In order to choose a more suitable one among the variety of varieties of such a crop as cauliflower, we must give preference to a hybrid of local selection. The plant must be resistant to sudden changes in weather. Growing will be effective if different types are sown.
- Characteristics of the plant
- Description of the head
- Usefulness of the vegetable
- Use of the vegetable
- In cooking
- For medicinal purposes
- Unusual species
- Seedling <
- Planting <
- Watering and loosening
- Shading <
- Feeding <
- Diseases and pests
- Conclusion <
Characteristics of the plant
Representative of the cabbage family, cauliflower today ranks second after white-scale plantings. It is cultivated throughout Europe, America, China, Japan.
Cauliflower is an annual spring or winter plant. In one year, it forms a head and fruits with seeds. Cauliflower has an underdeveloped root system. It is fibrous, located close to the surface of the soil.
Harvested 90-170 days after emergence, the seeds ripen in 200-240 days. The period of entry into the stage of technical ripeness is extended.
The stem is cylindrical in shape.In height, an average of 0.15-0.7 m, depending on the variety. The direction of the leaves is horizontal, straight or obliquely up. They often have the form of a curved spiral. The color can be from light green to blue-green with a wax coating of different intensities. The length of the sheet plate is 15-90 cm, narrow in width. The shape is elliptical, oval, ovoid.
Description of a head of cabbage
The organs of cauliflower used in primitive varieties are separate flowering shoots. Other species form heads that are knotted due to twisting of apical strongly branched shoots with the buds of inflorescences. Heads are tied in a phase of 9-12 leaves. Their shape is round or flat round. Color green, purple, yellow, white. Shades can be different.
A head of cauliflower during full ripening forms buds, flowers, and fruits containing seeds. They appear from several growing on the peripheral part of the shoots. The color of the flowers is white or yellow. The sizes are often small and medium. Fruits are pods. There is a lot of seed inside. Their germination is maintained for 3 years.
Fresh cauliflower is sweet and juicy. At a temperature of 0 ° C, the preservation is 7-10 days without loss of quality,
Description of the appearance of the fruit:
- head of cabbage is heavy and strong;
- there are green around leaves;
- no dark spots.
Color is not an indicator of freshness.It can be different, depending on the illumination of the area where the cultivation is carried out.
Usefulness of the vegetable
Cauliflower is the best representative of the family. It tastes great.
The chemical composition per 100 g of fresh produce is:
- 8-11.7% dry matter;
- 1.7-4 , 2% sugar;
- 0.5% starch;
- 0.6-1.1% fiber;
- 1.6-2.5% crude protein, which is 2 times its amount in white-headed species.
The dietary properties of cauliflower are high. It contains many vitamins, including C, A, PP, B vitamins, etc. Cabbage contains potassium, calcium, sodium, iron, pectins, and organic acids.
The use of cauliflower is multidirectional, because it has many positive qualities.
There is the concept of glycemic index (GI). This is an indicator of the effect of food on blood glucose. GI of cauliflower in stew is only 15 units, so you should include it in the diet.
Cabbage is useful for people who are overweight, because it contains tantalum acid. It prevents carbohydrates from being converted to fats and is great for feeding babies. For this purpose, cauliflower is mashed.There are many types of baby food on sale where the label indicates the content of the vegetable.
Cooking cauliflower requires knowledge of the intricacies of this process:
- so that cauliflower retains white color during heat treatment , when cooking, add 1 tsp. sugar;
- You can improve the taste by boiling it in mineral water.
A variety of dishes are prepared from cauliflower, it is used raw in salads, and used for decoration. Very tasty and fragrant cauliflower pancakes, as well as broths based on young inflorescences. They are baked in the oven. Prepare a vegetable and beetroot. Many people like cauliflower with spinach – a low-calorie and wholesome meal.
A dish called tempura made from vegetables is perfect for dinner. Cabbage retains quality despite heat treatment. Properly cooked vegetables are crispy on top, but very tender inside. For cooking, take only fresh heads of cabbage, divide into inflorescences, blanch for 3-5 minutes, fry for 3-6 minutes on each side in batter:
- flour – 70 g;
- egg – 1 pc.;
- water – 120 g;
- starch – 70 g;
- spices (salt, pepper, nutmeg).
They also make cauliflower casserole according to the recipe of Jamie Oliver, for the preparation of which you will need:
- milk – 0.5 l;
- flour – 50 g;
- butter – 50 g;
- broccoli – 0.5 kg;
- cauliflower – 1 kg;
- garlic – 2 cloves;
- stale bread – 2 slices;
- Cheder cheese (mature) – 75 g;
- some fresh thyme;
- almond petals – 75 g;
- olive oil.
