Eggplants are prone to many diseases and parasites. Therefore, in the process of growing them, many gardeners have difficulties. In the article, we consider the existing eggplant diseases and their treatment.
- Classification <
- Tobacco mosaic
- Gray rot
- Phytophthora <
- Fusarium <
- Cercosporosis <
- Dry rot
- Black spotting
- Powdery mildew (false and true)
- Vertex rot
- Bacterial spotting
- Whitefly and Colorado potato beetle
- Illiterate care
Diseases and pests affect eggplants at all stages of growth and development. The most common diseases are divided into several groups, depending on what pathogen they are caused by:
This viral eggplant leaf disease is characterized by the defeat of all parts of the plant, and at all stages of growth.
Symptoms: leaves, stems of seedlings are covered with yellow spots. In case of significant damage, the plants are removed from the greenhouse.
The seedling planting site is treated with quicklime. This disease cannot be treated.
This is an incurable disease of the blue ones, which affects both in greenhouse conditions and in open ground. It is not difficult to notice this sore on the eggplant – the stems of the plant become thicker than usual, they easily break. If the leaves have become violet-red, with a corrugated surface – this is also a sign of columnar.
To protect the plantings, it is worth regularly removing weed grass, and preplant seed preparation by disinfection. Treatment with Actellic is also performed.
At the initial stage of development, it is difficult to notice this sore. Signs are visible at the last stage of the lesion, when the leaves and shoots are covered with gray or white bloom. In appearance, it resembles mold.
You can get rid of gray rot with the help of systemic fungicides. To prevent the development of the disease in subsequent years, the soil in a greenhouse or seedling box is decontaminated by fumigation.
During the development of gray rot in adult plants, the fruits dry out and become covered with a gray coating. They can no longer be eaten.
This eggplant disease is common. You can identify the black leg by the black girdle ring on the stem of the plant. Such a jumper completely blocks the plant’s access to nutrients and moisture. This leads to poor-quality and meager crop of vegetables.
To treat the black leg is the drug Trichodermin. If such a fight is useless, the diseased sprouts are removed from the greenhouse, because they are carriers of a fungal infection – the causative agent of the black leg.
Phytophthora of eggplant is a dangerous viral disease that appears on the leaves in the form of rusty spots.
To preserve seedlings, remove all plantings infected with a viral infection to stop the spread of the disease to healthy plants.
Eggplant late blight is treated by spraying the plantings with Bordeaux mixture or vitriol.
It affects not only late blight young but also adult plants as well fruits.
People call this sore white rot.Its pathogen settles in the root system of seedlings, multiplies and moves to the stem. Access to food overlaps over time. The stem becomes watery, and the leaves and fruits become covered with wet and dark spots.
In adult plants, black densities form on the fruits – sclerotia. The reason for the development is that the plants froze when planting in cold and waterlogged soil.
To prevent the occurrence of the disease, it is worthwhile to disinfect the soil before planting seeds, and also reduce the air humidity in the greenhouse. Afflicted plants should be sprayed with Bordeaux liquid or copper sulfate.
Fusarium wilt appears on plants growing in the greenhouse. Fungal infection penetrates the stems, leaves become sluggish, necrosis appears on them.
Reasons: high humidity and high temperature (23-26 °).
Due to the high resistance of the pathogen to fungicides, treatment of fusarium is not subject to. To prevent the occurrence of infection, you need to disinfect planting soil and seeds.
Chlorosis or cercosporosis is another dangerous fungal disease.
Signs of cercosporosis: round chlorotic spots on foliage. After a while, they increase in size, affecting the entire leaf plate. The leaves die off, while the plant does not die, but bears fruit that is unsuitable for food.
Protection against defeat consists in observing crop rotation rules, disposing of plant waste and controlling air humidity in the greenhouse.
This eggplant seedling disease is controlled using Bordeaux fluid. Treatment with one of the traditional fungicides is also possible. Additionally, plants are fertilized with complex preparations to increase resistance to chlorosis.
This disease rarely affects greenhouse seedlings. Often infected seedlings growing in open ground. This eggplant disease appears on the foliage in the form of red oval spots.
Prevention involves observing crop rotation rules, as well as timely cleaning of the site of weeds and plant debris.
The drug Home helps the eggplant disease from this – 0 , 3% concentration.
Eggplant rot is caused by fungus. Causes humid air and high temperature. Young shoots are subject to defeat, which first turn green, then turn brown and dry out.
