Even at the beginning of the last century, no one knew that plants of the genus Actinidia
can produce such big tasty sweet and sour fruits. Even the very name “kiwi” appeared
only in the middle of the 20th century, when the commercial cultivation of this plant
has acquired a global scale. But today breeders have created
dozens of different varieties with an original flavor range, and scientists have discovered
evidence of the beneficial effects of kiwi on digestion, metabolism
and the human immune system.
Useful properties of kiwi fruit
Composition and calorie content
Fresh kiwi contains (per 100 g): .
Calories 61 Kcal
Vitamin C 92,7 Potassium, K 312 Vitamin
B4 7,8 Calcium, Ca 34 Vitamin E 1,46 Phosphorus,
P 34 Vitamin
The table shows the chemical composition of the green that is more familiar to us.
kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa). However, the world is no less famous and
popular fruits of the so-called “golden” kiwi (Actinidia chinensis)
– fruit with bright yellow pulp and smooth hairless bronze
the composition of these “golden” berries is somewhat different from the composition
green kiwi. But it should be borne in mind that the quantity
components of any fruit are significantly influenced by other factors:
variety, degree of maturity, region of growth, weather conditions,
storage features and others.
In addition, since both “green” and “golden” kiwis are usually eaten
peeled, chemical analysis data are given for
edible berry pulp. However, today in various sources everything
more often indicators of the composition of the fruit appear along with the peel, which
due to the actively growing number of consumers who prefer
eat kiwi not peeled. First of all, we are talking about the “gold”
kiwi fruit as it has a smoother, thinner and hairless rind.
But not everyone now peels green kiwi. Lovers of wasteless
fruit consumption even benefits, because this
the method allows you to increase the content of fiber, vitamin E and
folic acid by 50%, 32% and 34%, respectively. .
Both green and golden kiwis are exceptionally rich in vitamins
C, E, K, folic acid, carotenoids, potassium, fiber
and phytochemicals believed to act
synergistically. The total antioxidant activity of kiwi is higher than
by the apple,
although less than raspberries,
[3,4] Among antioxidants
Kiwi is also called lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene, chlorophylls,
quinic acid, glucosyl derivatives of caffeic acid, β-sitosterol,
chlorogenic acid, phenolic compounds including flavones and
- Vitamin C. Ascorbic acid level in green
Hayward varieties typically range from 70 to 120 mg per 100 g raw
masses. It is believed to be high in this vitamin and low in
the tannin content of kiwis explains why sliced fruit
does not develop the typical darkening reaction that is observed
in most other fruits. .
Chinese biologists who examined the kiwi genome found that
that first about 50-57 million years ago, and then about 18-20
million years ago, there was a partial duplication of the genome of this plant.
Moreover, in addition to other areas, the genes of kiwi were also doubled, responding
for the biosynthesis of vitamin C. As a result of evolutionary transformations
today the number of genes associated with the synthesis of vitamin C in
kiwi fruit is 3,5-6,5 times higher than the number of similar genes in coffee
Although once the kiwi with both coffee and grapes had common ancestors.
- Vitamin E. Both “golden” and green kiwi contain
relatively high levels of vitamin E compared to others
fruits – 1,3-1,40 and 1,3-1,46 mg per 100 g, respectively.
Mainly in the form of α-tocopherol present in the pulp.
. Group of italian
researchers showed that α-tocopherol is associated with cellular
pulp membranes and is bioavailable in this berry. This is indirectly confirmed
an increase in the concentration of vitamin E in blood plasma after consumption
both green and gold kiwi.
In addition, these same researchers have identified a new form of the vitamin
E in kiwi fruit is δ-tokomonoenol, noting that its ability
trapping radicals also significantly affects the total antioxidant
- Folic acid. Kiwi is often called good
a source of folic acid. Because folic acid is easy
is destroyed during cooking, then its presence in green
leafy vegetables, which are usually processed, less
more valuable than kiwi, which is often eaten raw. Thus, fresh
kiwi can make a beneficial contribution to the overall diet, especially when
during pregnancy, when to meet the needs for folic
acid becomes more difficult.
