In breeding any kind of animal, the key is to bear and give birth to healthy offspring. Pig farming in the post-Soviet territory is the most profitable sector of livestock farming. The popularity of pigs is due to their unpretentiousness in feeding and maintenance, as well as good adaptability to any weather conditions. One of the advantages of these animals is their high productivity. Every breeder should know everything about farrowing pigs.
- Duration of pregnancy
- Which indicates the approach of childbirth
- Duration of the process
- Birth of young
- Postpartum period
- Features of feeding
- Features of fertilization
- The final part
Duration of pregnancy
Pigs reach puberty at 8–9 months. Earlier fertilization is not recommended, because the body of the animal is not prepared for bearing. It is not allowed to cover individuals weighing less than 100 kg. Pregnancy lasts 3 months. Pig farrowing at home takes place from 101 to 126 days.
It is quite difficult to determine the exact date in days. It is necessary to carry out early preparation for the appearance of offspring. If the animals are kept in a group, the uterus is usually transferred to a separate keeping. There is a table by which you can calculate the approximate date of birth of the piglets. In 95% of cases, this occurs on 108-118 days, usually the table indicates 110 days.
If fertilization was carried out on April 13, then in the calendar table they look for the intersection with the fourth month and the date is 1.08. It is in this period that the female is transferred to a separate content. Farrowing earlier than the scheduled date comes in rare cases, approximately 1 out of 100. Many breeders ask: “Can I make an accurate calculation in days?”
Calculating in days when the time of delivery comes in will help the calculator. The video describes the calculation process and schedule in great detail. Knowing the approximate birth date of babies is very important. Such calculations help to determine the timing of changes in the diet and the transfer of bellies to a separate room. Some individuals may move for several days.
Which indicates the approach of labor
The sow farrowing calendar is not the only way to determine the approach of labor. Before farrowing, the pig’s behavior changes. The labia and nipples are enlarged. Signs of farrowing are observed a couple of days before birth. Vietnamese sow behaves cautiously.
Already during this period, you need to start pre-training. First of all, they prepare the room. The main thing is sterility: there should be a clean, dry litter on the floor, which is changed every day. It is necessary to provide the sow with sufficient clean drinking water. The far corner of the room is equipped with ultraviolet light or several simple incandescent lamps.
In the first few days, especially if the farrowing of the sow is expected in winter, the young growth needs to be heated. The lighting of the room should not be too bright, otherwise the animal will begin to get nervous, will feel uncomfortable. The first few hours of piglets are recommended to be kept in a wooden box or basket. Before the survey, the sow is not fed or walked.
The behavior of the sow before childbirth is strange: it begins to drag hay into the farrowing machine, trying to make a kind of nest. Often the behavior becomes restless, especially in the birthright. The sow often lays down, and then gets on its feet, cannot find a place for itself. Farrowing sows most often begins at night. The sure signs are excessive evening activity.
Duration of the process
How is farrowing in pigs? How long it will take a farrow of a pig at home, it is impossible to determine exactly. It all depends on the course of pregnancy. In severe cases, the process can take up to 11 hours. In the normal course of gestation, farrowing will take 2-3 hours. For the most part, it all depends on the physical health of the animal.
No matter how long the process takes, each baby should receive milk within 30-60 minutes after birth. Before feeding the young, a small amount of milk is decanted, after which the nipples are wiped with a damp, warm rag. Piglets are born not adapted to the external environment, so they need to help find nipples.
It is important to ensure optimal care for newly born offspring. Weaker piglets in the first few days should be kept by the mother’s nipples on their own. They are applied to the front nipples because they have the largest amount of milk.
Birth of the young
Immediately before the start of the process, the animal walks on the corral or lies on a barrel, nothing eats and does not drink water. This is a sure sign that labor will begin soon. At this point, the pig starts trying. An interval between contractions of 3-5 minutes signals the approach of childbirth. At this time, white mucus secretion is observed, water begins to drain.
