The pig farm and its arrangement are painstaking work. The profitability of the pig farm will depend entirely on the efforts and skills of the breeder. In order for pigs to bring real income, they need to create optimal conditions and ensure proper care. To date, opening a farm for pigs is a profitable investment that quickly pays for itself and allows you to get good money with minimal energy consumption.Pig farm for 50 pigs – is it a feasible task for independent implementation?
- Where to start
- Building requirements
- Choice of area for construction
- How to calculate the parameters
- From which to build a stable
- Ventilation <
- Heating systems and plumbing
- Final part
Where to start
How to open a mini pig farm? Any business begins with preparation, planning, calculations, market research and an adequate assessment of its competitiveness. Part of the pig farm’s business plan includes an analysis of financial and physical capabilities. At first, difficulties arise with an adequate assessment of one’s position and capabilities. Many overestimate their strength and ultimately fail. It’s necessary to calculate everything to the smallest detail.
The pig farm’s business plan includes a building project, which depicts the entire internal structure, down to feeders and drinking bowls. Creating a pig farm from scratch will have to devote a lot of time and effort. The case requires significant investment in the first stage.Initially, you should find a suitable plot of land, then purchase equipment and build a room.
When buying a land plot, it is important to remember that pig farms cannot be created within the city, so you need to purchase land outside it. The distance from the farm to residential buildings should not be less than 15 m. The area of the building will depend on the number of livestock. Pig farms up to 50-100 heads require the use of an area of 250 squares or more.
The construction of a pig farm must take place according to a specific plan, subject to all requirements. Regardless of whether you are going to build a mini-pig farm or a whole pig farm, the requirements will be the same for everyone:
- strong flooring so that pigs cannot dig and get out;
- the internal area should be divided into several functional parts for heterosexual individuals, sows and young animals;
- arrangement of a good ventilation system;
- pig farms for 100 animals must be equipped with heating devices;
- daylight natural illumination it’s possible due to the planning of window openings, artificial – at night;
- a fenced paddock for walking, always with a canopy.
About 60 meters from the pig farm manure storage. It is this distance that is determined by sanitary standards.In the future, manure can also be sold as fertilizer to nearby farms.
Choice of area for construction
Considering all the above requirements, the territory is looked after at a small height. It is advisable to choose a windproof area. The area should allow not only to build the building, but also to organize walking areas.
The owner of the pig farm must take into account the fact that his farm should be located away from residential buildings, not closer than 15 m. winds and slope. This item assumes the prevention of the spread of unpleasant odors in the surrounding area, as well as the contamination of drinking water during runoff with feces. For large pig farms, a prerequisite is the presence of a water supply system on the site.
How to calculate the parameters
Creating a farm for pigs will have to devote a lot of time and make a lot of effort in order to work the economy was profitable. The construction process begins with drawings and calculations. They can be done independently, using training materials and videos, or you can contact a specialist and order a drawing from him.
The area of the room and its internal arrangement will depend on the number of goals. The calculation is based on the fact that there are 10 females for one male, therefore, 10 boars will be needed per 100 queens.The work of the farm normally provides a minimum of 2 farrowing per year. Under good conditions and depending on the pedigree data, the female can bring an average of 12 piglets.
Ultimately we have 10 boars, 100 females, 2400 piglets, a total of 2510 individuals. Depending on this, the entire room is divided into machines. The dimensions of the machines will also be determined, depending on the number of individuals living in them:
- for one feeding piglet, 1 square. m;
- 8 square meters are allocated per pair of breeding boars m;
- on the uterus with suckling pigs, it is necessary to allocate up to 10 square meters. m;
- for one pregnant uterus, 6 square meters will be required. m.
Based on these data, they calculate the area of the entire room, which is divided into functional machines for keeping individuals of different ages separately. This is necessary in order to avoid the general case of infection, as well as to reduce aggression in the herd. The depth of the machine, regardless of size, is about 3 m. Do not forget that between the machines you need to equip corridors for ease of movement.