- Alimentary fiber. Fruit fiber analysis
showed that they contain about one third of soluble and two
a third of insoluble fiber. Moreover, the “golden” kiwi contains
significantly less fiber than green. .
Kiwi’s dietary fiber comes almost entirely from plant walls.
cells (more precisely, from polysaccharides that form the main structural
When choosing kiwi as a dietary product, one must take into account
that during the ripening of the fruit, the concentration of starch decreases rapidly
and the fructose content increases
which, among sugars, prevail in kiwi – in some varieties
in a 1: 1 ratio. A small amount of sucrose appears when
the fruit is ripe and ready to eat. .
At the same time, it is interesting that the glycemic index of kiwi is relatively
low: green varieties – 39,3 ± 4,8, “gold” – 48,5 ± 3,1. .
A low glycemic response to kiwi fruit is observed as
in healthy people and people with diabetes
2st type. .
Kiwi, which is part of a healthy diet, may increase levels of
“Good” cholesterol (high density lipoprotein) and reduce
triglyceride levels, inhibit platelet adhesion and reduce
arterial pressure. Eating golden kiwi with rich
iron by food raises low levels of iron, and green
kiwi helps in digestion and relaxation.
A rich source of antioxidants,
Kiwi can protect the body from endogenous oxidative damage.
The effect of kiwi fruit on metabolic markers of cardiovascular
diseases and diabetes, including glucose balance studies and
insulin, body weight maintenance and energy homeostasis.
Of particular interest is kiwi for proper digestion
both in healthy people and in people with constipation and / or gastrointestinal
disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome. Mechanisms
actions underlying changes in the consistency of feces, reduction
time of passage of feces and reduction of abdominal discomfort,
- with water retention capacity of kiwi fiber,
- with favorable changes in the microbial community of the colon
and basic human metabolites,
- with the presence of a proteolytic enzyme, unique for kiwi fruits
actinidinewhich aids in digestion
proteins both in the stomach and in the small intestine.
In other words, there are several plausible mechanisms that
can act both together and separately.
The most important physical and chemical properties of kiwi fiber include
hydration properties, including: water retention, capacity
and swelling, viscosity and properties depending on size, shape
and the porosity of undigested particles. Water retention has a physiological
significance, since it affects the transit time, the volume of feces,
stool consistency and other functional benefits.
Experiments have shown that the swelling and water retention of fiber
kiwi is higher than, for example, wheat bran dietary fiber,
more than 6 times higher than that of apple fiber, and one and a half times
higher than psyllium (fiber derived from psyllium husk). .Kiwi dietary fiber is subject to fermentation, and many of
they have useful properties due to the production of short-chain
fatty acids. .
Kiwi Fiber May Also Promote Beneficial Change
in the microbial community of the human colon . and their metabolites,
which are related to gut health. .
Eating 2 green kiwis per day will provide approximately 6 grams of fiber
(24% of the Daily Value), so along with the total intake
dietary fiber, this can be a significant contributor to total daily intake
consumption. As noted above, kiwis usually contain about two
one third of insoluble fiber and one third of soluble fiber. .
In addition, several unique proteins have been found in kiwi, among
which – actinidine (or actinidaine), the most common.
It is distinguished by its biologically active potential. In the model
digestion of the small intestine in vitro (“in vitro”) kiwi extract,
containing actinidine was particularly effective in improving digestion
whey protein, zein, gluten and gliadin. .Research
show that actinidin assists in protein digestion
in the gastric and iliac regions, which can be especially helpful
for people with impaired digestive function. .
Thus, according to the totality of accumulated experimental data
we can say that the daily consumption of two kiwi increases
stool frequency, including the number of complete spontaneous bowel movements
per week, reduces the time of passage of the masses through the gastrointestinal
tract and improves the indicators of intestinal microflora.
The immune system
Kiwi may have the ability to support immune function and reduce
the frequency and severity of colds or flu-like illnesses in
risk groups. Experimental study of the “golden” kiwi has shown
increased plasma vitamin C concentration and decreased severity
and the duration of symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections
in 32 seniors who received 4 kiwis per day for 4 weeks. .
