Ficus is a tropical plant from the mulberry family. Where did it come from? In the wild, it is found in the Solomon Islands, southeast of the Asian continent, in New Guinea. The birthplace of some ficus is Africa. At home, the flower is grown for many decades. Plant care has its own rules and features, but there are no particular difficulties.
- View description
- Types of ficus
- Varieties of ficus
- Care features
- Lighting <
- Humidity <
- Temperature <
- Watering <
- Ficus transplant
- Ficus pruning
- Ficus propagation
- Propagation by cuttings
- Propagation by layering
- Diseases of ficus
- Signs of ficus
Description of the species
Ficus – is a group of plants of the family mulberry They can grow as vines, shrubs or trees Many species have aerial roots, so-called epiphytes roots, which hang down to the ground, forming additional trunks This is called a banyan ficus….. If aerial roots grow into the bark of another tree, the ficus is called a “suffocator.” Ficus in the wild can grow up to 30 m, at home its height does not exceed 3-4 m.
The leaves are serrated or lobed, located opposite or alternately.
How does the ficus bloom? The flowers of the plant form inflorescences of various shapes. Fruits are nuts surrounded by a juicy false fruit.The root system of wild ficus, like other parts of the tree, produces milky white sap when damaged, in many species it is poisonous.
Types of ficus
The plant’s homeland is tropical zones, less often – subtropical belt. Decorative ficuses began to grow more than a hundred years ago, in warm countries it is a street bush.
Here are the most famous species that grow at home, characteristics and difference between them:
- Elastika, or elastic rubbery ficus, large, tree-like, capable of growing in the shade.
- Benjamin, balsamic, balsamic, balsamine – a small tree that tolerates the formation of the crown, is used for banzai.
- Lyre-shaped – a small ficus with green leaves, in shape resembling a treble clef.
- Ra leafy, or deltoid, a plant with leaves that look like small droplets.
- Ficus species Dwarf, Sunny or Anouk – this ficus is very tiny, often weaving ampelous or ground cover.
- Benedyka, ficus Ali, Benedict, loosestrife – the tree looks almost like a willow or birch, with pointed green leaves.
- Ficus species Karika (fig tree, sycamore or fig) is a fruit tree with large sweet berries, the closest relative to the ornamental.
- Bengali, Krishna, or Indian, is a huge epiphyte, which is in estes Under the conditions of the crown forms a banyan tree, broadleaf.
- Rusty-leaved – a tree from Australia, its leaves below are painted yellow-red like rust.
- Ginseng, Retukha, or ginseng, has a thick root size, used in folk and traditional medicine.
- Dull, Retuza or Chinese pubescent, – a tree with bright green leaves, has varieties of Panda and Albumarginata.
- Reed – African narrow-leaved appearance, the leaves resemble reeds.
- Formosa, or formosan, is a tall tree with elongated, light green leaves and brown stipules.
- Triang ular or three-leafed – bush with leaves of a triangular shape.
- Palmera – American bushy appearance with a thick branching trunk of a yellow hue.
- Natalsky – in nature the tree has a height of 30 m, grows at home to 1 m.
- Cherry, or Cape, is a low tree with fruits similar to cherries.
- Bottle – a Mexican species with a thickened trunk, the plant accumulates moisture in it.
- Petiolaris is a thick-leaved species from Mexico with large leaves, the surface has a luster and a pink vein pattern.
- Spherical – that Javanese bush species with a thick brown trunk.
- Eden is a plant with heart-shaped leaves and gray bark.
- Silicypholia, or Salicifolia, is an African alpine species with large thin leaves.
- Dubolistny, or Montana, – creeping or weaving ampelous look with small leaves.
- Aspera is a species with small rough leaves, which are sometimes curled.
- Moklame, MacLame or MacLane is an East Asian epiphytic and small-leaved species with small fruits.
- Crater leaf grows in West Africa, leaves are expanded at the tips, have recesses.
- Boxwood bush is small in size and leaves are similar to boxwood.
- The ivy, or weeping, is an ampelous appearance with small leaves .
Based on these species, many varieties were bred. Benjamin indoor ficus has most of them: large-leaved, small-leaved, with medium leaflets. Here is a short list:
- Large-leaved: Anastasia, Boucle, King Bush and Golden, Ficus de Gantel, or De Gantel, Golden Monique, Daniel, Denilight, Ficus Midnight, Lady, Irene or Irene, Samantha , bosomous Charlie, Exotica.
- Middle-leaved: Baft, Bailey spotted, Curly or Curly, Green Kinki, Naomi and Gold Naomi, Dunetti, Ilychina, Reginald, Regidan or Regina, ficus Starlight, Fantasy or Fantasy, variant Twilight or Twilight, variegated Diversifolia, Esther or Neon.
- Small-leaved, or dwarf, mini-ficuses: Baorok, Wyandi, Kudryav th or Curly, Mixed, Lovely, Nitida, Natasha or Natalie, Nicole, Pandora, Safari, Nina, El Dorado.
Rubber-bearing ficus has the following varieties:
- ficus The Black Prince;
- Rubber Tricolor, or three-color marble variety Varietis.
