Hoya got its name in honor of the English gardener Thomas Hoy (English Thomas Hoy, 1750-1822), who worked for the Duke of Northumberland for a long time, mostly in greenhouses with tropical plants. This vine has long been prized by gardeners, in particular in its homeland in Australia, where many of its varieties were bred. In its homeland, it is a powerful climbing plant with succulent glossy evergreen leaves and bunches of large cupped flowers that smell strongly at night. Many are cultivated as ornamental plants, but some are particularly showy, such as McGillivray’s Hoya (Hoya macgillivrayi).
Hoya – fluffy inflorescences. Farmer Burea-Uinsurance.com Mokkie
Description of hoya
Hoya (Hoya) Is a genus of evergreen tropical plants of the Lastovnevye family, numbering from 250 to 300 species. The natural range of which is South and Southeast Asia, the western coast of Australia, Polynesia.
Representatives of the genus are climbing or with creeping shoots, evergreens, shrubs. Leaves are ovoid, oval, whole, moderately fleshy, leathery. Inflorescences are axillary. Flowers are collected in umbrellas; the corolla is round-five-segmented, fleshy; crown of 5 thick, flat, convex, two-toothed and dissected columns.
Hoyi are unusual ornamental plants. They are grown in warm, temperate and cool rooms, as well as in rooms (plants can easily tolerate dry air). For plants, various types of supports are needed (in the form of an arc, trellis or lattice, a column of moss and sticks), to which their liana-like shoots are tied.
Features of growing hoya
World: bright, plants can tolerate direct sunlight. However, if kept in the sun during the hottest hours of the summer, burns can occur.
Temperature: in the spring-summer period 22-25 ° С. In the autumn-winter period, not lower than 16 ° С (with the exception of fleshy Hoya (Hoya carnosa), it is kept in winter at 12-14 ° C).
Watering: from March to October, abundant, with soft, settled water, as the upper layer of the substrate dries up. Since autumn, watering is reduced, it is carried out two to three days after the top layer of the substrate dries up (the earthy clod is not brought to complete drying).
Air humidity: does not play a significant role. Can be sprayed in summer.
Additional fertilizing: in the spring-summer (vegetation) period, plants respond well to feeding with complex mineral fertilizers for indoor plants (once every 1-2 weeks).
Trimming: after the plant has faded, all the longest shoots should be cut off, leaving short branches on which flowering occurs.
The rest period: from late October to March. Plants are kept in a bright cool place, watered carefully.
Transfer: young plants are transplanted annually, as they develop more intensively in a more voluminous container; mature plants are transplanted once every 3 years.
Reproduction: cuttings in spring and autumn (in principle, propagation is possible throughout the growing season), stem layering.
Hoyam needs bright lighting, plants can tolerate direct sunlight. However, when kept in the sun during the hottest hours of the summer, the plants may develop burns. The optimal place for growing is windows with a west or east orientation. When grown on southern windows, in the summer at noon hours, it is desirable to create diffused lighting using translucent fabric or paper (tulle, gauze, tracing paper). Purchased copies and copies that stood in the shade (or after winter) should not be immediately exposed to the sun’s rays, you should gradually accustom them to them. On the north window, due to a lack of light, the plant does not bloom.
In the autumn-winter period, the plant is also kept in good lighting, shading is not required. In the spring, with an increase in the level of illumination, more light is gradually taught to avoid burns.
The optimum temperature for plant growth and development in the summer is 22-25 ° C. The temperature of the content in the autumn-winter period should be at least 16 ° C (with the exception of Hoya carnosa, it is kept in winter at 12-14 ° C). The plant is able to winter at 20-22 ° C, however, in this case, less abundant flowering can be expected. Hoya does not like stagnant air – the room with it must be regularly ventilated, in winter this is done carefully, in order to avoid drafts.
From March to October, the hoyi are watered abundantly, with soft, settled water, as the upper layer of the substrate dries up. Since autumn, watering is reduced, it is carried out two to three days after the top layer of the substrate dries up (the earthy clod is not brought to complete drying). Watering can be done with slightly lukewarm water. If it is extremely rare or not to water the plant at all, then some of the roots of the plant die, it weakens and later enters the growing season.
Twice a year (in spring and autumn), the whole plant is immersed in water heated to 30-40 ° C for 30-40 minutes, and an earthen lump for 2 hours. This promotes better growth and faster flowering.
Air humidity does not play a significant role for hoya, however, it is recommended to spray it in the spring-summer period. Spray carefully, it is advisable not to get drops on the flowers.
In the spring-summer (vegetation) period, plants respond well to feeding with complex mineral fertilizers for indoor plants (once every 1-2 weeks).
High light intensity (bright windows in rooms) activates the formation of flower buds. Flowering continues until autumn.