Several studies have shown that kiwi consumption has a strong
effect on plasma and muscle vitamin C levels. . Optimal
plasma levels of this vitamin in humans are achieved by taking
about 200 mg / day, which is equivalent to about two
kiwi. Eating three or more kiwis per day to increase the vitamin
C in plasma was no longer affected.
All of this is important because ascorbic acid is absolutely essential.
for a variety of biological functions. She promotes education
collagen for the normal function of blood vessels, bone
and cartilage tissue, gums and teeth, skin. Moreover,
it provides metabolism, the functioning of the nervous system,
helps to normalize the psychological state, reduces fatigue
and fatigue, helps the regeneration of the restored form of the vitamin
E, iron absorption, maintenance of normal immune function
systems during and after intense exercise.
Several studies have examined the effects of green and golden kiwi
metabolic markers such as glucose and insulin balance,
maintenance of body weight and energy homeostasis.
Current research shows that the glycemic response of kiwi
how a whole food product is different from what you can
to be expected from its individual components. . Regular use
green and “gold” kiwi has a beneficial effect on some physiological
biomarkers especially in individuals with metabolic disorders due to
diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke and dementia. . In a number of human studies, positive changes in biomarkers
cardiovascular disease have been attributed to antioxidant
compounds present in kiwi. .
The effect of kiwi fruit on cancer is usually talked about.
with care, separating direct and indirect anti-cancer effects.
- Directare likely associated with a decrease in oxidative
DNA damage (which is provided by exposure to ascorbic
acids) and cytotoxic effects on cancer cell lines.
- Indirectare most likely associated with an increase
daily bowel movements and an increased content in the intestinal
feces of lactic acid bacteria, which ultimately contributes to
reducing the risk of malignant neoplasms, especially colorectal
Results from human studies of antioxidant efficacy
kiwis are inconsistent due to differences in experiment protocols,
the variety of kiwi used, the amount and duration of the study,
as well as the biomarkers used. However, taken together, the results
of these published works show that adding kiwi to food
still has the potential to provide direct or indirect anticancer
and anti-inflammatory effects.
In particular, the kissper peptide found in kiwi in this sense
is of particular interest for human health, as it exhibits
a range of beneficial actions, including anti-inflammatory response,
reduction of oxidative stress at the border of the mucous membrane
gastrointestinal tract. . While talking confidently about the established
therapeutic effects in this regard, it is still early.
Use in medicine
Kiwi is not used in modern official medicine. In the thematic
the literature mentions the herbal preparation polygamol, which
created on the basis of the extract of the related kiwi plant, also related to
to the genus Actinidia. This preparation for injection is recommended by the manufacturers,
primarily as a diuretic and immunomodulatory
funds. However, among its therapeutic effects, stimulation is also noted.
activity of the heart muscle.
Extracts of Actinidia deliciosa proper (the usual kiwi)
on sale too. They are intended for both outdoor and
and for indoor use, however the main area for use
such an extract is called cosmetology.
In folk medicine
For traditional medicine, kiwi berries in their modern form are very
“Young” product. First, until the beginning of the 20th century, the
large sweet and sour fruits of kiwi did not exist yet. Woody
vines of the genus Actinidia growing in China gave not very tasty
small 20-30 gram berries, which were named accordingly
– “chinese gooseberry“. And, secondly, even when breeders
bred plant varieties with delicious berries, to the counters of our
they traveled to the country for more than a decade. As a result, independent
the history of the use of kiwi in traditional medicine has practically no time
Modern traditional healers prescribe kiwi, either adhering to
general scientific ideas (or assumptions) about this product,
or – by analogy with other products, which also include
a large amount of vitamins C, E, B9, as well as minerals
potassium, magnesium, sodium, calcium, phosphorus, etc. For example, rich
vitamin composition makes it possible to recommend kiwi as a general tonic
and a multivitamin remedy during periods of seasonal vitamin deficiencies.
Sometimes kiwi fruits are tried to be used by analogy with the fruits of related
lianas of the genus Actinidia growing in the Far East. In the Far East
the traditions of the berries of the plant are applied much more widely:
- For joint diseases, rheumatism,
- With internal bleeding – stomach, intestinal, pulmonary,
- For diseases of the respiratory tract of various nature: tuberculosis,
- When parasites are found (as an antihelminthic agent).