Dwarf ficus has 2 varieties: variegated Variegata and tiny Minima. Bengal ficus has varieties:
- Ficus Andrei, or Andre;
There are 3 varieties of rusty Australian species:
- Variety Irwin;
- El Toro, or the bull;
The lyre-shaped species has 2 varieties: Bambino and Ficus Kompakta. The loosestrife has 3 varieties of Amstel: King, Queen and Gold. Varieties of ficus Formozone:
- Ficus Esther;
The triangular view also has 3 varieties:
- Variegatis, or Variegata;
- Color variety Trinova;
Let’s talk about how to grow ficus at home, how to water, spray, cut, plant, etc.
Before buying ficus in a pot, you should immediately determine permanent place. This species does not like to be rearranged. Otherwise, growing ficus at home is quite easy. This is an unpretentious plant, care at home for it is simple. In order not to cause problems, care must be correct.
A flower of tropical origin is photophilous, variegated varieties are well tolerated even by direct sunlight. Suitable for the tree is the southwestern or southeastern windowsill, where the sun shines well. In winter, the ficus should have additional lighting. Artificial light is provided for 12 hours. On the window, you need to turn the bush from time to time so that it is equally magnificent from all sides. With a lack of light, the home ficus discards leaves.
In the homeland of ficus, high humidity, the same atmosphere should be maintained at home. The plant is sprayed with water from a spray. The growing flower should be sprayed 2-3 times a week. Is it possible to bathe indoor ficus in water? They arrange a shower once a month, more often it is harmful. Varieties with large leaves should be wiped with a cloth.
The plant lives in the tropics, because it loves warmth, as well as good lighting. In the summer – 25-30 ° С, in the winter – 16-20 ° С. At lower temperatures, the foliage flies around, the bush may die. It should not be taken outside in the summer so that the night does not freeze it. Green-leaved bushes tolerate cold better than variegated. The deciduous type of ficus adapts well to cold, but the evergreen is more heat-loving.
Humidification of the soil should be regular, but moderate.In summer, the bush is watered 2-3 times a week, and in winter the need for water is less – water the tree 1 time per week. It is necessary to loosen the soil regularly so that it dries well, the root system of the indoor ficus breathes. If you water the plant too abundantly, the roots can rot. With a lack of moisture, the leaves turn yellow and fall off. Ficus creeping, or ampelous, loves moisture more than tree-like.
Cultivating decorative ficus at home is impossible without top dressing. Fertilizer is applied every 2 weeks. First of all, it is necessary to water the bush. It is best to use fertilizers with a high nitrogen content. The plant should be fed from March to October, when there is flowering and active vegetation. If in winter the tree is additionally highlighted, fertilizers also need to be applied, but not more often than once a month. How to feed a flower? Top dressing is used for indoor ficus Gumisol, Palma, Ideal, Bon Forte, BG, Agricola. The instructions will tell you how much money to deposit.
When we grow ficus at home, we must transplant it periodically. Plants under 4 years old should be transferred to a new pot every year. Then the procedure can be repeated every 2 years, periodically changing the top layer of earth in the pot. A sign that it is time to carry out a planned transplant is that the earth dries too quickly and the root plexuses bulge out.
For transplantation, you should take a new pot for ficus, whose diameter is 2-3 cm larger than the old one. In a larger capacity, the roots and stems grow slowly. For the ampel variety, a cache-pot is suitable.
Before planting the tree, prepare the soil. You can buy ready-made soil for ficus in the store or make it yourself.
Before planting a bush, drainage must be put on the bottom of the pot. If the plant is healthy, you can plant it in a new container by transshipment without releasing it from the old earthen coma. When pests start in the soil, it is better to remove the lumps. When the bush is too large, you can fork it into several trunks. The bush is pre-watered. After transplanting from pot to pot (if the soil is wet), watering is not needed, you can fertilize the plant and put it into the light.
How to properly care for ficus at home and what measures should be considered other than those listed above? Can I cut ficus? Pruning is mandatory, this procedure allows you to form a crown of ficus, grow in width, fight diseases and rejuvenate the tree.
Pruning is divided into several types:
- tweezers or pinch.
Standard pruning is carried out in spring or late autumn, you can simply cut off the top. It helps to form a crown, suspend the growth of a tree up, stimulate the appearance of side shoots. When sanitary pruning, dried and damaged branches and leaves are removed. Anti-aging pruning is performed when the flower is frozen, lost leaves. The circled bush is cut off completely, leaving only 3-4 cm of the trunk. Rejuvenation helps to grow even an almost dead tree.
Tweezing, pinching or nipping of ficus plants is a gentle pruning technique in which only the upper buds need to be renewed and removed. Before pinching or diving the bush, they carefully examine it, determine which places should be removed.
You can pinch the bush at any time of the year. In addition, the formation of the crown involves the use of various devices that can make branches grow where they should.You can tie the branches with ordinary shoelaces. They are also advised to weave in braids, curly cut. It is quite possible to weave a ball, cone, figures of birds, cats, etc.
