Sweet pepper is a favorite culture of many summer residents. It is valued for its excellent taste, useful properties (the content of vitamin C is higher than in blackcurrant and lemon). Sweet and bitter (spicy) varieties of peppers differ in the content of a special alkaloid – capsaicin. Consider growing pepper in the open.
- Plant seedlings
- Sowing seeds
- Seedling care
- Planting in open ground
- Preparation of the place and soil
- Planting seedlings
- Feeding <
- Other recommendations
- Diseases and pests
- Conclusion <
We plant seedlings
Bulgarian pe Retz is a heat-loving culture that requires care. Let’s figure out what secrets you need to know to ensure optimal conditions for its growth and development.
Seed preparation options:
- seeds for 20 minutesplaced in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate, then soaked for 2-3 days in water;
- spend bubbling: maintain the seed in water saturated with oxygen (for example, using an aquarium compressor); 2 boxes of wood ash are added to the water, you can also use scarlet juice (an excellent growth stimulator);
- seeds are quenched: they are placed for 2 days in a refrigerator at a temperature of 2-5 ° C, then for a day in a room temperature, after – another 2 days are kept in the cold and immediately sown.
The composition of the land for seedlings is identical to the soil for growing tomatoes: a mixture of turf land, humus and sand. Before sowing, the soil in the tray is watered with settled or melt water. Seeds are planted to a depth of 1 cm. The distance in the row is 2 cm, between the rows is 3-4 cm.
The container is covered with glass or film and left in a warm place for seed germination. The optimum temperature is 25-27 ° C (at 15 ° C they may not rise at all).
Sprouts appear 6-10 days after sowing (sparged seeds may sprout earlier). The root system of peppers is fibrous, located in the upper soil layer, therefore it is very sensitive to lack of moisture. Watering should be frequent enough so that the land does not dry out. At the same time, it is necessary to ensure that the water does not stagnate.
Seedlings love sunlight, but in the middle of the day it is better to shade it.On windows oriented to the north, seedlings grow worse, so it is better to choose southern or western.
Before planting, plants are fed twice with complex fertilizer. The first top dressing is carried out after the appearance of 2 real sheets. You can feed the seedlings with fertilizers for home flowers (2 teaspoons per 5 liters of water).
Planting in open ground
Growing bell peppers in open ground in warm climates gives excellent results. In the southern latitudes, the necessary conditions can be created without shelter.
Preparation of the place and soil
The best place for pepper is well-lit by the sun, a bed protected from the wind. If the site does not have natural protection (nearby buildings, dense shrubs), a wind-shelter structure is done specially. It is not recommended to plant seedlings in the beds where pepper or other nightshade were grown in the previous year.
The soil should be fertile, loose. It is prepared after harvesting the previous year. Be sure to remove plant residues and when digging for 1 square. m make:
- rotted manure or humus (5-10 kg);
- wood ash (50-80 g);
- superphosphate (30- 50 g).
Fresh manure cannot be used. An excess of nitrogen contributes to an excessive build-up of green mass, fragility of plants.
With spring cultivation, you can replenish the reserves of phosphorus, potassium (30-40 g per 1 sq. M) and nitrogen (20-30 g per 1 sq. M ).
7-10 days before the proposed planting seedlings begin to harden. To do this, they take it out onto the street (a place without drafts). First leave for an hour, time is gradually increased. This procedure helps to increase the immunity of plants to various diseases, provides faster adaptation in a new place.
The optimum soil temperature for planting pepper is 18 ° C and above. Usually this is mid-May (depending on the terrain and weather, the necessary conditions may develop a little earlier or later). At this point, 8-12 leaves (60-65 days) should form on the bush. On the eve of transplanting, seedlings are abundantly watered.
The bushes branch well, they need enough space for free development. The distance in the row should be 30-45 cm, between the rows – 50-60 cm. You can plant seedlings in a square-nesting way: 60 x 60 cm – 2 plants per hole, 70 x 70 cm – 3.