After the buds appear, the hoya must not be moved from its place, so as not to cause shedding of flowers. Props can be placed under the flower brushes. After the plant has faded, it is necessary to cut off all the longest shoots, leaving short branches on which flowering occurs. Peduncles should not be removed either, since buds – flowers appear on them next year.
A strong support is required to keep the plants upright.
Young plants are transplanted annually, as they develop more intensively in larger containers; mature plants are transplanted once every 3 years. The soil is suitable nutritious and easily permeable, slightly acidic and neutral (pH 5,5-7). Hoya grows well in almost any soil, for example, in a vegetable garden mixed with sand. The most suitable substrate is composed of clay-sod, leaf and greenhouse soil (2: 1: 1) or from clay-sod, leaf land, peat and sand (2: 1: 1: 1). Hoya bella is best cultivated in a mixture of leafy soil, peat, humus and sand in equal parts with the addition of charcoal. Good drainage is essential.
Hoya is a good plant for hydroponic culture.
Plants are propagated by cuttings in spring and autumn (in principle, propagation is possible during the entire growing season). Cuttings are cut with one or two pairs of leaves, but longer ones can be used. The appearance of roots at the petioles does not occur at the nodes, but between the nodes, therefore, the cuttings are cut not under the node, but below the node. The substrate for grafting is made of peat – 2 hours, sand – 1 hour, and can be rooted in water. The optimum temperature for rooting is at least 20 ° C. Hoya cuttings root easily in indoor conditions.
Rooted (on the 20-25th day) cuttings are planted in 9-cm pots. The composition of the earth is as follows: turf – 1 hour, leaf – 2 hours, humus – 0,5 hours and sand – 1 hour; a complex fertilizer is added to the mixture.
To get flowers in the first year, they use another method of reproduction – stem layering. An incision is made on the shoot of an old plant, covered with wet moss, tied with twine and covered with plastic wrap. After the formation of the roots, the upper part of the shoot is cut off and planted in a pot.
To obtain well-developed dense specimens, at least 3 rooted cuttings are planted in one pot.
To get branchy plants, they are pinched after the formation of the 3-4th leaf.
Precautions: the flowers of the plant smell. The smell can cause somatic reactions (eg headache). Leaves can cause contact dermatitis.
Possible difficulties in growing hoya
- Due to too low temperature or excessively bright sun, the leaves turn pale, begin to dry and curl.
- Leaves fall from too dry and hot air.
- From excess or lack of moisture, as well as from too dry and hot air, flower buds fall off.
- Stagnant water and cold water used for irrigation can cause leaves or shoots to fall off.
- Excess moisture in the soil can rot the roots and base of the stem.
- With a lack of light and a change of place, flowers may fall off.
- With a lack of nitrogen in the soil, plant growth slows down, the leaves acquire a pale green color (top dressing with urea at a concentration of 1 g / l is required).
- Too cold temperatures and over or under watering can lead to yellowing, wilting of leaves and their dropping.
Hoya majestic (Hoya imperialis)
It lives in the forests of the Malacca Peninsula. Climbing plants, shrubs. Pubescent shoots. Leaves are oval-oblong; 15-20 cm long, rounded at the base of the blade, shortly pointed at the apex, smooth, leathery. The petiole is pubescent, large, 5-7 cm long. Flowers 6-10 in hanging umbrellas, 12-20 cm long, dark red, greenish-yellow outside; the crown is shortly pubescent, with star-shaped petals, on short pubescent pedicels; with a pleasant aroma.
Hoya multiflora (Hoya multiflora)
Grows in forests in Malaysia. Climbing plants. Leaves are oblong-linear. Flowers are numerous, gathered in umbrellas, yellow; the petals are narrow; crown with arcuate spurs.
Its varieties are widespread in the culture.
Grows in forests, rocks, trees in tropical and subtropical Asia and in Queensland (Australia). Vines up to 6 m long; creeping stems, pubescent. Leaves are ovate-oblong, ovate-cordate, 5-8 cm long and 3-4 cm wide, with a blunt apex, less often short-pointed, dark green, glossy, fleshy, on short petioles.
Flowers in umbrellas, white or pale-flesh-colored, with a pink crown in the center, on shortly pubescent pedicels, 2-4 cm long; corolla up to 1,5 cm in diameter, 5-membered; lobes are wide, with curled edges and densely pubescent from above; with a pleasant aroma. A well-known ornamental plant, grown in rooms and greenhouses. Blooms profusely in spring and summer.
Hoya beautiful (Hoya bella)
Found in forests in Burma. Low-growing shrubs. Shoots are creeping, thin, densely leafed. Leaves are ovate-lanceolate, small, 2-2,5 cm long, thick, pointed, slightly convex. Flowers in umbrellas, drooping, small, up to 1,5 cm in diameter, waxy, white, 5-lobed; the crown is purple-red. Blooms profusely and continuously in summer.
Highly decorative plant. It is widely used as an ampel one in warm rooms (it is recommended to install it closer to the light source).
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