The Holstein breed of cows, or Holstein-Friesian, was bred in the USA in the 19th century on the basis of Dutch black-motley heifers and bulls. It is considered the most productive dairy breed of cattle in the world, it is used to improve the milk production of other cows. It is widespread in many countries, its productivity may vary depending on the conditions of detention, and milk is highly influenced by the diet.
- Selection directions and productivity
- Description of the breed
- Breeding of cows
- Features of the content
- Advantages, disadvantages and cost of the breed
Directions of breeding and productivity
Dairy cows of the modern breed of Holstein began to breed in the second half of the XIX century in the US Dutch black-motley chicks and In the first stage of selection, the main task was to increase milk yield, and this was achieved, but the fat content of milk was not too high, because the next stage was aimed at increasing this indicator, it started at 70 years of the last century.
Beginning in the 80s, they began to pay attention to the protein content in milk and the increase in cow weight. Another important indicator is the rate of milk output during machine milking. It should not be less than 2.5 kg / min., In some individuals it reaches 3 kg / min. The largest milk production record among representatives of this breed is 25,000 kg per year.But average productivity indicators are slightly less, they may vary, depending on the country:
- Israel – 10,000 kg per year, fat content – 3-3.1%, animal milk protein – 3%.
- USA and Canada – 8,000-9,000 kg, fat content 3.6%, protein content – 3.2%.
- Russia – 7,500 kg, fat content – 3.8% , the protein content is 3.4-3.6%.
In addition to the black-and-white cows in the Holstein breed, red-and-white due to the recessive gene of the individual are found. Holstein red-motley breed of cows and the characteristic of its productivity differs from black-motley. The fat content of its milk is higher, reaches 3.8-4%, but the amount of milk yield is on average 4000 kg less. Previously, these animals were rejected, now a separate line is drawn, heifers and bulls are used to improve Simmental and red cows.
Modern selection of the Holstein breed provides an extremely accurate selection of genetic material. Artificial insemination, embryo freezing and other methods are used, because the Holstein breed of bulls is constantly being improved. Balanced livestock feeds are selected using computer technology. In the world there is still a Holstein breed of horses. It has nothing to do with cows, it was bred in Germany in the XIV century, used in sports.
Description of the breed
The cattle of the Holstein dairy breed has an appearance, typical for this direction.The cows have a well-developed udder, wide chest and lower back. Here is what a Holstein cow looks like and a description of its appearance:
- The height of the cow is 145-150 cm, the bull is 160 cm.
- The weight of the heifer is 650-750 kg, the bull is up to 1200 kg, a one-year-old calf weighs about 400-600 kg.
- Depth of chest – 80 cm, width – 55-60 cm.
- The body is wedge-shaped, deep.
- The shoulders are elongated and extended.
- The loin is extended.
- The udder is enlarged and taut, 95% of the cows are in the shape of a bowl, with distinct milking and vein pattern, index 48- 50%.
- The muscles are poorly developed compared to other breeds.
- Black-piebald color, ratio of colors can vary from black with some white spots to almost white with black patches.
breed Formerly called Holstein-Friesian, is now followed by the abbreviated name stuck. Due to the large body weight of the Holstein bulls used to get meat. The output is not the best, it is only 50-55%. But this direction is far from the main one. Sent for meat, mainly bulls, which are not suitable for breeding, heifers with low milk production. What Holstein looks like can be seen in more detail in the photo.
Description of the Holstein breed of cows allows us to conclude that its breeding is very profitable, because such milk indicators cannot be achieved from no other species.
Both purebred breeding and interbreeding with other lines are practiced, because milk is transmitted to the heifers on the paternal side, therefore Holstein bulls are often used as valuable genetic material. For example, with their help, we have improved the characteristics of black-motley cattle.
