Mandarin, Calories, benefits and harms, Benefits

There are many myths about mandarin. Many have probably heard that
you can’t eat more than 4 fruits a day? This is an exaggeration – there is no
common table for all, indicating the dangerous amount of this citrus.
They also say that the green leaves on the tangerine are a sign of its special
freshness, that the orange the peel, the sweeter the fruit, that the
naringin contained in the zest directly burns fats and that citruses in general and tangerine
in particular are hardly the best source of vitamin C. this is also
not entirely true. But mandarin has properties that have long been
in demand in folk medicine, which make it a promising
product in the fight against some serious diseases.

Useful properties of mandarin

Composition and calorie content

Fresh tangerines comprises (100 g) .

Calories 53 Kcal

Vitamin C 26.7 Potassium, K 166 mg Vitamin
B4 10.2 Calcium, Ca 37 Vitamin
B1 0.058 Phosphorus,
P 20 Vitamin
Magnesium, Mg
Vitamin B5
On 2

Full composition

The table shows that vitamin C, which all citrus fruits are famous for, is
in tangerine about 27 mg / 100 g. In some varieties it can
be 2 times more, however, the concentration of the vitamin is an order of magnitude higher
С, for example, in bell
peppers (approximately 250 mg / 100 g) or dried rose hips
(up to 1200 mg / 100 g) … However, in winter, when other products are
less available, it is citruses that become the main source of
vitamin C, which is practically not lost in tangerine during

In addition, in tangerines (also in relatively small quantities)
contains choline (10.2 mg / 100 g), which, according to an outdated tradition
, is sometimes still called vitamin B4, and lutein (138 μg / 100
g). But on the other hand, mandarin is considered one of the best sources of the “citrus
bioflavonoid” hesperidin, sometimes yielding
only sweet orange juice
(Citrus sinensis) in this indicator . Fresh mandarin fruits (Citrus reticulata)
contain 19.26 (+/- 11.56) mg g / 100 g of fresh fruit mass, in a
hybrid of orange and tangerine – about 15.42 (+/- 7.00) mg / 100
g, in a hybrid of tangerine and grapefruit
– 4.21 (+/- 2.93) mg / 100 g.

Medicinal properties

In traditional therapeutic systems, mandarin fruits were used
mainly as regulators of the gastrointestinal tract (with moderate consumption),
and tangerine peel was also used as an antispasmodic, stimulant
and anti-inflammatory agent. However, due to the presence of a
number of useful elements in the pulp and peel of citrus, tangerine is able to exhibit
some other medicinal properties.

The yellow pigment lutein in mandarin, along with other lutein-containing
foods, can help restore visual function. Human
the body does not synthesize lutein, getting it exclusively from food.
Mandarin, on the other hand, with 138 mcg / 100 g, although it is in the top 15 products
containing lutein, is very far behind the leaders – spinach
(12198 mcg), Kale (8198 mcg), parsley
(5561 mcg) and others. Taking into account that the daily consumption rate of
lutein is about 5 mg (
5000 mcg), you will have to eat about 3.5 kg of tangerines per day to provide the body with lutein
from citrus alone . Moreover, it is desirable – with fats that increase
its digestibility.

Despite this, in combination with other products, mandarin can
help the body replenish the lack of lutein, which is in the body,
two main functions:

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Tangerine slices

  • Protective. Lutein protects against free radicals
    which, when exposed to the most aggressive blue-violet
    part of the visible spectrum of direct sunlight, lead to
    retinal degeneration.
  • Filtration. Thanks to lutein, the
    “aberration halo” is eliminated , which increases the clarity of objects and, accordingly,
    increases visual acuity. As a light filter, lutein also saves the
    lens from clouding.

Another useful organic compound in mandarin
– choline.
From it, the body synthesizes a transmitter of nerve impulses
(acetylcholine), which provides memory and nervous function of the
system. In addition, as a hepatoprotective agent, choline aids the transport of
fats in the liver, regulates insulin levels, and influences
carbohydrate metabolism.

The body produces it in insufficient quantities, and up to the daily
norms of 0.5-1 g (500-1000 mg) choline should be taken from food. IN
mandarin per 100 g contains only 10.2 mg of choline, therefore, as
in the previous case, you need to eat a lot per day –
more than 5 kg of tangerines to compensate for the lack of choline.
However, together with other choline-rich foods (eggs,
sprouted rice and wheat
, etc.), mandarin helps to build a healthy and varied
Plus , tangerines are usually eaten without being cooked, which breaks down choline when cooking other foods.

