Growing tomatoes in a greenhouse

Growing tomatoes in a greenhouse

Many people mistakenly think that growing tomatoes in a greenhouse is easier than in open ground. To collect good harvests of tomatoes grown in the greenhouse, you need to adhere to a number of rules. But if everything is done correctly, in the closed ground the same variety will yield 2 times more yield than in the open.

Content
  1. Varieties of indoor structures
  2. Selection of planting material
  3. Growing stages
  4. Preparation of the greenhouse
  5. Planting seedlings
  6. Seedling care
  7. Garter <
  8. Formation
  9. Fertilizing
  10. Growing tomatoes in a heated greenhouse
  11. Prevention and treatment
  12. Diseases
  13. Pests
  14. Other growing problems
  15. Conclusion <

Tatyana Orlova (candidate of agricultural sciences):

Growing vegetables in a greenhouse is more costly and difficult than vegetable growing in open ground. You should not even mention the cost of the greenhouse itself! Factors complicating the work include the fact that in an indoor environment the infection or pest spreads much faster.

Выращивание томатов в теплице

Growing tomatoes in the greenhouse

Varieties of indoor structures

Regarding design features awns, are arch-greenhouses and greenhouse-houses. Each design has its own advantages and disadvantages.The design of the arched type of sunlight throughout the day more. And since tomatoes are a light-loving vegetable crop, experts recommend giving preference to arched designs.

Before moving on to describing the process of growing tomatoes in a greenhouse, let us say that greenhouses can be made of different materials. Most often, structures are made of film or polycarbonate. The easiest way is to arrange the appropriate conditions for tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse. If we are talking about film coatings, it is recommended to lay 2 layers of the film, leaving a distance of 3-5 cm between them. After the air temperature rises to 18-20 ° C and the threat of frost passes, one layer of the film is removed.

Choice of planting material

To grow tomatoes in a greenhouse from a film or polycarbonate to give the desired result, you need to choose the right variety of vegetable culture. Since there is no access to enclosed insects pollinating plants, preference should be given to self-pollinating hybrids.

Also, before buying seeds, you should pay attention to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Today there are many varieties designed for indoor cultivation. Hybrid varieties “Eupator”, “Palenka”, “La-la-fa”, “Gift”, “Cherry”, “Aksinya”, “Flamenco” showed themselves well.

Pay attention to the height of the bush. If there is little space in the greenhouse, give preference to short or medium-sized plants.If the height of the greenhouse is 1.5-2 m, tall bushes can be grown.

Tatyana Orlova (candidate of agricultural sciences):

As a rule, only tall (indeterminate) tomato varieties are grown in greenhouses. This is done in order to use not only the area, but also the entire volume of protected soil. Even if vegetables are not grown for sale, but for personal consumption, you always want the cost of installing a greenhouse to quickly pay for itself. Therefore, varieties for protected ground are selected of an intensive type, with a potentially high yield and an extended harvesting period. These requirements are met not by varieties, but by modern F1 tomato hybrids.

Growing stages

Tomato cultivation in a greenhouse can be divided into 5 stages:

  • preparing the greenhouse;
  • preparing the soil;
  • preparing the seedlings for planting;
  • planting the seedlings;
  • caring for plants.

Each of the steps is important, therefore we will consider them separately.

Preparing the greenhouse

Since planting seedlings for the greenhouse it is made early enough, the preparation of a covered structure begins to fall . So that the tomatoes in the greenhouse grow healthy and strong, it is constantly aired. In the greenhouse for this should be windows.An important point is the location of the windows. Do not place them on one side of the structure. You should also provide for the presence of 2-3 window leaves in the roof of the greenhouse. When organizing the ventilation system, it is necessary to ensure that the plants are not in a draft, which negatively affects the yield of the vegetable crop.

The structure must be disinfected. If there is mold in the polycarbonate indoor, they must be removed before planting seedlings.

Tatyana Orlova (candidate of agricultural sciences):

In the conditions of protected of soil there is a rapid accumulation of pathogenic microflora and pests, for which there are simply greenhouse conditions. Therefore, the annual disinfection of the greenhouse premises is the key to the health of your plants and a good harvest. One of the quickest ways to disinfect a greenhouse is using sulfuric drafts. Before this, the greenhouse is cleaned of plant debris, the block is lit, and the greenhouse is tightly closed.

Soil preparation

If last year the plants were massively susceptible to any disease, it is advisable to remove the topsoil (10-12 cm), which contains bacteria and fungal spores.

