When growing any crop, the process of preparing for planting plays an important role, and onions are no exception. You need to choose the right site for planting, choose the appropriate seed material, to ensure that plants maintain normal conditions. Preparation of onions for planting in the spring should be carried out according to all the rules, sequentially and at the right time. Moreover, it does not matter whether the bulbs are grown on turnips or greens on a feather – preparation is important in both cases.
- Onion planting options for spring cultivation
- Storage of seed before planting
- Processing of seed material for further storage
- Soil for onion beds
- Selection and additional processing of the site for onion beds
- Additional soil disinfection
- Processing of bulbs immediately before planting
- Processing with potassium permanganate and salt
- Processing Other drugs
- Conclusion <
Options for planting the onions for the spring growing
There are several options for planting onions, each of which has its own advantages. But the preparation of onions for timely planting differs depending on the selected seed material and time of planting. Even planting material has differences, depending on whether it goes to turnips or to a green feather. And these differences must be dealt with. First you need to understand the situation in which one or another seed material is used for growing onions:
- Using seed for spring cultivation.Preparing the onion sets for planting involves pickling from pests and diseases, as well as selecting suitable onions. And here everything is done according to the following principle: a medium-sized sevka, from 1 to 2 cm in diameter, goes for a classic spring planting, and a larger onion is useful for planting on a green feather.
- Using a sevka to grow winter onions. In this case, it is worth separating those onions that are more often rejected due to their small size. They are planted in the fall, so that in winter they wait under the snow, and in the spring they immediately begin to grow.
- Planting onions with seeds or nigella (as they are also called). There are three options. The first option is to prepare the seed for planting after it is grown from seeds. Used in most cases. The second option is the cultivation of beds of chernushka, not even engaged in the preparation of onion sets for planting. The third option is to obtain seedlings for further planting.
Regardless of which option was chosen, planting material still needs to be properly processed and prepared. This includes preparing the soil for onions, treating seeds or onions for normal storage, timely planting and initial maintenance of the beds. It should be remembered that each of the stages is important. If you choose the wrong site for growing, the beds simply will not sprout, and without processing the seed material, it can deteriorate even before it appears in the ground.
If we talk about the selection of seed material, then there are a few simple rules. Firstly, it is necessary to sift out too soft bulbs that will not even go to plant under the winter and will not last until spring. Then – remove all rotted rhizomes, as well as eaten by insects. Those bulbs that are affected by diseases or fungi, in principle, it is desirable to separate and burn, and after that – sort by size, deciding what type of planting they are suitable for. This is done before the other preparations begin.
Storage of seed material before planting
Before the onion beds are planted, the gardener still needs to save the seed material until spring. It should lie in autumn, winter and part of the spring period. Inevitably, part of the bulbs deteriorate and become unsuitable for further planting. But how to prepare the collected onion sets for further seating in the garden? Firstly, you need to know the specific differences of this plant, which can extend storage. And secondly, there are drugs that help keep the bulbs intact.
Every novice gardener should remember one thing: the duration and success of storing bulbs always depends on which variety they belong to. And here it is worth remembering: the sharp varieties are stored the longest. It does not matter whether the vegetable will be used for planting on greens or on the head.So it turns out that, for example, the family beloved by many is kept for a long time and without problems. Sweet and expensive varieties are necessarily processed before being stored.
The storage procedure itself also plays an important role. First, you need to choose a suitable place to store. It should be dark, with low humidity and not too cold. There are 2 main methods that are used to store onion sets. The first is a warm method in which the temperature ranges from 17 to 22 ° C, and the humidity does not exceed 70%. With the cold method, the temperature is -1-3 ° C, and the humidity does not increase 80%.
Processing of seed material for further storage
For many preservation of seed material many gardeners prefer to process it with certain drugs. The drug Fitosporin-M, or similar substances, is best suited for these purposes. A weak solution is used here: no more than 3-4 g per 1 liter. They process the head of each bulb so that the entire surface is moist. After that, before storing for storage, the whole set is carefully dried. And here’s what they write on the forums about salt or potassium permanganate treatment:
“Theoretically, in order to keep sevka better, it can be treated with a solution of sodium chloride or potassium permanganate, but this treatment does not always bring the desired results.These substances work better when soaked in them before planting, and Fitosporin is better for long-term storage. But here one more thing needs to be remembered. The colder the winters in this region, the easier it is to store sowing there, although additional processing will still not be superfluous, since it will help to save additional seeds. “
Soil for onion beds
Even before the seed material is taken, it is necessary to process the soil in the place where the onion beds will be located. And if you need to plant this vegetable in the spring, then the preparation begins in the fall. First, you need to remove from the site all the tops, tree leaves and other similar garbage that interferes with future planting. If this is not done, then the crop may be affected by various diseases and pests. All of them are able to spend the winter in the organic matter left on the site and wake up already in the spring.