The heifers are ready for fertilization as early as 15 months and weigh 350-380 kg. On industrial farms, mainly artificial methods are used. In private households they can fertilize heifers in a natural way. At the same time, it is necessary to monitor the correct selection of bulls so that small calves can be included in the pedigree book, otherwise their value in the market will fall, and they will not be allowed to further breeding. Holstein breed of cows and its price largely depends on the purity of the line, because with low-quality genetic material of animals their productivity decreases sharply.
Gobies of Holstein breed are born with a weight of 35-42 kg, heifers – 32-38 kg. The calves are strong, quickly get to their feet. From the first days, they are transferred to milk or milk rehydration, quickly accustomed to standard feeds. A selection of bull-calves is made, the rest are sent for fattening and meat. Heifers are evaluated a little later on the basis of milk yield, but frankly weak, with obvious defects, female calves are also not left for further breeding.
Holstein-Friesian calves are susceptible to infections, therefore the calving area must be absolutely clean.You can only touch young animals with disinfected hands. In the first 2 weeks, calves are kept in special quarantine rooms where the temperature is regulated, the air is disinfected with bactericidal lamps. Personnel access to such facilities is limited. The period between two calving for Holstein cows is 13-14 months, which is slightly longer than for other breeds.
The product characteristics of the Holstein breed largely depend from the conditions of detention and feeding. These cows are quite moody and demanding. At the slightest stress, improper feeding, milk yield decreases. They are grown mainly on industrial farms. Only there it is possible to ensure the highest requirements, while receiving a positive balance between costs and profits. The box method of keeping in a barn without a leash is practiced.
The farm must be equipped with:
- a milking parlor;
- a rest room;
- veterinary zone;
- comfortable stalls;
- a system for mechanical cleaning of manure.
Cows also have a lot of food meaning feed should only be first class. A year for a heifer, which produces about 6,000 kg of milk, 72 centners of feed with an energy value of 72,000 kJ are needed. Milk productivity of thoroughbred Holstein cows with an unbalanced or insufficient feeding greatly decreases.
Particular importance should be given to food quality in winter.During this period, cows are given:
- bean hay (pea tops, alfalfa, clover, lupine);
- corn kernels;
- oilseed meal;
- root crops;
- high protein feed.
In summer, the diet consists mainly of fresh herbs and feed. As you can see, this breed of cows cannot be economical. In order to fully realize its genetic potential, it is necessary to provide good conditions for keeping and feeding. In ordinary private households, the Friesian breed rarely shows record and even average milk yield rates. It is truly profitable to breed cattle only on industrial farms with medium or large livestock.
Advantages, disadvantages and cost of the breed
Holstein cattle has its advantages and disadvantages . The positive qualities include:
- high milk yield;
- the possibility of increasing the amount and fat content of milk depending on feed;
- good climatic adaptability;
- disease resistance, if you provide good care;
- cleanliness and calm nature.
Reviews of farmers say that the Holstein cow is a rather profitable option, but it also has a number of disadvantages, which include:
- exactingness to feed and conditions ;
- the need for large investments to fully realize the hereditary potential for dairy indicators;
- tendency to mastitis;
- the sensitivity of calves to infections (animals require special conditions in the first days of life);
- short life expectancy of cows.
I breed Holstein-Friesian breed in Russia There are farms in the Leningrad Region, Naberezhnye Chelny, and the Krasnodar Territory. Livestock is also sold there. How much does the Holstein thoroughbred cow cost? Tribal heifers can be bought at 250-280 rudders per 1 kilogram of live weight. Gobies for meat are cheaper, 180-200 rubles. The Holstein breed and its price in Europe are higher, on average an individual costs 1,500-1,800 euros. Red-motley breed options may cost a little cheaper.
Holstein cows and the productivity of this cattle are valued all over the world, it has great genetic potential that can be fully realized with proper feeding Modern technology allows you to constantly increase milk yield.
Thoroughbred gobies and heifers Holstein are more suitable for industrial farms. For private farms this is not the most profitable option.