- With toothache and enamel damage.
The juice of such wild berries reduces blood pressure and
increase appetite. And the infusion of them in small doses is drunk for prophylaxis
For shop kiwis, there is usually no provision for
special way of using. In most cases – to improve
digestion or normalization of blood pressure – 2-3 fetuses simply
add to the usual set of products. The exception here is
the appointment of kiwi to get rid of heartburn – then with one small
fruit is recommended to finish eating.
In oriental medicine
Early Chinese Pharmacopoeia, beginning in the Tang Dynasty (618–907
biennium AD), lists a number of medicines with “mihoutao”
– this Chinese name is usually used to refer to species
actinidium (kiwi). Among the therapeutic effects, the most frequently mentioned are:
- aid in digestion,
- reduction of discomfort and pain in the upper abdomen,
- getting rid of vomiting,
- decrease in the level of irritability.
Traditional Chinese medicine in ancient times discovered
that the “Chinese gooseberry” has cold properties that
useful for the spleen, liver, stomach. Today it is also believed
that kiwi balances the stomach and spleen, soothes the liver,
thereby improving the functioning of the digestive system. In the early stages
stomach cancer or after surgery and chemotherapy, the use of two
or three kiwis will help reduce nausea and improve digestion.
Traditional Chinese medicine officials claim that kiwi
helps the body fight cancer cells and is suitable as
daily food for people with a predominance of “warmth” suffering from cancer
stomach. However, with an excess of “cold” body kiwi in the diet, you need
limit, otherwise overeating can provoke diarrhea.
In scientific research
Today there are many clinical studies
fresh green kiwi with the participation of people. These studies were
conducted in different countries and included different populations (for example,
groups differing in age, health status, etc.).
Studied the effect of kiwi consumption on serum lipid profile
and antioxidant status, on the state of the cardiovascular system
and the ability to cause an antithrombotic effect on the function of the digestive
path (especially often).
Most studies have looked at the effects of long-term
eating kiwi, however, in some experiments,
and the “quick” reaction of the body to the berry. So, for example, were evaluated
the effects of eating green kiwi on stomach emptying
after eating a large portion of steak. According to the research results
scientists concluded that the fruits of green kiwi containing actinidin,
can significantly reduce bloating and other indicators
gastric discomfort in healthy men. .
In Taiwan, scientists studied the effect of two kiwis on the lipid profile,
antioxidants and markers of lipid peroxidation in adults
men and women with hyperlipidemia. After 8 weeks of taking kiwi
high density lipoprotein concentration was significantly
increased. Vitamins C and E, nutritional antioxidants along with
plasma antioxidant status also increased significantly in
fasting blood samples. .
Another group of scientists found that the consumption of two green
kiwi fruit per day for 4 weeks has a beneficial effect on lipids
plasma in a randomized controlled trial involving
85 patients with normal blood pressure and patients with
hypertensive hypercholesterolemia. . In particular, it was noted
increase in the level of “good” cholesterol. However, there were no significant
differences in the two groups between plasma cholesterol levels, lipoproteins
low density, insulin, glucose sensitivity C-reactive
protein, blood pressure indicators. And with further research
there was not even a positive effect on markers of cardiovascular
functions or indicators of blood pressure. .
However, in some studies by other authors, positive
the effect was recorded. So, in 2012, in experiments with volunteers
it has been demonstrated that taking three kiwis per day for
3 weeks contributed to pronounced antihypertensive and antithrombotic
effect in middle-aged and elderly male smokers. .
The authors noted that this dietary approach can help delay
pharmacological treatment in people with high blood pressure.
Potential Cardiovascular Protective Properties of Extracts
kiwis were first demonstrated in a test tube. .
And evidence that eating kiwi can modulate
platelet reactivity with respect to collagen was found in
experiments with volunteers. .
In their work, the authors concluded that kiwi can potentially
used to prevent thrombosis.
The habitual consumption of large quantities of fruits and vegetables is already
has long been associated with positive risk-reducing effects
chronic diseases. And the presence of such antioxidant components,
as vitamins C and E, polyphenols, favorable Na + ratio
/ K + and other bioactive components of kiwi may explain their
beneficial physiological effects.