Chop the garlic, place in a saucepan, add oil, melt. Add 1 tbsp. l flour, fry for 1 minute, pour milk, stir all the time. Broccoli, sorted into inflorescences, are boiled in this sauce for 20 minutes until soft. Half the grated cheese is added to the fill. Cauliflower inflorescences are placed in a vessel, watered with sauce. Sprinkle the remaining cheese and crumbs on top (crushed bread with spices and olive oil), bake in the oven at 180 ° C for 1 hour. Preparedness is determined by crisp.
Many people make cauliflower from cauliflower. For the dish you will need the following ingredients:
- cauliflower – 800 g;
- butter – 6 tbsp. L.
- eggs – 3 pcs .;
- milk – 230 ml;
- flour – 3 tbsp. l .;
- thick sour cream – 100 ml;
- onions – 1 head;
- black pepper;
The flour is fried in butter, the milk is poured and boiled for half an hour, stirring all the time.Inflorescences are boiled in a water bath for 40-50 minutes. Beat eggs are mixed with chopped onions and sour cream, poured into the prepared sauce, spices are added. Prepare cauliflower in separate pots, which are greased with oil, add sauce, sprinkle with dill, bake in the oven for 25 minutes at 180 ° C.
The flowers and leaves of cauliflower are also prepared. They are fried in batter, in breadcrumbs, cooked first courses, side dishes to the second, added to salads.
Cauliflower, pickled, pickled, frozen. Make homework. Good is the royal luxury recipe. The following ingredients are used:
- cauliflower – 2 kg;
- beets – 1 pc.;
- carrots – 1 pc .;
- peppercorns – 6 pcs.;
- allspice peas – 3 pcs.;
- garlic – 2 cloves;
- sugar – 100 g;
- salt – 100 g;
- water – 1.5 l.
Beets and carrots are crushed on a grater. Inflorescences and grated vegetables are placed in a jar, add spices, whole garlic. Water with sugar and salt is brought to a boil. The brine is poured hot in jars, left warm for 3-4 days. After this time, close the capron lid, store in a cool place.
For medicinal purposes
Cauliflower has been used in medical practice due to the following properties:
- promotes tissue regeneration;
- has a positive effect on the digestive tract: it is easily digested and absorbed, does not irritate the mucous membrane;
- strengthens the immune system;
- prevents inflammation on the skin;
- prevents depression, chronic fatigue;
- improves heart function;
- removes cholesterol from the body;
- strengthens the walls of blood vessels.
With insufficient secretion of gastric juice, a cauliflower diet is recommended. For this purpose, it is used boiled. Often vegetables are consumed in order to prevent female oncological diseases. The substance indole-3-carbinol contained in them is involved in the process of estrogen metabolism. They are contraindicated in gout.
Juice is made from cauliflower. It is used for gastritis, diabetes, bronchitis, impaired kidney function, liver disease, gum disease.
Cauliflower should be in every home. She will definitely find application.
Cauliflower has many varieties that differ in leaf shape and head size.The classification of popular varieties by ripening dates (from the appearance of the first seedlings) is presented in the table
Cheddar F1 is an early variety. This is cauliflower with an orange head. It contains a large amount of carotene. The mass of the fetus is from 1 to 2 kg. It is used fresh, frozen.
Purple Beauty is a mid-season species. It has a rich purple color. The weight of a head of cabbage averages 1.5 kg. The shape is round, slightly flattened. Positive characteristic: cold-resistant, immune to diseases, stored for a long time. The popularity of purple cauliflower has increased very much lately.
When all agricultural processes are carried out, cauliflower pleases with a good harvest. You can enjoy fresh vegetables for a long time, if you grow by seedling method. Several varieties are also planted for this purpose.
The time of planting seeds is mid-March under greenhouse conditions. If the seedlings will grow in cold greenhouses – May 15-20. The timing is adjusted in accordance with the climatic conditions of the region.
The timing of flowering and its fertility depend on the observance of the sowing time and proper fertilizer.
It is convenient to use peat pots for seedlings, then Plants without picking are planted in a permanent place.For growing seedlings, heated greenhouses are used, in which a garden bed is prepared. The soil is disinfected, and then saturated with trace elements. For this, 1 square. m make:
- 0.5 kg of humus;
- 70 g of superphosphate;
- 30 g of potassium sulfate.
Use the lower case method of sowing, the distance between the rows is 15-20 cm. The seeds are laid to a depth of 5 mm. They are sprinkled with fine mulch or sand, the soil is slightly moistened. While the seedlings sprout, provide a temperature of 18-20 ° C. Then it is reduced to 5-6 ° C. After 5-6 days, it is again raised to 15 ° C. At such a temperature regime for cauliflower, its organs develop properly.
