Horse breeding has many nuances. Proper care of proud handsome men requires a lot of effort, certain knowledge. Breeding horses at home is inconceivable without financial injections, with a small one.
- General information
- Methods of crossbreeding
- How to feed a mare
- Cleaning and horseshoeing
- How to make money on a horse farm
Horse breeding involves the collection of pedigree credentials. The collection of information makes it possible to breed chi tokrovnyh horses were selected and new breeds, keep track of the genotype. The original purpose of organizing data is to select a pair to play healthy offspring and the preservation of the purity of the breed.
If you choose the right species for reproduction, it is possible to improve the existing indicators. Breeding horses, taking all the data into account, is the most correct, excludes incest and breed degeneration.
When selecting breeding horses, these indicators are guided by:
- genetic data;
- heredity ;
The first thing you should pay attention to is the mass of the animal, its exterior, ability to work, and endurance.Correct selection is based on careful selection of parental individuals capable of giving healthy offspring. Heterogeneous and homogeneous selection of male and female by suit is distinguished. The first method involves the selection of a pair in which one of the individuals does not have useful signs. As a result of breeding, the foals get the genotype of the parental individual with useful qualities.
Uniform selection consists in choosing 2 individuals with pronounced useful qualities. Such selections based on playfulness indicators are based. Both types are equally effective at improving quality within the tribe.
Cross breeding methods
Horse breeding involves breeding in several ways:
- with a breeding;
The first 2 methods involve mating inside the herd. The brewing method takes place in a corral. The breeding stallion is left in the camp with 7 mares. The male independently selects a partner for mating. The kosyachny method is distinguished by the number of females in the herd.
With the manual method, sexual hunting is detected in the desired female individual and mating with the breeding stallion is carried out in a specially designated place. Before mating, the genitals of both individuals are thoroughly washed with warm water, the mare’s tail is lifted and tied up. In order to protect the male, the horseshoes are removed from the hind limbs of the female. The fact that insemination occurred can be found by the tail of the male: it will move from top to bottom.
Another breeding method involves artificial insemination, which gives 100% results. The technique of insemination involves collecting the sperm of the best male and freezing it in liquid nitrogen. This method is much more effective than all of the above. Before introducing sperm into the uterus, it should be diluted. About 500 females can be fertilized with the seminal fluid of one male in a season. This method protects horses from sexually transmitted infections.
If the mating is successful, the horse does not allow stallions. The main signs of a horse’s pregnancy are:
- increased appetite;
Already in the first 20 days after mating, pregnancy can be determined by rectal method. Through the rectum, an examination of the uterus is performed. She is in good shape and begins to change shape. A horse has a foal for 11 months. The mare needs more thorough care throughout the entire period of pregnancy. The main thing is to provide the horse with balanced food. The key to a horse’s well-being is optimal physical activity.
It is very important to monitor the hygiene of the stable. Care after pregnancy is also a very important stage. During this period, a tendency to obesity is manifested, therefore it is important to control nutrition and ensure sufficient walking.
How to feed the mare
In the stall period, give the horse 6 -7 kg of carrots.This root crop is the main source of useful minerals necessary for the normal development of the fetus and maintaining the health of the mother. Sprouted grain enriched with vitamins A, B, E is also introduced into the diet. Vitamin supplementation is gradually introduced into the diet
During the foal, the animal’s body loses calcium and phosphorus. If the mother does not receive any minerals, she begins to eat land, feces, sand or lick the walls. At the last stage of pregnancy, mineral supplements should be calculated for every 100 kg of weight:
- calcium 17 g;
- phosphorus 7 g;
- carotene from 25 to 35 mg.
The source of the protein is legume hay. However, at the last stage of the draw, it should be excluded, as well as roughage. The uterus is fed four times a day. When grazing, it is unacceptable to graze mares on a dew-covered pasture.
Before giving birth, the mare is transferred to a separate pen. The stable should be clean and spacious so that the animal can freely turn and lie down in it. On the day the pregnancy is allowed, the uterus becomes a little restless, walks along the stall more than usual, tends to go away from the herd.
Most often, the foal occurs at night. For the most part, childbirth in horses is quick and does not require human intervention.Nevertheless, there is a risk group, which includes:
- history of pathological birth;
- previous miscarriages;
- in the past, offspring were born with genetic pathologies.
It was recommended to conduct an examination of the foals, which includes examination of the condition of the uterus, ultrasound, blood and urine tests. Such manipulations help to identify pathologies of fetal development in the early stages. Before birth, milk oozes from the udder. If the timing is still far from a foal, and milk oozes for several days, you should contact your veterinarian.
Childbirth usually lasts from 15 to 45 minutes. An hour after permission from pregnancy, the mare should have free access to water and hay. A foal is applied to the breast no later than 2 hours after birth. At this moment, the foal can already stand on its feet. If the baby does not eat and does not get up, you will have to put a nasal probe for artificial feeding.
Caring for the foal – very important process. It is important to monitor weight gain. The daily norm for riding horses is 500-900 g. It is very important to provide proper care to the mother.During this period, the body recovers.
Attention should be paid to appetite, body temperature and physical condition. Excretions from the genitals should stop within three days, otherwise you should contact your veterinarian. The exercise helps the body recover.
The basis of foal’s nutrition in the first 60 days is mother’s milk. At the age of 1.5 months, babies begin to gradually accustom to combined feeds. At the same time, coarse feed is introduced into the diet. As early as 2 months the foal should eat 1 kg of hay.
Features of the horses include the equipment of a separate room. The stable must meet the following requirements:
- optimal temperature, no drafts;
- large area;
- thermal insulation.
The walls and roof of the stables must be insulated. The flooring is made of a material that does not absorb moisture. Litter of hay or sawdust is laid on the floor. Room hygiene plays an important role, so the litter should be changed regularly.
The walls are made of brick and sheathed with plywood. The floor is best made from expanded clay concrete. Such a coating is the most optimal option. Such floors are quite warm and the cost will not hit hard on the wallet.
Cleaning and horseshoeing
Breeding horses at home involves cleaning, bathing and horseshoeing. Wash an adult horse once every 7 days.To do this, you need a brush, scraper and comb for combing the mane. Too often, horses should not be washed, otherwise a skin disease may develop.
After bathing, the hair is rinsed and wiped dry. Horseshoeing is carried out if the animal is involved in hard work or is used for competitions. Shoe front or rear hooves. Sometimes 4 horses are trained.
How to make money on a horse farm
Breeding horses is quite an expensive experience. This will require a large starting infusion. Business is most often not opened by beginners in this area. Today horse breeding is in the revival stage. To cope with the crisis of past years, only the most persistent and successful enterprises with an established scheme of sales and the provision of various services were able to.
At the initial stage of development, such a business will not be able to make a profit. For the most part, people interested in conservation of breeds, and not in economic development, are engaged in such matters. Most often, these farms specialize in horse riding training and organizing all kinds of events involving horses. A profitable branch of development is hippotherapy.
At this time, breeding horses at home is quite expensive. In addition to large financial investments, animal care is a painstaking and complex process.Horse breeding includes breeding work, for the implementation of which it is necessary to systematize and record data on pedigrees and genotypes of the entire livestock.
Information collection helps to choose the right breeding individuals to improve the quality of offspring. A horse farm can make money. In order for your interest in horses to be profitable, you should study the market for services, really assess your capabilities and competitiveness. Breeding beautiful horses is an ideal solution for many people.