Knowing the characteristics of growing plants, it is easy to get a rich harvest from the most modest variety. With proper cultivation, it is difficult to make a mistake, so farmers are attentive to all stages of plant development. How is garlic planting and what needs to be done next?
- Preparatory procedures
- Plot <
- Fertilizers <
- How to plant
- Optimum timing
- Planting in winter
- Planting in spring
- How care
- Irrigation <
- Loosening <
- Feeding <
- Pest and disease control
About a bountiful harvest is the merit of an attentive gardener who takes care of planting correctly. To cultivate your favorite crop without problems, preliminary events are held in autumn and spring.
Popular spice – photophilous plant, therefore, as the main place of development, open sunny beds are chosen, where there are no closely adjacent groundwater. Spice is demanding on the soil and prefers to grow on loamy or sandy loam lands with neutral acidity. The vegetable cannot be planted in one place for several years in a row.
The best predecessors of garlic:
You can return garlic to its original place of planting no later than after 4-6 years.
On it is difficult for one hundredth to allocate a lot of space for beds, so you have to think about a good neighborhood. Joint planting of garlic equip next to gooseberries and black currants, they also will not harm strawberries and raspberries. Sealing is allowed for:
The next stage of site preparation begins in August when the crop is harvested. So that the place does not stand idle for a long time, it is sown with green manure until the fall. At the end of September or in October, organic fertilizers (humus, compost) are made for digging. During spring formation, plant debris is removed and added:
- wood ash;
To get a bountiful crop, it’s important to pick the right teeth. Damaged and sluggish specimens will rot, become a source of diseases in the soil, so they can not be used in reproduction. Raw materials are carefully disassembled and carefully inspected.
Before agricultural work, the heads are immersed for 120 seconds in saline liquid. To protect the planting of garlic from diseases, the seeds are soaked for 30 minutes in a pink solution of potassium permanganate or 1% copper sulfate.This procedure will destroy the bacteria and protect the seed from death. After preventive treatment, the raw materials are washed and begin to be planted in beds.
How to plant
An improper date or inadequate planting technology will destroy even the hardest varieties.
How to determine favorable days for planting garlic? A useful vegetable is planted twice a year – in autumn and spring. It is better to bury winter plants in the ground in September and October: the cloves will have time to take root, but will not spend nutrients on the development of greenery. Later works can lead to freezing of raw materials.
For spring species, the best period is mid and late spring. It is important that the temperature of the soil warms up to 7 ° C. For the Stavropol Territory, this period begins in April, for the Middle Strip – in May, and for Novosibirsk – not earlier than June or July.
The timing of garlic planting for each region is different, therefore, they look at the annual weather statistics without being tied to numbers. According to the sowing calendar, agricultural work should begin on the waning moon.
Planting in winter
Growing winter spice allows you to get a harvest more abundant than with the spring version.Warm weather can provoke mass germination and further death of seedlings during the first frosts. The optimum temperature of the soil is 13-15 ° C.
In order for the earth to settle, the beds are prepared 2 weeks before the start of work. On the day of garlic planting, it is necessary to prepare furrows, the bottom of which is covered with 2 cm of a mixture of earth and coarse sand. Such a pillow protects the seed from contact with the soil and prevents the activation of rotting.
The planting pattern of winter garlic involves maintaining a distance between rows of 25 cm, and between plants from 8 cm to 15 cm. When planting cloves, a deeper one is recommended hole than when planting spring options. There should be at least 0.2 m of soil above the crops, each bed is mulched with sawdust and peat. If there is no rain, water the area abundantly watered.
How to plant garlic with air heads? Sowing bulbs takes place at the same time as sowing large seeds. The plant is buried to a depth of at least 3 cm, a distance of 10 cm remains between the seedlings. In the spring they wake up faster and enter the vegetative period, and by the next year a full crop ripens.
Planting in spring
Planting spring garlic is necessary at a time when the temperature of the soil warms up to 7 ° C. The cloves develop at a certain humidity of the earth, so if there is no rainfall, the plot must be watered.Planting is carried out according to the scheme:
- depth – 15 cm;
- the distance between the holes – 10 cm;
- the gap between the rows – 18 cm.
If planted correctly, the first shoots will appear after a few days. For germination, a temperature of 10 ° C is required. Spring plants are not afraid of frost, although in regions with a very cold spring they are advised to cover with a film overnight. Mulching saves from the vagaries of nature and makes it easier to care for in the future.