Tomatoes cannot be grown every year in the same place.If there are several greenhouses on the plot, it is advisable not to plant crops susceptible to the same diseases for 2 years in a row in the same indoor area. If this is not possible, the place of planting of garden crops is changed annually.

Disinfection of the soil and fertilizing

Томаты высаживают в подготовленную почву

Tomatoes are planted in prepared soil

You can also disinfect the soil in the fall, but experts recommend doing this in the spring.

Use a warm solution to disinfect the soil copper sulfate (10 liters is enough 1 tbsp. l. powder). An alternative to copper sulphate are storefront products. The soil is disinfected 10-12 days before the planting of mature bushes.

A few days after disinfection of the soil, weeds are removed and fertilizers are applied. In fertile soils, it is enough to add 2-3 kg of humus per 1 sq. Km. m. If the soils are poor, the humus rate is increased 2 times and 200–250 g of charcoal is additionally added.

Tatyana Orlova (candidate of agricultural sciences):

The use of phytosporin, available in the form of brown paste, gives a good effect on soil disinfection. This tool not only eliminates the causative agents of a number of diseases, but also improves the microflora of the soil.

Beds for seedlings

It remains to make beds. Planting pattern varies, depending on the variety of tomatoes. If we talk about the standard scheme, then between plants should be 40-60 cm of space. The row spacing is 50 cm. The correct planting scheme for a particular variety is indicated on the package with seeds. It is also worth taking into account the availability of free space in the greenhouse.

Arrange the beds so that each bush has free access. Immediately think about the layout of the trellis or other support. The depth of the holes is 20 cm for low and medium tall varieties and 30 cm for tall tomato varieties.

Proper soil preparation involves breaking it into beds 7-10 days before transplanting. When growing tomatoes in a polycarbonate or film greenhouse, seedlings are planted after May 6th. At this time, the earth is still not warm enough. If you make beds in advance, the soil warms up faster. You can still pour hot water into the wells 1-2 days before the seedlings are planted.

Preparing seedlings for planting

Regardless of whether tomatoes are grown in a polycarbonate or film greenhouse, the seedlings are tempered .

For hardening 14 days before planting, the seedlings are taken out to the street, leaving there for no more than 2-3 hours. Gradually increase the time to 4-6 hours. If the air temperature outside exceeds 10 ° C, the windows are left open at night.

6 days before planting, the plant is treated for pests and diseases. It is possible to treat with a weakly concentrated boric acid solution. 2-3 days before planting, 2-3 lower leaves are cut off in the ground. This is done so that the bush quickly takes root in a new place. Removing the lower leaf blades also contributes to the rapid formation of the ovary.

Only plants with a well-developed root system and a thick stem have formed.

Planting seedlings

Tomatoes should be planted in a polycarbonate or film greenhouse either in the evening or on a cloudy day. Pre-made in advance wells are poured with warm water. Seedlings are transplanted with a root lump of earth. Damaged leaves are removed before planting.

It is not recommended to add fertilizer to the wells. Excessive amounts of minerals, especially nitrogen, lead to the formation of lush tops and thick stalks, and an excess of fertilizers negatively affects crop yields.

The plants laid in the wells are covered with soil. Plants are not watered immediately after planting in the ground. For 6-10 days, the plants do not feel a lack of moisture. During this time, the bushes take root in a new place and adapt to the climatic conditions of the greenhouse.

After planting, each plant is inspected. All leaf plates touching the soil are removed. It is better to remove the leaves in the morning.

Only plants with a height of at least 25 cm are transplanted.

Planting overgrown seedlings

Корень не следует заглублять

The root should not be deepened

When planting an overgrown root, they are in no hurry to deepen the root: this is negative affects the development of the bush. In the prepared hole, they dig an additional hole, the height of which corresponds to the height of the basal earthen coma. The overgrown bush is placed in the hole and only a new one is buried, the old one is left open. After 10-12 days, provided that the seedlings have taken root, the old hole is buried.

Seedling Care

To harvest a good crop, it is important to properly care for the plantings.

Watering

Tomatoes in a greenhouse are watered with water, the temperature of which varies from 20 ° C to 22 ° C. At different stages of growth, a vegetable crop requires a different amount of moisture. So, for example, flowering plants feel the greatest need for water. Watering during this period is carried out at least 2 times in 8 days. In this case, for 1 square. m of the territory requires at least 10 liters of fluid. During the period of growth, the number of irrigations remains the same, but per 1 sq. Km. 5 liters of water is enough. After the formation of fruits, the plant needs a minimum amount of moisture. If the summer is rainy, you can completely refuse watering. If there is natural rainfall, it is enough to water the bushes every 7 days.