From which to build a crib
The next stage of organization pig farms – preparation of materials for construction, as well as the purchase of equipment. For work with filling the foundation, sand and cement will be required. Waterproofing is often done with roofing material. The inner side of the walls is most often insulated with plywood. Outside, plywood sheets are also laid, and mineral wool is laid inside.
The roof is insulated in the same way. To equip the roof, slate is required. Modern technology also involves the construction of modular buildings under a stable. However, their price will be much higher, and for their construction it will be necessary to hire specialists, which will also cost a pretty penny.
One of the important points is laying the floor. This nuance should be resolved at the planning stage. Many breeders make the floor solid, however, according to the technology, it will correctly execute the floor from wooden logs, leaving gaps between them. Appropriate equipment will be needed to complete all the pigsty arrangements.
Dry litter of hay, straw or sawdust is laid on the floor. It is very important to monitor the cleanliness of the litter. Manure removal is the primary concern in raising livestock. At many large enterprises automation of cleaning of the room is provided. An automated pork farm is located in the Volgograd region of the Russian Federation. Focusing on it, many breeders also began to adopt useful ideas for automating their production.
Not so long ago, the technology of raising pigs on a fermentation bed came to us from the East. This method allows you to save a lot of time cleaning the room and effectively remove the smell. The essence of the method is that on the sanitized slit floor, put any biomaterial and pour it with a substance with coprophages.These are bacteria that live by processing feces and urine. All the charm is that such a litter can remain suitable for up to 4 years.
Installation of ventilation is another important point in the organization of a typical pig farm. A ventilation system is needed to control and stabilize the microclimate in the room.If air exchange is insufficient, ammonia vapor will begin to accumulate in the room, which can lead to poisoning of most pigs.
You can build any ventilation system yourself, or you can buy it in a store if you don’t want to dirty your hands again. In the rubrics of buying and selling, you can quite cheaply buy used air conditioning with climate control. In large buildings, it is necessary to equip a forced ventilation system.
Before making ventilation moves, you need to check if there are drafts in the room. It should be borne in mind that in the summer period, much more air should enter the room than in the winter. In winter, the air temperature in the pigsty should not fall below 15 ° C, in summer it should be in the range of 20-25 ° C.
Heating systems and water supply
Opening a pig farm is hard work. At the final stage of construction, care must be taken to ensure that not a single piglet is frozen in winter. Most often, the barn is not additionally insulated with batteries or electrical appliances. Walls and roofs must be properly insulated, then pigs are not afraid of frost. Returning to the fermentation litter, I must say that its use allows us to solve the problem of additional heating.
During the splitting of animal waste products, coprophages produce heat, and in the lowest layers the temperature can reach 60 ° С.Of course, if in winter outside temperatures are -50 ° C, any room will have to be additionally insulated. Piping equipment in the pigsty is a must. This move will greatly simplify cleaning. Plus, pigs constantly need clean drinking water, and the presence of a water supply system solves this problem in two ways.
Opening a pig farm is an interesting idea for business. Today, pork meat is a fairly popular product. The animal world is diverse, and you can basically choose any cattle, but pigs are the most economical in terms of feeding and have the highest productivity compared to the rest.
Equipment for the pig farm and all the necessary materials must be bought in advance. The farm operation under normal conditions is quite capable of providing 2 farrowings per year for each female. The number of pigs increases by more than 10 times. Such a quick increase will pay back all the costs already in the first year.
In the form of a pig farm, you can build a small farm of a seasonal plan in your summer cottage. At home, it is very simple to take care of the piglets. They are omnivorous, so even waste from your own table can be introduced into their diet. Meat breeds, such as Duroc, already gain 100 kg each month, so that by the beginning of autumn they can already be sent for slaughter.
Of course, when organizing a farm with an initial number of 100 goals, you need to consider that in a year with successful breeding, more than 200 piglets will appear on the farm. For such a quantity, it will be necessary to hire management personnel who will carry out feeding, cleaning and caring for pets, because it is impossible to cope with so many pigs on your own.
Today, the most profitable business is raising pigs for meat. Meat types of pigs gain weight in just 6-7 months, which makes working at a real pig farm quite comfortable and affordable for everyone.