How to care
It’s not enough just to plant perennial garlic, you need to be able to choose the right cultivation measures. A violation of agricultural technology can destroy seedlings at any stage of development.
Bulbous plants, which include the favorite spicy vegetable, reverently respond to watering. It is important to carry out the humidification procedure correctly, without exceeding the permissible norm and without causing drought. With a shortage of water on the feathers of seedlings, gray spots with a white tint appear, and the tips are bent. Excess is dangerous at all stages of development: in the early stages it causes rotting of underground parts, and before harvesting it reduces the keeping quality of products.
If we plant homemade garlic, we can’t carry out the event in dry soil. Before work, the site must be irrigated, giving several hours for assimilation.It is impossible to water the plants with cold water, otherwise it is possible to provoke the appearance of a fungus.
To grow healthy garlic, you need to carry out moisturizing procedures every week from late April to June. Already in July or during the cold summer, the interval between events is increased to 9 days. The secret of care is that to prevent stagnation of the liquid, drainage ditches are located between the rows.
On average, per 1 sq. M. m use from 6 to 9 liters of water. In regions where there are many hot days a year, the volume of liquid is allowed to increase by 1-3 liters. Irrigation is stopped 3 weeks before harvest: in July for winter crops and in August for spring species.
If you decide to plant garlic at home, remember that the plant prefers to develop in conditions of good aeration. After heavy rainfall during the heat, a solid layer forms on the ground, almost not passing oxygen. Thick soil crust is an excellent environment for the appearance of diseases and rotting.
In order not to damage the roots, loosening is carried out to a shallow depth of 1 to 3 cm. The procedure is repeated after each heavy rain or before normal watering. Weeds are harvested before actions, trying not to disturb the seedlings. Garlic care makes mulching easier with sawdust.
The abundance of organic matter and nitrogen-containing agents provokes an increase in shoot growth.This feature leads to a decrease in head formation and is suitable when growing a crop on a young feather.
If we plant winter garlic, it is better to use preparations based on potassium and phosphorus as top dressings. Trace elements improve resistance to cold, which helps with wintering. In spring, seedlings can be fertilized with ammonium nitrate and superphosphate.
Three mandatory applications are recommended:
- 10 days after sizing seeds;
- after 2 weeks;
- when the heads grow from a walnut.
Fight against diseases and pests
The most dangerous ailments are bottom rot and bacteriosis. Diseases affect the plant during storage and with seeds fall on the site. At first, the tops of the vegetables brighten, after which all the feathers die off. To prevent ailment, it is better to harvest after the final ripening.
If the garlic is planted incorrectly, there is a risk of infection with rust. Small spots of brownish-orange color cover the plate and pass to the stem. At the slightest suspicion of a disease, the culture is treated with fungicides (Radomil, Ordan, Ohsiom).
Onion fly is the most common pest. Larvae of the parasite live and feed on heads, which is why the culture withers and dies. Plantings are watered with tobacco solution; wood ash is poured nearby. To avoid the appearance of nematodes on the beds, calendula and chicory are planted nearby.
To get the heads whole, it’s advised to plant resistant garlic. For example, the Sail variety has good immunity to rot and fungi, and also does not like insects. Before starting agricultural work, preventive spraying of the site is carried out and do not forget about observing the cultivation technology.
After the plant has reached maturity, they begin harvesting. They start digging up only when the shells of the air boxes begin to burst. Another notable sign is the lack of young feathers. If you are late in harvesting, the heads will fall apart into slices.
If you plant garlic for the winter, the harvest will begin in July. Spring varieties ripen in autumn: from the second half of August until the first 10 days of September. 3 weeks before the event, irrigation with water is stopped. Sunny, dry weather should be on the day of cleaning.
Using a pitchfork, shovel or automatic device, slowly dig a plant out of the ground, trying not to damage the root crops. Gently shake it, getting rid of the remains of the soil. tops on the street under a canopy or in a well-ventilated area for 5 days, then the roots are removed, the stem is cut off next, leaving a tail of 10 cm. Storage takes place at a temperature of 4 ° C in cold lodilnik to 20 ° C in the apartment.
If you understand the requirements of cultivated plants, the cultivation process will go without problems. Planting garlic by technology will allow you to get a rich harvest.