Eggplants rot in adulthood, as well as at the fruiting stage. The surface of the plant is covered with brown spots.
Afflicted plants should be treated with fungicidal preparations – Mancozeb, Carbendazil or Chlorotonil. You can also treat seedlings with a Bordeaux mixture.
Green sprouts suffer from black spotting due to excess moisture in the soil, increased soil density and thickened plantings.
How to save young plants :
- periodically loosen the soil;
- make drainage holes;
- cut too tightly spaced seedlings.
Treatment This eggplant disease is carried out using systemic fungicide preparations. Also, indoor air humidity decreases.
Powdery mildew (false and true)
This disease of eggplant seedlings is characterized by massive drying of the leaves. As a result, wilting and death of plants follows.
The main causes of the lesion are sharp changes in temperature and high humidity.
Treatment of false eggplant disease in the greenhouse involves treatment with a chemical agent – Phytostorin. It is necessary to reduce the dose and frequency of watering for plants and regularly ventilate the greenhouse. Avoid drafts during ventilation, otherwise seedlings will die.
Topaz and colloidal sulfur are used to treat powdery mildew.
Appearance eggplant top rot occurs due to a lack of potash fertilizers.The disease is not contagious and is easily eliminated by top dressing with preparations containing potassium.
Vertex rot manifests itself at all stages of plant growth, including during fruiting. Keep track of the frequency and regularity of applying potash dressings.
Fungal diseases of eggplant seedlings and the fight against them has an equally important role, because they lead to serious damage to plantings and their death.
This disease of a plant affects any stage of development both in greenhouse conditions and in open ground. Black spots appear on the leaves, the fringing acquires a yellow color. Petioles and stems also blacken over time.
Bacterial spotting develops at high temperature and high humidity.
Infected plantings are removed from the site. For prevention, disinfect seeds and soil before planting. Such a sore can not be treated.
The most common pests of eggplant seedlings are aphids, spider mites and slugs.
You can fight aphids with both folk remedies and modern pesticides:
- treat seedlings with Karbofos or Strela;
- aphids are destroyed with a solution of wood ash (200 g of substance is consumed per 10 liters of water);
- some gardeners use iodine to combat aphids – 10 drops of the substance are added to 1 liter of water.
To destroy slugs, loosening the soil in hot weather and its subsequent pollination with mustard powder, ground black or red pepper.
Whitefly and Colorado potato beetle
Whitefly and Colorado potato beetle are eggplant pests, no less dangerous for seedlings. Treatment with Iskra-bio or Fitoverm helps to get rid of whiteflies. The Colorado beetles and their larvae will have to be collected manually.
If a fly appears on seedlings, it must be urgently disposed of. Although such a small insect is not harmful to plants, it will become a peddler of many diseases.
To banish a fly, gardeners use various folk remedies – lay citrus bark, tobacco, garlic on the soil, set special traps and spray the seedlings with soapy water .
Often the root system of plants is affected precisely by this pest. If a bear appeared in the garden, you can get rid of it by the following methods:
- 10 g of chlorofos per 10 liters of water. The working solution is poured into the mink of the pest.
- Dig a deep hole in the area, sprinkle with manure. In late spring, the bear will crawl into it to lay eggs. Manure with larvae is collected and burned.
- Egg shells collected during the year are crushed into small pieces and put into the pits of the parasite.
Wilting, yellowing and drying out of seedlings is caused not only by plant diseases, but also by improper care:
- At high humidity, the plants become watery, begin to fade and turn yellow. To eliminate this problem, arrange regular ventilation.
- From the lack of nutrients in the soil, seedlings can turn yellow and dry even at the initial stage of growth. Provide plants with a balanced diet of phosphate and potassium fertilizers.
- With a lack of moisture and good lighting, the sprouts develop for a long time and soon dry out. Do not keep seedlings under the sun, young eggplant seedlings can get burns and die.
- With excessive watering, the roots rot and root rot develops. Therefore, it is worth watering as the soil dries.
- Subcooling is another reason why the seedlings begin to hurt, wither and die. Avoid drafts and sudden changes in temperature during its hardening.
When growing seedlings, follow the rules of planting and care: disinfect seeds, use sterile, fertile and light soil for planting.
Despite such a huge number of diseases and pests, eggplant can still be saved from their defeat. For successful cultivation, follow preventative measures and optimize care for your plantings. Continuation of the article …