To measure the contribution of “golden” kiwi to the absorption of vitamin C from
with food, its plasma level was measured in a group of 14 male students
with initially low levels of this vitamin (average initial
plasma level 38 mM). Participants were asked to eat half of the
kiwi a day for 4 weeks, two kiwis a day for 6 weeks
and finally, three kiwis a day for 4 weeks. Adding everything
only half of the kiwi fruit in the daily diet led to a significant
an increase in the content of vitamin C in plasma. To achieve that
which is considered a healthy level, it required one fruit per day. .
Another experiment showed that high levels of vitamin C
in kiwi can improve the bioavailability of iron. .
16 healthy subjects took part in the study for 89 weeks.
women with low iron status (serum ferritin (SF) ≤
25 μg / L and hemoglobin (Hb) ≥ 115 g / L). Some of them ate on
breakfast 2 kiwis along with iron-fortified cereals. Control
the group was given bananas instead of kiwis.
After 16 weeks in the kiwi group, the mean serum
ferritin increased significantly from 17,0 mcg / L (at baseline)
up to 25.0 μg / l compared to the banana group. There is an average level
serum ferritin was 16,5 μg / L at baseline
level, and by the end of the study it had grown to 17,5 μg / l. It is important to note,
that an increase in serum ferritin by 10 μg / l in women,
who ate kiwi brought the level up to the normal range
20–160 mg / l.
For losing weight
Kiwi in weight loss programs is one of the most popular foods.
Firstly, these berries have a relatively low calorie content – about
55-60 kcal / 100 g. And, secondly, it is believed that due to the large
the amount of plant fiber in kiwi for dieters,
it is easier to control appetite and achieve a feeling of fullness.
Meanwhile, there is no direct experimental evidence that the addition
Kiwi in the diet subjectively suppresses hunger. In the results
some studies explicitly indicate that these expected effects
were not recorded.
Nevertheless, as a product that is able to significantly diversify
menu, while providing the body with vitamins and minerals, kiwi
it is quite possible to include in diets aimed at getting rid of excess
kilograms. In addition, kiwi fruit can be beneficial in losing weight,
even if you just add 1-2 berries to your daily diet, you can’t
no longer changing it. This effect is created by improving
metabolism with regular consumption of berries.
Kiwi is called “Chinese gooseberry” for a reason. His taste to many
at the same time resembles a gooseberry,
Gourmets to eat these fruits raw use a special
spoon with miniature notches along the rim. But like other fruits,
kiwi can be processed into jelly, made into jams, added
in dessert salads.
There are many recipes for desserts using kiwi.
This fruit is suitable for filling pies, it can also be used to make
jams and marmalades. There is also a whole group of alcoholic and non-alcoholic
kiwi-based drinks that are made on an industrial scale.
Recently, kiwi has become a popular pickling product.
tough meat for barbecue. Actinidin of kiwi pulp literally in 10-15
minutes can destroy protein fibers and soften even very
Cosmetology is hardly the most popular related area
the use of fresh kiwi fruits and their extracts. As active
substances in the instructions for the extracts indicate actinidine, ascorbic
acid, alpha hydroxy acids. It is assumed that with their help
- effectively brightens the skin and removes pigmentation,
- exfoliates dead cells
- protects against solar ultraviolet radiation,
- promotes the production and protection of collagen.
As a result of using the extract, the skin should acquire a smooth
color, become elastic, fit and radiant.
For the same purpose as extracts, they are used in home cosmetology
fresh kiwi. The sliced fruits are applied to the face for
nutrition and moisturizing, rub the skin with kiwi cubes, and rub
the pulp is mixed with various additional ingredients (eggs,
honey, other fruits) to create healing, restorative
and skin-smoothing masks.
But not all cosmetologists are equally positive about the use.
kiwi as a face mask. This practice has critics
who claim that the actinidine in the composition is more harmful,
than good. Actinidin as a Concentrated Peroxidase Mixture
and polyphenol oxidase destroys proteins and, in addition to allergic
reactions can cause serious skin damage. In the beauty industry
to eliminate possible side effects in restorative
and healing masks and creams usually use kiwi extracts
without actinidine and calcium oxalate.
