Permanent changes in weather conditions forced people to look for alternatives to growing cucumbers in the open field. The best option for your own site is a small polycarbonate greenhouse.Growing cucumbers in a polycarbonate greenhouse allows you to get a good crop in a short time in adverse climatic conditions, for example, in the Moscow region.
- Room preparation
- Preparing the soil
- Growing seedlings
- Planting in the greenhouse
- Watering <
- Temperature <
- Pests and diseases
- The final part
Before growing cucumbers in a polycarbonate greenhouse, you need to determine the place for the design and choose the appropriate variety of cucumbers. The following varieties are best suited for growing cucumbers in a polycarbonate greenhouse: Nezhinsky, Talisman, Alliance, Farmer, Masha F1. Self-pollinated varieties are suitable for such conditions. They do not require pollination by bees, so you can grow them even in winter. Hybrids F1 are great for cultivating in greenhouse conditions.
You can assemble the frame with your own hands from a metal profile or wooden boards. Top make shelter from polycarbonate sheets.It is very important to equip an elementary ventilation system in advance in order to avoid the spread of fungal infection.
In addition, you need to install a drip irrigation system and carry out lighting to create optimal conditions for the growth and development of cucumbers. The walls of the greenhouse must be treated with a disinfectant solution. Potassium permanganate is perfect for this.
It is necessary to install trellises in advance, to which the bushes will be tied. This must be done so that the foliage does not lie on the ground and the branches of the bushes do not get confused with each other.
Preparation of the soil
How much the seedlings are grown will depend on the crop. To begin with, you need to prepare the container and soil. For seedlings, it is better to choose oblong pots. Drainage holes must be made at the bottom of the containers.
You can make a soil mixture yourself or buy universal soil in a store. With self-mixing, the soil is preliminarily calcined in the oven to avoid infection of plants with infections and fungi in the early stages of development.
The mixture is made of peat, humus and sawdust in the proportions of 2: 2: 1. To ensure the normal growth and development of cucumbers in the first stage, as a fertilizer, you need to add a spoonful of ash and superphosphates. Before laying the soil, containers for growing must also be disinfected and washed. Then you need to fill the soil and spill it with water. You need to do this a day before planting seeds.
The soil must be dug 6-10 cm deep. Then fertilize with manure, peat and sawdust. To warm the soil, before laying fertilizers, warming with hay or straw mixed with manure is practiced.
Horse manure is considered one of the best. It allows you to warm the soil at 70-80 ℃ and kill all bacteria. To make such a heater should be no less than 21 days before sowing the seeds, otherwise they simply burn out. An alternative insulation is bird droppings. It warms up the soil at 50-60 ℃ and also allows you to get rid of bacteria, it is applied 14 days before planting.
The seeds must be decontaminated. To do this, they are placed for 20 minutes in a slightly pink solution of potassium permanganate. After that, the seeds are laid out on any natural fabric and watered with water. In this state, they are left for a day or more until they hatch. Planting is usually carried out in early spring, approximately at the end of April.
Seeds should be sown in small indentations, not more than 1.5 cm, sprinkled on top of the ground. Landing scheme 10×10 or 8×8. Cucumber plantings on top must be covered with foil and put in a warm, bright place. When the first shoots appear, the film needs to be removed. It is very important to carry out daily watering or spraying so that the soil is sufficiently moist, otherwise seedlings will grow poorly.
Cucumbers grow pretty fast. After 2 weeks, you may need a pick in different pots or glasses. Sprouts need to be removed together with a piece of land and planted in separate containers, with pre-prepared soil.
Planting in a greenhouse
At home, seedlings develop very quickly. Transplantation into the greenhouse is carried out in 2-3 weeks, when 4-5 true leaves appear. Before planting sprouts, they should be hardened. To do this, the plant is rearranged in a cooler place. The temperature is reduced gradually, moving them back to a warm room at night.
A week before planting, you need to dig the soil again in a polycarbonate greenhouse. The beds are formed 80 cm wide and 35 cm high in increments of 60 cm. Next, superphosphate fertilizers must be added. You can spill the soil with mullein diluted with water and cover with a film so that it warms up well. Seedlings can not be transplanted into cold soil.
