One of the most common diseases the tobacco mosaic virus on tomatoes destroys the seeds, seedlings and bushes of the plant. The disease is caused by a virus with the consonant name of Nicotine. Under favorable conditions, the infection spreads rapidly and can destroy the entire future crop.
- General characteristic of the disease
- The root cause of the disease and sources of the virus
- Symptoms of the disease
- Treatment of the disease
- Tobacco Mosaic Treatment
- Seed Processing
- Disease prevention on open land
Tobacco mosaic suffers the most seedlings I, who have not yet developed sufficiently strong defense mechanisms. With growing seedlings, the gardener often carries out various agricultural activities, spreading the virus to seedlings of other crops.
General characteristic of the disease
Tobacco a mosaic of tomatoes whose treatment is carried out with the onset of the first symptoms is familiar to every experienced gardener. In most cases, the virus appears in the greenhouse until the seedlings grow. High humidity creates all the necessary conditions for the rapid spread of the virus. Can suffer from the disease:
Each virus carrier is a threat to neighboring crops. The infected plant quickly fades and changes the color of foliage, stems.
The root system is the last to suffer from the virus. Characteristic spots form on tomatoes, which should be combated with home-made (natural) or purchased products (substances with active bacteria that can protect the culture).
The root cause of the disease and sources of the virus
Tobacco mosaic on healthy tomatoes occurs in greenhouse conditions or on an open land plot, if the gardener does not follow the rules for agricultural activities: old equipment, unfertilized soil, improper care of plants. The main reasons for the virus to appear on tomatoes are:
- too dense landing;
- poor ventilation (on an open land plot with drafts or insufficient air blowing);
- high humidity .
In a greenhouse or kitchen garden, improper temperature conditions or too high humidity will cause plants to become infected with the virus. Tobacco mosaic is determined by a number of symptoms that will become a hint for a novice gardener. If the virus wound up on the tomatoes, characteristic yellow dry spots appear on the green leaves and stems. The green part of the tomatoes becomes like a mosaic with dark and bright areas.
The sources of the disease are the remains of other plants, soil or infected seedlings. From crops, neighboring crops can become infected. Contact transmission of the virus is the most common and dangerous.Insects quickly spread the infection to all plants in the greenhouse or in the garden.
Symptoms of the disease
Over time, the virus completely destroys the foliage: deformation of the border leads to the drying of the stems and leaves. When the disease is started, outgrowths appear on the foliage in the form of solid lumps.
Infection affects the condition of the fruit: tomatoes ripen for a long time and significantly decrease in size. Gradually, the disease transfers to neighboring crops, and whole rows of planted tomatoes dry up.
Cure the disease
Tobacco mosaic of tomatoes can contribute to infection by other infections. Mixed diseases lead to a sting of tomatoes, which leads to weakening of the stems (the bushes break and dry).
The fight against the virus begins at the first appearance of yellowness on the foliage. For a good tomato crop, timely prevention and treatment of leaves, stems and fruits from viral infection is necessary.
Treatment of tobacco mosaic
Treatment of mosaic on tomatoes begins with the treatment of patients cultures.
A homemade solution is prepared for these purposes: 100 g of micronutrient fertilizers are added per liter of milk whey. The prepared liquid carefully processed leaves on tomatoes (it is necessary to go through each leaf) and stems.For the best treatment, use a conventional spray gun.
The treatment of plants for a viral disease is not limited to only treating the bush, but also cleaning the soil. Soil that is infected with the virus is not suitable for further planting seedlings. The upper soil layers are removed completely (up to 15 cm). The new embankment is washed with a concentrated solution of potassium permanganate (proportion with water 1: 1) and dried. The renewed soil is fertilized with nitrogen-containing substances and whey.
Prevention of tomato tobacco mosaic helps to avoid long-term treatment of the crop and prevent crop destruction. Preventive work includes treating an already healthy shrub, seedlings and preparing seeds that are planted in fertilized soil.
Tomato virus infection spreads quickly in greenhouses and in a humid environment. Constant ventilation of the covered premises and removal of moisture accumulated on the walls will eliminate the threat of the virus. The soil for planting seeds and finished seedlings is treated with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Before planting, the soil is frozen and moistened.
Tobacco mosaic threatens seeds that can be carriers of infection for several weeks. To enhance the protection of seeds, prophylaxis is carried out before planting seedlings in a greenhouse. Before sowing, all seeds are soaked in a potassium permanganate solution (1% solution) or about 2 hours in the Fitosporin preparation.After treatment, the seeds are planted in moist soil.
Seedlings with the first signs of disease are removed from the greenhouse and burned. After processing the soil, all equipment is washed and disinfected. Boxes and pots for seedlings are processed 4 days in a row. A 5% potassium manganese solution is used for these purposes.
Disease prevention on open land
General disease prevention will protect adult bushes until harvest. Planted seedlings must be vaccinated against the virus (vaccination is carried out), 20% hydrochloric acid is used to disinfect seeds, seedlings and stems of bushes.
The upper soil layers in the open area are fertilized with mineral complexes that help get rid of pests (virus carriers). Beds between the bushes are well weeded at least once a week, which Other plants did not cause the destruction of the future crop.
Infection infection occurs due to a number of factors that can be avoided. The virus spreads in poorly cleaned greenhouses, where humidity and temperature conditions are not observed. Virus-resistant seeds, processed before planting in the ground.
Tomatoes protect themselves from insects, and in the rainy season the bushes should be more fertilized and reduced watering. Tobacco mosaic in homemade tomatoes is well treated immediately after infection, but is rapidly spreading. Comprehensive measures will protect the culture from a common disease.