The roots of the plant are located in the upper soil layer, and when the fruit ripens, the bush may not withstand the load and fall, so when planting next to the plant, stick a peg more than half a meter high.
To grow a good pepper crop in the open field, you need to provide the crop with proper agricultural technology.
The culture is very moisture-loving. The lack of moisture is indicated by dropping leaves. This is a signal for immediate abundant watering. The amount of water must be such that it penetrates at least 15 cm in depth.
The first watering should be done 5 days after transplanting. Further – according to the state of the soil. Water should not be cold, otherwise pepper will stop growing. The use of magnetized water gives a good effect (the use of a special nozzle for a hose or an ordinary magnet in a watering can). Irrigation rules are traditional for nightshade crops: water under the root, without falling on leaves, in the evening or morning hours.
During the growing season, bell peppers are fed 2- 3 times. The preference is given to phosphorus-potash fertilizers, nitrogen is used less often. Top dressing can be root and extra root. Root and extra root recommend alternating. Good results are obtained by applying chicken root under the root.
When sprinkling nutrients on a leaf, their absorption is much faster.What foliar top dressing can be done:
- with growth retardation – with urea (2 teaspoons per 5 liters of water);
- when shedding flowers – with boric acid (1 g per 1 l of hot water, cool before use);
- with a weak filling of the fruit – superphosphate (2% solution).
Gardeners also use organics. Mowed grass, weeds are poured with water and insisted for a week, stirring occasionally, then filtered and diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10.
Such top dressing should be carried out correctly in the evening or in cloudy, calm weather, so that the nutrient moisture dries more slowly and better assimilated. Spray the entire surface of the bush, not excluding the lower part of the leaf plate, which absorbs much better.
Foliar top dressing can be combined with the treatment of diseases or pests. In this case, you must strictly adhere to the dosage (usually it is higher than for application under the root), because the tops can be burned.
Disadvantages of root dressing
- low soil temperature does not allow the roots effectively assimilate the necessary substances);
- acidified, dense soils (nitrogen and other substances are absorbed very poorly);
- the need for additional nutrition when transplanting seedlings, rapid growth and abundant flowering.
Caring for peppers in open ground requires following some important rules:
- to protect your plantings from temperature differences at the beginning of summer, you can cover the pepper with a film stretched on wire arches of a meter height; in early planting, it is worth sheltering with a double layer of film;
- the need for culture in aerated soils makes it necessary to periodically loosen the beds; an alternative is mulching with straw, sawdust or planting bushes in a black film slot spread out on a bed;
- to stimulate the formation of ovaries on hot summer days, the bush is slightly shaken for self-pollination (it is undesirable to manually transfer pollen from a flower to a flower, because it can damage the stigma, and the ovary does not form);
- gardeners practice pinching the central stem and pinching the bushes to ensure the ripening of good quality fruits (leaving 4-5 side shoots).
Sweet pepper in slipped over away from sharp. As a result of pollination, the species qualities of each change.
Diseases and pests
As a rule, bell pepper is less sick than other nightshade, for example, tomatoes. Of the diseases, rot, wilting, and bacteriosis are most often found. These diseases are easier to prevent by observing crop rotation, destroying plant debris in the fall and etching the soil before planting in the new season.In case of diseases, fungicides, biological products (trichodermin, phytosporin and others) are used.
The main pests of the culture are whiteflies, dustpan, aphids, thrips.
In addition to insecticides, folk remedies are used to combat: an aqueous solution of wood ash (a glass on a bucket of water); chopped onions or garlic (200-250 g per bucket). The mixture is insisted for at least 24 hours; for better adhesion, add soap. When growing sweet pepper in sheltered soil, it is advisable to use biological remedies.
The cultivation of sweet pepper in open ground requires the observance of the rules of agricultural technology. to feed, feed in time to plant bushes and collect fruits, provide them with quality care.