Plants are watered under the root. When watering the entire bush, the likelihood of late blight increases. It is recommended to water the vegetable crop in the morning. In the evening, condensation forms in closed structures, which accumulates on fruits and leaf blades, which leads to the appearance of fungal diseases.

Airing and temperature conditions

When growing tomatoes in a greenhouse, carefully monitor the temperature regime and humidity level. The windows open for ventilation at least 2 times every day. In warm weather, you can not close them during the day. If the outdoor temperature is below 18 ° C, the windows should be closed after 30-40 minutes. To avoid condensation, it is imperative to ventilate indoor structures 1.5-2 hours after watering the plants.

Especially carefully you need to ventilate the premises during the flowering of a vegetable crop. Wet pollen does not fall into the pestle. Inadequate ventilation of a polycarbonate or film greenhouse does not cause pollination of flowers and, accordingly, does not form an ovary.

Care of tomatoes in the greenhouses requires compliance with the temperature regime. In sunlight, the air temperature should vary between 24-26 ° C, and in cloudy – 18-20 ° C. The night temperature should be 16 ° C. Deviations of 1-2 ° are allowed.

Garter

Caring for tomatoes in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate or film involves gartering the bushes. All varieties, except undersized ones, need a garter, but if a large number of fruits have formed on the undersized bush, it is also recommended to tie them up. You can use any improvised means or supports made of wood or metal at home.

For medium-tall and tall varieties, it is best to build a trellis that does not take up much space on the bed. It is not difficult to build it with your own hands: we install vertical supports at the ends of the beds, lay a horizontal support between them, from which ropes go down to each bush, selects soft material for the garter, which will not cause mechanical damage to plants.

Formation

Regardless of whether we grow tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse or in open ground, they need to be formed.Only some standard varieties of tomatoes do not need to be formed. As for the formation of bushes, then a single scheme does not exist. Depending on the variety, it is possible to form bushes in one or more stems. On the packaging with seeds there are recommendations that relate to the formation of bushes.

Tall varieties of tomatoes for greenhouses usually form in 2 stems. The first time the stepsons are removed, after the seedlings take root in a new place (12-16 days). Leave the strongest stepson. After 11 days, stepsons are repeatedly removed at a distance of 7 cm from the stem, leaving the one closest to the first flower brush, but located below it. All side stepsons that extend away from the stems are removed in the future. Each stalk should have no more than 4 flower brushes. If you do not remove the extra flower brushes, the fruits will be small.

Carefully remove excess shoots. It is advisable to use a sharp garden tool.

Fertilizing

Растения нуждаются в подкормке

Plants need to be fed

Growing tomatoes in a film greenhouse or from polycarbonate involves fertilizing the soil. How much fertilizing to do, the farmer must decide, but experts recommend feeding vegetable crops 4 times per season. The disadvantage, as well as an excess of fertilizers, equally negatively affects productivity.

Scheme of fertilizer application

  • The first time fertilizer is applied already 3 weeks after planting. In this case, nitrophos and mullein are used. To prepare 10 l of the nutrient mixture take 500 ml of mullein and 1 tbsp. l nitrofoski. 1 liter of the mixture is poured under each bush.
  • The second time the plants are fed after 9 days. To prepare 10 l of the nutritional composition take 1 tsp. potassium sulfate and 4 tsp. complex fertilizer. The resulting mixture is made at the rate of 5 liters per 3-4 plants.
  • The following dressing is performed after 11-13 days. Fertilizer is prepared from 1 tbsp. l superphosphate and 2 tbsp. l wood ash, which is bred in 10 liters of water. At least 6 liters of the nutrient mixture are poured onto 3-4 plants.
  • In order to harvest a good crop when growing tomatoes in the greenhouse, the fourth top dressing is done when the tomatoes bear fruit. To prepare 10 l of the nutrient mixture take 1 tbsp. l sodium humate, 2 tbsp. l superphosphate. 3-4 shrubs should have 5 l of fertilizer.

Growing tomatoes in a heated greenhouse

In a heated design, tomatoes can be grown all year round. After harvesting, you should give the earth a little rest. Do not forget about fertilizing the soil. The best option is siderates. They enrich the soil better than any other organic fertilizer.

