Pasteurellosis of pigs has another, more accurate, medical name – it is hemorrhagic septicemia. Such an ailment in the animal’s body is caused by gram-negative bacillus Pasteurella spp. This is a difficult disease that is transmitted by contact even to people.
- Where does the stick come from and what does it represent
- What can become a source of infection
- Development of the disease
- Treatment of the disease
- Prevention of pathology
Where does the stick come from and what is it
Louis Pasteur did his experiments, when unexpectedly he discovered a new, completely unfamiliar dangerous virus, or rather, a bacterium. Moreover, he conducted research for various diseases of birds and prepared a vaccine against these diseases. It was at that moment that the vaccine against pig pasteurellosis was created. A few days later it became known that the vaccine was working. After the symptoms manifested in pasteurellosis, they began to notice in many pigs, and when the vaccine was used on them, the result was positive.
According to experts, the infection stick is located in the mucous membranes, as well as in the respiratory system in healthy and strong individuals, but if the immune system is strong, it needs to suppress the infection and its development. Pasteurella spp – sticks that have an oblong shape, they always multiply and live in pairs, rarely, but can still create chains between themselves.
Such an infection develops steadily and lives in blood, water, in any feces. Bacteria can live in corpses for longer than one month, and in meat that has been frozen, up to one year. The disease is not able to survive at high temperatures. He hates and will not be able to survive the infection and direct sunlight, the boiling process, which is why it is advised to heat the fresh meat.
What can become a source of infection
Pasteurellosis usually appears due to improper hygiene or in contact with another infected person. Usually the main source of infection is large animals. They release the infection into the air, drool and their own feces. Also, the disease can enter the body through dirty water, the soil on which pigs live or graze. In addition, not only artiodactyl animals can spread the disease, but also insects, rodents and birds.
Infection occurs through air or contact. Also often infection occurs through the stomach: a person eats or drinks already contaminated food. In addition, experts are sure that often infection occurs through wounds, and it does not matter what size they are. Pasteurella spp is a severe disease, its sticks multiply instantly and begin to infect all cells of the body. The disease immediately suppresses the work of phagocytes, because of which the body can not resist the disease.Toxins begin to be produced in all major systems of the body, because of which the percentage of vascular permeability increases dramatically. As a result, all this leads to such serious diseases as:
- the most various edema;
- poor blood coagulation;
- a sharp increase in the percentage of bleeding.
Development of the disease
Paste pasterellosis is a disease that is transmitted through contact and air. Pasteurellosis can manifest itself through diseases such as croupous pneumonia, septicemia (blood poisoning), edema, and pleurisy. In a stable and chronic form of pasteurellosis, pneumonia develops into a purulent state, after which it begins to affect the joints of the body, mammary glands, eyes. In addition, often a serious condition can be accompanied by hemorrhagic enteritis. Most often, during pasteurellosis, a mutant bacillus Pasteurella multocida appears in the pig’s body, sometimes Pasteurella Haemolityca. According to the latest experts, the death rate of the animal is very high, it can reach 70% mortality.
If everything is fine with the immune system, the body is strong and strong enough, the animal can not only fight the disease, but completely overcome it. If all individuals are in one cramped, dirty room, they will have poor and poor-quality nutrition, a constant lack of vitamins, this will lead to the fact that immunity with pasteurellosis will drop, and pigs will no longer be able to resist various infections.
Unfortunately, it’s almost impossible to understand that the animal has already become infected: the incubation period of the infection lasts from 2 days to 2 weeks. In general, the manifestation of the symptoms of infection depends on the state of the pig and the strength of the immune system. This means that the very first signs of the disease appear already at the last stage, when several days or even only a few hours are left until the death of the pig. Not the strongest strains of infection can occur at earlier stages.
Pasteurellosis has 4 stages of development in the pig’s body, each of which suggests its own symptoms:
- The most acute. With it, the pigs have a very high temperature, sharply rising above 41 ° C, a complete rejection of any food, heavy and difficult breathing, constant thirst (a pig can drink more than 5 liters of water per day) and severe apathy (the animal constantly lies). Later, heart failure begins to develop sharply, severe swelling appears, which is especially noticeable on the neck. The animal dies within three to four days after the first signs of strangulation.
- Of moderate severity. The main symptoms almost completely coincide with those inherent in the acute stage of pasteurellosis. Weakened state: severe shortness of breath, manifestation of croupous pneumonia, persistent cough. The pig’s ears, face and neck begin to turn blue, which may indicate its imminent demise.Piglets sit like dogs on the ass, helping themselves to breathe in this way when their airways are blocked. This form leads to the death of the animal already on the 3rd or 7th day. Recovery even after treatment is almost impossible.
- Acute. Slow development of pneumonia of a croupous appearance, febrile form of exacerbation, severe cough, which is accompanied by severe pain. Purulent discharge of gray color also appears, the manifestation of diarrhea is possible. The death of an animal occurs on the 3rd or 10th day.
- Chronic form. Body temperature is always normal, but there is a strong and rapid depletion of the animal. Pasteurellosis in pigs also manifests itself through a depressed state, severe cough, severe swelling.
To have a better idea of each stage of the course of the disease, you can refer to photos, of which there are countless numbers on the Internet.
In order to understand whether a pig is ill or not, it is necessary to take samples from it for sowing, only this gives a 100 percent result. As soon as the suspicions are confirmed, treatment should be carried out immediately.
External signs, such as, for example, pain when pressing on the chest or the appearance of red spots, can become a wake-up call for the farmer. Experts say that improvements may appear, but then any stage of the disease will go into a chronic form, and no treatment can completely remove the bacillus.A good way to prevent the disease is through vaccination. It saves in 50% of cases.
Treatment of the disease
How is the treatment of the disease? A number of antibiotics of completely different type and action are prescribed. In addition, serum is introduced, which comes with penicillin. During treatment, the pig should be well fed and constantly given it a plentiful drink.The room where the infected pigs will be kept should be well ventilated, but drafts should be avoided. Pigs that are sick should not live in cramped conditions, they need space. It is extremely important not to forget to vaccinate on time.
Today there are more than 15 different serums against pastrerellosis. The main ones are:
- emulsified serum;
- hyperimmune serum.
Immunity is formed within 7-10 days. Serum against pig pasteurellosis in 90% of cases allows the animal to survive and fight.
Prevention of pathology
New members of the livestock must be quarantined for the first 2 weeks. It is also required to comply with all sanitary and hygienic standards, never miss a vaccination, and sanitize a pigsty.
Pasteurellosis is a serious and serious illness that almost always ends in death. To avoid this, it is necessary to constantly vaccinate and at the first symptoms of the disease of the animal to separate it from others. The main thing is to follow the instructions of the veterinary preparations for piglets against pasteurellosis.