As soon as the first piglet appears, it is necessary to check whether the amniotic membrane has torn, otherwise you need to make a tear with your own hands so that the baby does not die from suffocation. After the birth of each pig, rub it with a dry towel, clean its sinuses and remove mucus from the oral cavity. The umbilical cord is cut and treated with iodine. All offspring are placed in a box under the lamps.
After farrowing, the sow needs special care. When all the pigs are born, it is important to wait for the placenta to leave and remove it as soon as possible. The main thing is to prevent the eating of the placenta, otherwise the female can eat the entire offspring. In wild animals, this phenomenon is far from uncommon. In some cases, pigs are injected with oxytocin to accelerate the process of rejection of the placenta.
When the farrow of the pig is over, it is necessary to replace the dirty litter. The back of the body of the sow should be treated with soapy water and rubbed with a dry towel. If after 5 hours the placenta has not come out, you need to call the veterinarian at home. A pig must be allowed to drink about 4 liters of warm water. Feeding of the female is carried out 2 hours after giving birth.
Features of feeding
How much and what kind of food the sow will receive during pregnancy and after it 1 important point. Overeating leads to swelling of the mammary glands. About a week before farrowing, the amount of feed begins to gradually decrease. At this time, the pig’s diet should be the same as during the suckling period.
Coarse fodder with a high fiber content and silage are removed from the diet for half a month before the pig brings the offspring. At this time, you need to establish digestion in order to avoid constipation in the future. When the pig walks a little, the metabolism is disturbed, therefore constipation is possible. To avoid problems with stools, it is recommended to give beets.
After birth, the diet is gradually changed. Carefully introduce new products so that young animals do not have diarrhea. The diet is enriched with vitamin supplements so that the offspring develops normally. The development and growth of young animals will depend on what the sow eats.
Features of fertilization
After a month, piglets are weaned from the sow. At the same time, you can cover the pig again to increase the growth of the livestock. Sexual hunting in pigs takes place every 17-24 days, lasts 2-3 days. You can find out when the sexual hunt began, by the behavior and condition of the external genitalia. At this time, the pig behaves uneasily, sometimes a little aggressively, eats poorly, at the sight of a boar it emits a characteristic grunt.
After mating occurs, the presence of pregnancy is checked after a week. The boar is again shown to the female, and if she does not allow it, the insemination process was successful. At home, natural mating or artificial insemination can be performed. The second option is more in demand in the presence of a large population. The method allows you to cover the maximum number of females, and subject to all the rules, can be done at home with your own hands.
Fertilization is allowed for individuals:
- reaching a weight of 100 kg and above;
- with well-developed mammary glands;
- nine months old, not younger.
How farrowing occurs in pigs, every breeder should know in order to be able to help the animal in time with complicated births. There is a special calendar by which you can calculate the approximate birth dates of babies. On average, the uterus wears piglets for 3 months.
Many novice breeders wonder if they can independently give birth to a pig with their own hands. It is advisable that a doctor be present at the first birth, because inexperienced farmers cannot always help the animal if complications arise.
You can understand how long the birth will begin, according to the behavior of the animal. A sure sign that resolution from pregnancy will occur the other day is anxiety.
There is also a swelling in the area of the mammary glands, 2 days before birth, milk comes actively. In any case, the pig will need help with childbirth, so you should advance:
- prepare as many clean towels as possible;
- equip the corner for the young with heating lamps;
- to clean the premises by washing the floor, walls and laying a clean litter on the floor.
There is nothing difficult in taking birth in pigs. The whole process will depend on the physical health of the individual. For more confidence, you can watch the training video. Symptoms of the imminent approach of childbirth are animal anxiety and the release of whitish mucus from the genitals.
It is important to ensure good care and nutrition for the sow after childbirth. It is necessary to ensure that weaker piglets receive a sufficient amount of milk – at first you will have to hold them near the nipples on their own. In the photo you can see how the newborn offspring looks. To know exactly what to do during the pork birth, you can watch the video and consult a doctor.