Preparing the soil for planting onions also includes timely digging and fertilizing. Dig the selected area to the depth of the bayonet shovel, while in the fall it is not necessary to loosen it additionally. To improve the quality of the soil for planting, it is necessary to fertilize it additionally. This culture, like a number of other vegetables, loves phosphorus and potassium. But do not go too far with fertilizers. For example, superphosphate per 1 sq. Km. m usually make no more than 30-35 g.
Potash fertilizing make even less – 15-20 g per 1 square. m, depending on the recommended concentration.Do not forget about nitrogen. An excess of this element in the soil causes the green feather to grow more actively in the onion, and the bulb becomes loose and worse stored, although this is acceptable when growing this crop on greens. Excess nitrogenous fertilizers are undesirable in any case. In addition to mineral fertilizers, you can use organics, compost and chicken or rabbit droppings.
Selection and additional processing of the plot for onion beds
Before you start all the other preparations, you need to make sure that the chosen place is suitable for growing green or onion. First, there is usually no way to grow large and strong bulbs near trees that obscure the beds. Secondly, the future sowing is hindered by the proximity of groundwater to the surface of the soil. When planting in a similar soil, turnips begin to rot, and green feathers become watery and are affected by fungi. Here neither crops nor seeds can be obtained.
Onion beds need not only sunlight and moderate soil moisture. They also do not tolerate the increased acidity of the soil too well. You can determine the level of acidity with an ordinary litmus test. And this level is reduced by liming – adding slaked lime, cement dust or other similar methods to the ground. It is worth paying attention to wood ash: it not only contains potassium, which is needed by the bulbs, but also lowers the overall acidity of the earth.
Before proceeding with the cultivation of the soil and sowing bulbs or seeds, we must also see what was earlier grew at the chosen place. For onions, good predecessors are cucumbers, zucchini, legumes and even cabbage. Here the principle of “first tips, and then roots” works.Bulbs of onions are allowed to plant even after nightshade plants. This is one of the few crops that grows quietly in the same land where tomatoes, eggplant, peppers or potatoes were planted.
Additional soil disinfection
Like many others plants, onions are vulnerable to many diseases and pests, which are sometimes able to halve the resulting crop. A young bulb is almost a delicacy for many insects. In the same way, seeds are sometimes eaten, although pests more like young onion shoots. And so that this does not happen, the soil should be pre-treated with various insecticides and fungicides. Moreover, the range of tools used is very wide and for each you can find your own application.
Many gardeners prefer only to pickle onions with a potassium permanganate solution or using ordinary salt. This method is also worth considering, but abandoning the tillage is still not recommended. For these purposes, usually use a weak solution of potassium permanganate (the same potassium permanganate). But here it is worth considering the fact that manganese, although useful for onions, in this form increases the acidity of the soil. Its effect is usually compensated by liming or treatment with ash.
Copper sulfate and other preparations containing copper can also be used: they are the best means for the prevention of fungi.Insecticides will help against pests such as onion flies or tobacco thrips. They are brought into the earth in the form of granules or powders, where they gradually dissolve, making the soil unsuitable for insects. Moreover, both systemic and contact preparations are used. But contact insecticides and fungicides can be applied only long before fruiting, otherwise there is a risk of poisoning.
Processing bulbs just before planting
To better protect the onion head from pests and diseases, to increase germination, it is processed immediately before planting. This treatment is the usual soaking in a specific solution. But there are a lot of options for planting solution and they are used for different purposes. Some are needed to protect against viruses and bacteria, others protect against fungi, and others accelerate growth. Each of these remedies is useful in certain conditions. Each gardener will have to choose independently.
Processing with potassium permanganate and salt
Most often, gardeners use soaking in potassium permanganate or in salt solution. A salt solution is simple to make: 1 tbsp. Is dissolved in a liter of water l salt, and then for 3 hours the bulbs are aged in it. The advantages of this method are as follows: it is simple, convenient and literally costs a penny.But salt does not help against all pests and diseases, although for lack of a better one it can also be used for soaking, despite the fact that various potassium permanganate solutions are used more often.
It is best to use a weak solution, which is made of 3-4 g of powder and 1 liter of pure water. Since it is most convenient to prepare the onion sets for planting precisely when using such proportions, most gardeners resort to them. 1.5-2 hours are enough for the soaking to work in full force. There is also an accelerated method: 10 g of potassium permanganate is taken per 1 liter, in them the seed is aged for 40-50 minutes. This method is used less frequently.
Seeding with other preparations
Often gardeners use other substances in order to increase the future yield and preservation of planting material. In particular, substances such as copper sulfate and Fitosporin are used to protect against fungi. The proportions here are easy to remember: literally 3-4 g per 1 liter of water is enough for the solution to work. It is kept for 2-3 hours. Other copper-based products, such as Champion, are also suitable. They also provide excellent protection against fungal diseases.
Many people use growth stimulants to increase the yield, but there is one important detail that should also be remembered: soaking in such substances causes a rapid growth of green mass, therefore they are used only for planting onions on a feather.Of these, GUMAT can be recommended. It is enough to prepare a five percent solution and keep the sevoc in it for a couple of hours.
Preliminary preparation for planting onions is very important. It does not take too much time. But it allows you to save future crops and make big profits.