On the day of planting in a polycarbonate greenhouse, you need to make holes in depth corresponding to the height of the glass in which the seedlings grow. The pits are formed in 2 rows with a width of 50 cm. Warm water should be poured into each pit. Plants are removed from the glasses along with an earthen lump and placed in prepared wells.It is recommended to mulch the soil around the stem with sawdust to keep moisture and heat.
Proper care of cucumbers in polycarbonate greenhouse – a guarantee of a good harvest. Watering is the main event in the care of cucumbers. In a greenhouse, humidity should be maintained within 75%. For 1 m2 of soil, 5 liters of water will be needed. On hot days, watering is carried out 1 time in 2 days, in cool 1 time in 3-4 days.
Watering is best done from 11 to 15 hours. When ovaries appear, the intensity of irrigation should be increased. It is not recommended to pour water directly under the root, it is best to form furrows for irrigation near the holes or organize drip irrigation. Cucumbers in a polycarbonate greenhouse will bear fruit all year round if all conditions for this are properly organized in the room.
Another factor affecting growth is normal temperature.
- There should be no sudden jumps.
- The temperature in the greenhouse must be kept within 28 ℃, and the soil should not cool by less than 13 ℃, otherwise the plants will not be able to consume water.
- you Growing cucumbers in greenhouses just like in open ground implies regular loosening of the soil.
- Cultivation should be carried out after watering, this will improve aeration.
It is important to mount trellises, along which the plants will climb up. To do this, at a height of 1.5-2 m, you need to pull the wire horizontally, from which to lower down the twines reaching to the top of the bushes. Garter is carried out when 6-8 sheets appear. The first lateral shoots must be pinched so that the plants grow only up, and not to the sides.
The top is stepsoned when the bush grows to the trellis, otherwise it will curl further. Pasynkovka is carried out on 2-3 leaves, which grows above the upper fruit.
In order to grow a good crop in the greenhouse, we should not forget about fertilizing. From a small area, plants very quickly draw out useful substances, therefore they very often suffer from vitamin deficiencies and poorly bear fruit. It is especially important to apply fertilizers during the growing season, flowering.
Before flowering, nitrogen and potassium fertilizers are applied. A great option is wood ash, urea, bird droppings. Bird droppings and urea are not applied in their pure form, otherwise the roots of the plants may burn out. After top dressing, it is recommended to water.
Pests and diseases
It would seem that greenhouses and greenhouses should reliably protect plants from diseases and parasite attacks. But, it so happens that the plants begin to turn yellow and wilt.Improper agricultural technology is one of the first reasons cucumbers can get sick. Darkening of foliage most often indicates a poor ventilation of the room or excessive watering. Correcting the situation is very simple, you just need to adjust the optimal temperature, air the room more often and arrange the right watering.
Whitefly eats vegetables in the open ground and feels great in greenhouse conditions. May cause significant damage to any plants. It multiplies rapidly. Whitefly larvae can persist in the soil and on the roots of weeds. Glue traps are used to combat insects, as a preventive measure it is necessary to disinfect soil, agricultural machinery and destroy weeds in time.
Powdery mildew very often appears in conditions of high humidity. White spots with a fluffy structure appear on the leaves. As prevention and treatment, spraying with mullein or with Fitoverm is used. Melon aphid quickly drinks juice from cucumbers, as a result, the plants dry out. A solution of red pepper or tobacco dust is used as a treatment.
Polycarbonate greenhouses are great for growing cucumbers in winter or early spring. Shelter for plants can be built with your own hands. Knowing the secrets of proper cultivation and care of plants, you can grow a rich harvest and even engage in commercial activities. This is a good start for business.
To grow healthy cucumbers, you must follow the rules of crop rotation, apply fertilizers on time and ensure the optimal microclimate in the room. pick the seeds. It is better to give preference to self-pollinated repairing varieties. Growing them is quite simple, plus they bear fruit for a year.