windowsills). Plant
cucumbers are recommended at a distance of at least 20 cm from each other
to a depth of 2-2,5 cm in the second or third decade of May (at a temperature
from 18 to 25 ° C).

Among the main pests of cucumber, the spider mite stands out,
which settles on the underside of the leaves and feeds on their sap, which
leads to the appearance of white dots on the leaves, and then, braided
cobwebs, they dry up. Also, cucumbers are afraid of melon aphids, which
lives on all parts of the plant and sucks out its juices. Thereafter
the leaves begin to turn yellow and die off. The cucumber gnat is also dangerous,
whose translucent black-headed larva penetrates the stem
and the root of a weakened plant, after which it dies.

Chemicals are commonly used to control pests. However, for
in order to prevent harmful insects from entering the plant,
you need to do regular weeding, removing weeds.

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Anna Evans

Author ✓ Farmer

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