Reproduction of ficuses
There are two ways to plant a plant:
- by cuttings;
- by cuttings without cuttings.
By seeds, even blooming decorative ficus at home cannot be propagated. If he gave fruit, the seeds still will not ripen, the berries will fall off. We have to plant the bush in other ways.
Propagation by cuttings
Propagation of ficus plants by cuttings is the most popular method. You can cut the bush during pruning. You can even take a small twig 4-5 cm long with a leaf. The shoots are cut at an angle, retreating 1 cm. Often, leafy cuttings with a short shoot up to 1 cm in length are often used to propagate ficuses.
How to root and grow ficus from a small cuttings? First of all, it is lowered into a stimulant, Kornevin or Epin. Then the stalk is placed in water or in plates with a substrate to germinate. Root put the stalk in a warm place where there is good lighting. Rooting takes place quickly, lasts approximately 2 weeks. After the stalk has let out the first roots, another week you can hold a twig in the water. 7-10 days after this, planting in a permanent pot is carried out.
Reproduction by layering
How to grow ficus from the shoot?The process consists of several stages:
- from the strongest shoot, remove all leaves;
- make an incision in a circle on the bark;
- moss must be applied to the cut and tie it with cling film;
- the shoot takes root after 2 weeks, after which it can be cut and planted in a substrate.
You can use another method. Kerbovka (notch) is carried out, then the twig is fixed on the soil surface and sprinkled on top of the ground. When the vaccine takes root, it is cut off and transplanted into flower pots. Such a process gives roots in 10-14 days. Before planting, it can also be shortened by cutting in a straight top.
When growing indoor ficus at home, problems sometimes come out. Often they are associated with improper care. Sometimes the cause of the disease is pests or other harmfulness. Here are some of the problems most tropical plant owners face:
- Dropping leaves. For deciduous varieties, this means a natural process in the winter: evergreen ficuses lose their foliage only in case of health problems. The reason that the bush is crumbling can be improper watering, poor lighting, a draft, a change of place.
- The leaves turn yellow, the stems dry. The problem occurs when the room is too dry, insufficient watering, there is a shortage of trace elements.
- Anthracnose.With a fungal infection, black spots and dots appear on the leaves, after which they fall off.
- Gray rot. Mildew of gray color appears on the trunks and foliage from dampness, causing its fungus.
- Powdery mildew – a fungal disease that manifests itself in white fluffy bloom on the leaves, can affect the stems.
- Root rot. The plant withers, dries, an unpleasant odor appears. In order to revive, revive and save the ficus, it is worth transplanting and removing all diseased roots.
- Aphids. The leaves turn yellow, it is clear that green or brown midges are wound on them.
- Garden thrips. It is seen that brown spots appeared on the leaves.
- Scutellum. It manifests itself with convex growths of a brown hue, a harmful insect often affects both the leaves and shoots.
- Mealybug. The plant is covered with white balls, similar to cotton wool.
- Nematodes. The roots are striking, they look like small peas.
- A spider mite. The parasite leaves gray stains and plaque on the trunks and leaves. The spider mite is easily washed off with soap.
Problems arise with ficuses most often, due to improper conditions of detention. If the flower was hit by pests, spraying with an insecticide or a soap solution can help. Fungicides, removal and trimming of the affected areas often help to get rid of the fungus. Sometimes a flower cannot be cured of a fungus.In any situation, you should establish normal care for the ficus, regularly cut it, check the humidity level in the house, temperature, observe other features and rules.
Signs about ficus
Normal green ficus, which has been grown at home for almost a century, has overgrown with many signs. What folk signs and beliefs are associated with this exotic flower? The description of all superstitions is difficult, we give only the most popular magical properties:
- Ficus in the house is able to solve the problem of infertility. An omen is valid when close people give the tree.
- Ficus is not needed for an unmarried girl, he is a husband, turns away courtship and does not bring personal happiness. A self-grown flower will save you from loneliness, but the pot still cannot be kept in the bedroom.
- Put a creeping variety that can be braided in the apartment – to material well-being and solving financial problems.
- Yes , let there be a small ficus in the bedroom, it will help those who do not sleep well.
- To shape and braid indoor ficuses with a pigtail means to keep your luck, and when they still bloom, then none of the relatives have problems will not.
- Weaving from branches can give positive in the house, weak people have a support life is lost indecision
Energy at home ficus is very strong, it symbolizes good luck, success and well-being, it is recommended to keep in Feng Shui.The healing properties of juice, leaves of fruits and flowers are used in the east in folk medicine. We must not forget that ficus juice is poisonous and dangerous, and not only useful. Its medical value, many doctors question. There may be contraindications for use, it can cause allergies in some people, so experiment is not worth it.
We learned how to plant a bush, what fertilizer it needs and where it should stand. This plant native to the tropics has taken root perfectly in our homes. If you properly care for, water, fertilize and trim it, it will be a wonderful landscaping of the interior. In addition, curly ficus has the ability to harmonize the atmosphere in the home and family, it accumulates positive information and energy. You can select the desired variety from the photo.