It is important to properly position the heated greenhouse in the area.In winter, light days are short, so the structure is placed so that it is lit as much as possible by the sun. Here you can not do without additional lighting. Lamps are placed evenly throughout the greenhouse, otherwise not all tomatoes will receive the right amount of light, which will negatively affect their growth and development.

Since it is difficult to evenly heat large rooms, the size of heated greenhouses should be small. It is better to build several structures of small sizes on the site than one large.

Before sowing the seeds, the profitability of this event is calculated. In cold winter, a lot of money is spent on heating the structure. The cost price of tomatoes will ultimately be much higher than the market.

Prevention and treatment

Greenhouse plants are sometimes affected by disease and pest attacks.

Diseases

Greenhouse plants undergo the same diseases as tomatoes growing in open ground. Most often, fungal diseases are manifested. This is due to the fact that they develop well in a humid environment, so it is very important to monitor the level of humidity and timely ventilate the indoor structure, especially if the weather is hot outside. When growing tomatoes in heated structures, ventilation should be carried out even in winter. True, at this time of the year the room should be aired for no more than 15-20 minutes.If the weather is warm in winter, you can ventilate the room for 40 minutes.

Do not forget about the preventive treatment of tomatoes from the most common diseases. Also, preventive measures include weeding of beds. Neighborhood of tomatoes with weeds under attack by powdery mildew, mosaics and other fungal diseases is unacceptable.

Pests

Осматривайте растения

Inspect plants

Some pests attack tomatoes during the flowering period, some during the fruiting period. A spider mite, for example, can even attack recently planted seedlings, so plants need to be constantly examined.

Ants are also dangerous pests. They do not harm tomato bushes, but they attract aphids to beds. Getting rid of ants is sometimes quite difficult: you can use store-bought products, or you can independently prepare products from sugar, boric acid, honey and water. It is best to put such treats in the caps from under plastic bottles.

Other problems when growing

Tomatoes must be grown in a greenhouse, observing all agricultural standards. For example, if a vegetable crop is not timely spudded, its root system will be located close to the surface of the earth. And this will negatively affect productivity.Consider some of the problems that a gardener may encounter when growing tomatoes in a greenhouse.

Falling flowers

Not always an ovary forms on the bushes at the end of the flowering period. Flowers fall for several reasons. For example, pollination of inflorescences may not occur due to increased humidity.

Not all hybrids are self-pollinated. If tomatoes are not self-pollinated, it is necessary to ensure the presence of insects pollinated by vegetable crops. You can also pollinate tomatoes yourself. To do this, you need a brush with a soft pile. With a brush, pollen is carefully transferred from the stamens to the pistils. Also, the cause of flowers falling may be waterlogging or an excess of nitrogen.

Tatyana Orlova (candidate of agricultural sciences):

One of the common causes of falling flowers and the ovary is the heat in the greenhouse at this time. The optimum temperature for the growth and development of tomato is + 22-27 degrees. At temperatures above +30 degrees, the pollen in the flowers becomes sterile, i.e. not capable of pollination. Un dusted flowers fall. If the temperature rises even higher to +35 degrees, the ovary will begin to crumble already.

Leaf wilting

Often the cause of leaf wilting is fungal and bacterial diseases.If the plant is healthy, leaf wilting occurs due to lack or excess of moisture.

During fruiting, the fruits wither along with the leaves. If you don’t take action in a timely manner, you can lose a few kilograms of the crop.

Weak ovary formation

All varietal tomatoes are high-yielding, so a weak ovary formation indicates problems. Most often, the ovary does not form when the tomatoes overheat. In June and July, namely during this period, mid-ripening and late-ripening varieties bloom, they monitor the temperature regime in the indoor structure.

Weak ovary formation can be caused by insufficient lighting or inadequate watering. With excess moisture, the root system rots, which leads to the absence of ovaries. With a deficiency, the plant begins to dry.

The last reason for the lack of ovary is overfeeding the plants with fertilizers. Even if you managed to grow bushes with a thick stem and large leaves, this does not mean that the plant is healthy. Flowers on such bushes, if they appear, are in small quantities.

Weak fruit development on the second flower brush

If the first brush gave a good harvest, the fruits are poured very slowly on the second brush, which means the plant not enough strength. You can save the situation by picking the crop from the first flower brush in the phase of technical maturity. On the windowsill, such fruits ripen in a few days.

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Anna Evans

Author ✓ Farmer

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