We have collected the most important points about the benefits and possible dangers of kiwi
in this illustration and we will be very grateful if you share
a picture on social networks, with a link to our page:
When choosing kiwi, they adhere to the general rules for buying fruit – then
eat, prefer fruits without damage, dark spots,
mildew, wrinkles, or rot. But, besides this, there are also specific
signs of identifying quality ripe kiwi.
However, some people still deliberately prefer very soft
fruits, and others – for various reasons, specially choose slightly
immature, so that later, if necessary, ripen them.
In the refrigerator in the fruit compartment, the kiwi fruit can harmlessly
consumer qualities are stored for at least a week. With good
air exchange and isolation from pungent-smelling products, these fruits are capable
lie in the refrigerator for up to a month. But if such unripe berries
need to be quickly brought to a state of ripeness, then they can simply
remove from the refrigerator and put in one dish with apples, pears,
apricots or bananas, which give off maturation-accelerating ethylene gas.
In the twentieth century, kiwi has come a long way from being a wild plant, in part
exploited by man to a commercial culture with an international
economic importance. Natural habitat of the Kiwi is Temperate
forests of mountains and hills of southwestern China. And who knows how it turned out
would the fate of this fruit, if not for the activity in the 19th century of missionaries
in China, who made a great contribution to the development of botany and the distribution
However, the first botanical specimens of Actinidia chinensis were sent
to Europe by the Jesuit priest Père Pierre Noel Le Charon d’Incarville
long before the 19th century, back in the 1750s. And only then, a century later,
By the London Horticultural Society (1843-1845) to China for “collecting
seeds and plants of an ornamental or useful species “, was sent
collector Robert Fortune. One of the specimens of Actinidia chinensis,
collected by Fortune, was kept for a very long time after that in the Royal
Botanical Gardens in Kew (London).
However, although Fortune took an active part in the distribution
kiwi, it was not he who gave the world a delicious and healthy fruit. Down to the start
Of the 20th century, the kiwi plant was considered an ornamental wonder, and its
fruits almost none of the representatives of European civilization
I did not eat – they were small (no more than 30 g) and completely
And only in 1904, New Zealand school teacher Isabelle
Fraser, having traveled to China, brought from there the seeds of the “Chinese gooseberry”,
which later became known to us as kiwi. These seeds have fallen into
to the Hayward Wright nursery near Oakland. And already this breeder looked
on kiwi as very valuable during winter vitamin deficiency
new fruit and began to “promote” it. Named after Wright cultivar
Hayward has been widely sold since the late 1930s and even dominated for a long time
on the market, although it was very
Growing kiwi took a bold approach, there was no proven
schemes, and agronomic problems had to be solved as they arose.
World War II, followed by agricultural and marketing
incentives from the 1950s to the present have helped spread the fruit.
The popularity of delicious berries among American
and the British military who served in New Zealand during
The name “Kiwi” was proposed by Turners and Growers Ltd, an exporting firm
from Auckland, in honor of an endemic flightless bird believed to be
emblem of New Zealand. As a result, by the 70s of the 20th century, the name
Kiwi has become widespread and accepted. In russian language
this word is applied to a tree and a fruit. “Big Explanatory Dictionary”
recommends using neuter, but is allowed in other dictionaries
and the equal use of the masculine gender.
In general, over the past 100 years, kiwi from wild “Chinese gooseberries”
has become an important fruit crop in many countries. Noticeably
the geography of kiwi plantations has expanded. Now the gardens take up a large
area in China, New Zealand, Australia, Chile, USA and Europe
– mainly in Italy, Greece, France. By the way, high content
vitamin C in Italian fruit has earned the kiwi the reputation of “frutto
della salute ”- the fruit of health.
… plantations of culture are located in the Krasnodar Territory and on
south of Dagestan. Ukrainian kiwis grow in the Transcarpathian region, where
breeder Heinrich Straton bred a special frost-resistant variety
Increasing volume of research data and growing awareness
consumers’ health benefits of kiwi provide a logical
motivation to consume this fruit regularly and to include
it into a balanced diet. And future research on kiwi fruit is likely
will only increase the popularity of this exotic berry.