Pick-up is done after 1-2 weeks. Seedlings must be strong and healthy. To do this, it is fertilized 3-4 times:
- 2 weeks after a pick (50 g of nitrophoska per 10 liters of water is brought under the root);
- in the phase of 1-2 real leaves (1 g of a mixture of molybdenum and boron in 10 l of water, the planting is sprayed with the resulting solution);
- in the phase of 4 real leaves (20 g of nitrophosphate per 10 l of water is applied under the root);
- 10 days after the previous one (50-60 g of nitrophosphate, 2 g of boric acid, manganese sulfate and copper sulphate per 10 l of capacity, this is root top dressing).
The earth is moistened after fertilizing. Watering is carried out as the top layer of the soil dries up. Before planting, the plants are hardened.Seedlings are ready for planting when the cauliflower has a strong root, a straight stem and 5 leaves.
First, prepare in the garden. To do this, in the fall, lime or dolomite flour, mineral fertilizers are added to it, digged. In early spring – wood ash. Culture loves moist, heavy soils. For its cultivation, chernozems or loams are suitable.
It is better if tomatoes, potatoes, onions, cucumbers, beets, and beans were grown on the site before that. Bad predecessors are radish, radish, turnip, rutabaga. Seedlings are planted according to a 50×50 pattern. The hole is fertilized with the following composition: a little humus, 5-7 g of nitrophoska. The roots are dusted with a biostimulator called “Kornevin.” After planting, water: 1 liter of water per plant.
Cauliflower when growing requires some rules. Ensuring optimal conditions contributes to a good harvest.
Watering and loosening
This is a moisture-loving crop. She needs constant hydration. Cabbage c in the first days after planting requires a large amount of water, then watering is done 2 times a week. Adult plants moisturize less often: once every 7-10 days. Both a lack of moisture and its excess are harmful, so they monitor the amount of water introduced.
After each irrigation, the soil is loosened to a depth of 6 cm. At the same time, weeding is carried out. Mulching helps fight weeds. It also helps retain moisture in the ground.
If the cauliflower bloomed quickly and the heads turned dark or yellowed, the sun would damage the plants. Heads of cabbage become loose and unfit for consumption. To prevent this, the upper leaves are tied in a bunch above the head.
An important measure when growing is fertilizing. Culture requires the introduction of the following trace elements: nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus, and also loves boron and molybdenum. With their lack of plants are sick. If there is not enough nitrogen, the upper leaves turn pale green, the lower ones turn blue or red. Phosphorus starvation is manifested by fading leaves. Their color changes from dark green to purple. With a lack of potassium, the leaves turn yellow. In all cases, the growth of the head is delayed.
To provide plants with nutrients, the following top dressing is carried out:
- 2 weeks after planting. Use the following solution: 0.5 l of liquid mullein, 1 tbsp. l full mineral fertilizer, 10 l of water. Consumption – 5 liters per 1 sq. Km. m.
- 7-10 days after the first. The following remedy is used: 30 g of ammonium nitrate, 2 g of potassium chloride, 40 g of superphosphate, 2 g of boric acid, 10 l of water.
- During the formation of heads of cabbage.The following substance is effective: 10 l of mullein solution (1: 8), 30 g of ammonium nitrate, 30 g of superphosphate, 20 g of calcium chloride.
Diseases and pests
Cauliflower is affected by various diseases:
- with mucous bacteriosis;
- black leg;
- viral mosaic .
It is forbidden to use chemicals to combat them. You still can not cook infusions from poisonous plants. Biofungicides are used against fungi: “Haupsin”, “Fitosporin”, “Alirin-B”, “Gamair”, “Planriz”, “Trichodermin”, “Hypokladin”, “Binoram”, “Trichopol”. They do not harm human health. In order for the drugs to give an effective result, they must be used regularly. The first treatment is carried out in the spring and repeated every 10-12 days until the crop is harvested.
Cauliflower also suffers from the invasion of pests:
- cabbage whites;
- cabbage flies;
Slugs and snails are very dangerous. To fight them, produce dusting with wood ash. It is sprinkled with earth under plants and in row-spacings. Bioinsecticides are used to control other pests. The following drugs are effective: “Bitoxibacillin”, “Bicol”, “Boverin”, “Verticillin.
Cauliflower dishes are very tasty and healthy, so they should be in the diet of every person. The vegetable also has a beneficial effect on health.
To always have cauliflower on the table, you must make every effort: the culture is capricious. It requires compliance with all the rules of cultivation and care.