Diseases and pests garlic, it would seem, this topic has no right to exist. After all, culture is a fungicide and it is often used as a medicine to combat many painful conditions, infections and harmful bacteria, garlic is a panacea for many diseases. But, to the great regret of gardeners, the plant is very often damaged by various diseases and pests of garlic.The article will discuss the most common diseases of winter plants, methods of prevention and control.
- False powdery mildew (peronosporosis)
- Cervical rot
- Black mold
- Green rot
- White rot
- Bacteriosis <
Many disease states of the culture are caused by fungi. Gardeners should familiarize themselves with them, as well as methods of controlling and preventing diseases.
Mulching the soil with peat, sawdust or humus reduces the risk of developing fungal diseases of garlic. Also, much attention should be paid to the storage conditions of the fruits.
Downy mildew (peronosporosis)
Called by fungi of the same species. Fungal spores can easily be detected when analyzing the soil, garlic bulbs.They are everywhere, but the culture only gets sick under favorable conditions for the fungi: high humidity, temperature too low or too high for a particular time of year, non-observance of the necessary distance between plants, which makes it difficult to get sunlight. The painful condition at the initial stage is manifested by yellowing of the leaves, then they become covered with brown spots, which eventually turn into a gray coating. The disease progresses, the entire leaf is affected. The infection spreads to the bulb, which stops growing, and without timely treatment it will not be possible to save the plant.
Prevention and control of the disease:
- before planting, it is necessary to carefully sort through the planting material, to discard the teeth with thick scales and disinfect the teeth with a solution of potassium permanganate;
- if the leaves on the culture turn yellow, you must remove them so that the infection does not spread to neighboring plates.
After harvesting bulbs should be dried in the sun for a week . In this case, the diseases of the garlic will not affect the fruit.
It is often the case that the garlic is well-groomed, well-fertilized and watered, but the leaves turn yellow. What is the reason? The point, of course, is in the disease. Rust is caused by rust spores. First, the leaves become stained, then turn yellow, blacken and generally dry out.
Prevention and treatment of winter garlic:
- disinfection of seed before planting;
- removal of diseased leaves and plants;
- treat Bordeaux liquid and infusion of tar soap.
It is known that a hundred illness is easier to prevent than to treat. Preventive measures will prevent the development of the disease.
This fungal disease appears with brown stripes on the leaves. It is necessary to remove them in a timely manner, otherwise the disease will affect the bulbs, and they will begin to rot. During storage, the infected bulb is covered with white rot.
The methods of prevention and control are the same as with the previously listed fungal disease states. Every week, carefully check the condition of the plant and its leaf blades.
This painful condition manifests itself during storage of winter garlic bulbs. But an experienced gardener notices that by the end of summer the leaves of the plant wilt. The neck of the bulb softens, an unpleasant odor emanates from it. Over time, the scales become covered with gray spots.
Excess nitrogen fertilizer in the soil is the main cause of the disease. This should not be abused, especially at the end of the growing season.You need to choose a crop on sunny days, then dry it thoroughly. Bulbs should be stored in a cool room with zero temperature. This will stop the rotting process.
A disease of fungal etiology affects the fruit during storage if its conditions are not met. Elevated air temperature, humidity, unventilated rooms provoke the development of the disease.
The teeth become soft and then dry out. Black dust (spores) appears under the scales, which can reach healthy heads by air.
In order to prevent a painful condition, Fitosporin is successfully used. With a fungicide solution, the soil, planting material and the storage room should be treated. This helps to cope with black mold.
A painful condition, like black rot, affects the crop when stored improperly. High humidity and damage to the bulbs contribute to the formation of putrefactive foci of brown-green color.
The crop rots after 1-3 months and gradually all the fruits disappear. Compliance with the storage conditions of the bulbs is a reliable and only disease prevention.
The painful state of plants provokes sclerotinia. They manifest themselves during a period of active growth of culture.At the initial stage, when white rot only begins to develop, the leaves die, then the root is affected: a white “mycelium” forms on it with a fleecy coating. The bulbs are covered with small black dots – sclerotia and rot.
Timely detection of the disease allows you to more effectively fight the fungus to defeat it without significant damage to the plants. The affected leaves must be removed, fungicide treatment is carried out.
The name of the disease indicates that bacteria provoke it. As a result of the defeat, the bulbs rot. The presence of a viral disease in garlic can be detected by the following symptoms:
- the fruit softens at the initial stage;
- the scales turn yellow or brown;
- an unpleasant odor arises, indicating about the defeat.
The cause of the disease is the improper storage of the fruit is too humid and warm air in the room. Therefore, the disease is easier to prevent than to fight it.
Pests on garlic are also enough, they are not confused by the sharp and pungent smell of the plant. Here are some of them that may cause him to die:
- Stem nematode – small, small worms that can destroy a healthy plant. They penetrate the leaves, stems and root system of the plant, sucking out juices from it. If the pests are not scared off in time with saline (1 tbsp.spoon 3 l. Of water), then the culture will die.Her leaves fade, the roots dry out, the bulb dies. Pests strive for the next victim. Thunderbolt copes well with the disease. It is necessary to cultivate the soil before planting the crop. Damaged crops are burnt, and the plot for planting crops is used no earlier than after 4 years.
- The root pest infects the fruit during storage. But if, when planting, it enters the ground with its teeth, it can become active during the period of culture growth. It penetrates the bulb at the root exit and breaks through the passages in it. The plant in this case stops the growth of the teeth, and sometimes the head is not even tied. Prevention is the collection of the burning of damaged plants.
- Garlic mite, this pest, like the stem nematode, feeds on the juice of the culture. After his bites, brown ulcers form on the organs of culture. But, besides this, the pest is a carrier of various viruses. Methods of control and prevention are identical to measures against root ticks. Insecticides are also being treated.
- An onion pest fly affects not only onion plantations, but also garlic. Lays eggs in the place where the leaves depart from the stem. The larvae eats away the fruit and the plant dies. The prevention and control of pests of garlic and onions are the use of drugs that repel flies.
The insecticide “Agita” is very popular, infusion of wormwood or tansy is suitable from folk remedies, which repels dangerous pests with its unpleasant odor. Insecticide treatment is carried out no later than a month before the harvest.
Garlic is widely used in cooking, it gives a piquant flavor to dishes, supplements and enriches them. You eat such dishes with pleasure. It goes well with meat, vegetables, and mushrooms. In addition, the garlic garden benefits the garden. It protects other plantings from pests, it infuses many pests of crops with its infusion.
Despite this, the plant is often affected by diseases and pests of garlic. Fighting them brings a lot of trouble to gardeners, growing a crop requires a lot of effort, but most of them cannot imagine a table without sharp teeth.
Diseases and pests infect weak plants, therefore they cannot be used for planting low-quality planting material. Teeth must be treated with disinfecting solutions before planting; suspicious bulbs are discarded. When planting, it is necessary to adhere to the desired distance between the crops in order to ensure that direct sunlight can reach the crop grounds. Affected crops must be treated with the right preparations on time.
Diseases of the garlic and the fight against them are an important component of proper crop care.As already noted in the article, most painful conditions develop from violations of the rules for storing the crop. This can cause the death of all fruits, and then all the efforts spent on its cultivation will be futile. Garlic diseases and their treatment should be known to every novice gardener, as well as treat affected crops on time. This will allow him to grow a good harvest and save it.