, a natural compound (a source of hesperitin in the body),
which is characterized by a complex effect on the cardiovascular
system , is obtained from the fruits and the spongy part of the mandarin crusts :

Mandarinovyj juice

By itself, this substance reduces the symptoms of asthma,
has anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic and antioxidant
effects. In combination with the flavonoid diosmin (altered hesperidin)
it reduces venous distensibility , increases capillary tone, promotes
lymphatic drainage and, in general, has a venotonic effect.
In combination with synephrine, it accelerates metabolism, and with
nitric oxide inhibitors, it is capable of exhibiting neuroprotective properties.

The flavonoid naringin from mandarin peel has an antioxidant
effect . , lowers cholesterol levels .
and improves cognitive performance . There is also speculation
that it can increase the elasticity of capillaries and exhibit antitumor
properties. Existing techniques allow, with the help of a certain
composition of the multi-enzyme composition, by destroying the cell walls of the
tangerine peel to extract up to 74% of naringin from its original
content in the raw material.

Use in medicine

The pharmaceutical industry most often uses pomace
from dried mandarin peel, which is added to extracts, syrups
and some medicines to improve the taste of medicines. Moreover,
it contains hesperidin – a powerful cardioprotector, which,
in addition, protects the brain from stressors. This substance
in 10% concentration is included, for example, in the composition of “Daflon”
– a drug intended for the treatment of varicose veins,
tired legs syndrome and other chronic venous diseases, as well as
symptomatic treatment of hemorrhoids.

Dried bark of ripe
fruits, which is widely used by Chinese doctors in the treatment of
diseases and pathological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract (in particular, vomiting,
severity in the epigastric region), anorexia, respiratory diseases of the
pathways, vitamin deficiency , has been introduced into the State Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China .

Korean pharmacists are developing and introducing a dosage form
of the KMP6 extract, which has also found application in the treatment of gastrointestinal
pathologies: with bloating, rumbling, diarrhea provoked by a
decrease in intestinal tone and motility, with distension of the stomach
and inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as in cases of loss of appetite. Part of the
extract, in addition to sour mandarin, includes atractylodes (
known as bai-shu in China ), ziziphus, ginger,

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For diagnostic purposes, a food allergen is isolated from mandarin,
known under the Latin name “Allergenum e Citrus” and belonging
to the pharmacological group of immunobiological drugs for

Tangerines on the table

In folk medicine

Traditional medicine traditionally uses different parts of the plant
to achieve the intended therapeutic effect.

Healers recommend
eating mandarin fruits to increase appetite and improve digestion. Fresh fruit juice is drunk for dysentery,
diarrhea, the presence of helminths
and intestinal pathologies caused by impaired intestinal motility.
It is believed that the juice weakens the activity of the wave-like contractions of the
hollow organs of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, it has antimicrobial effects.

The juice is also used for diseases of the respiratory system.
Every morning a glass of tangerine juice removes mucus from the bronchi
and upper respiratory tract. They also quench their thirst with fresh juices during
various colds
, accompanied by an increase in temperature.

External regular use of tangerine juice is practiced
to treat fungal diseases – “ringworm
” (microsporia and trichophytosis). Also with the help of fresh
applications treat vaginal candidiasis (thrush).
This disease is caused by the yeast-like fungi Candida.

With the help of prepared tangerine peel, people popularly reduce
blood sugar levels, restore the work of the digestive
tract and respiratory system. Citrus seeds are sometimes used
to improve cardiovascular health. Mandarin oil
popular in aromatherapy to lift mood and fight apathetic

Tangerine broth

Decoctions and infusions

Decoctions and infusions are made from mandarin peel and leaves.
Some of the most popular popular recipes are listed below:

  • Decoction of leaves for gastrointestinal disorders. 3-4 leaves are
    filled with water (300 ml) and kept on fire for 15 minutes.
    After cooling, the broth is taken three times a day, 100 ml each until the
    gastrointestinal tract normalizes.
  • An alcoholic infusion of mandarin peel to remove phlegm
    from the bronchi.
    The rind is dried, ground, the resulting
    powder (3 tbsp. L.) Is poured with vodka (250 ml), and then the mixture
    infused in a dark, warm place for a week. Such an infusion
    taken three times a day, only 20 drops added to
    a small amount of water, 15-20 minutes before meals. If alcohol is
    strictly prohibited, the infusion is replaced with a “cocktail” in water:
    tangerine peel powder (1 tbsp. L.) Is diluted in warm water
    (250 ml). In this case, it is enough to drink one glass of
    a day remedy .
  • Decoction of fresh peel to lower blood sugar levels.
    Fresh peels of three medium-sized tangerines are poured in a liter of
    water and boiled for 10 minutes, then cooled down
    and placed in the refrigerator without straining.
    You need to take the remedy in a glass once a day (or half a glass twice a day)
    after meal.

In oriental medicine

In the old reference book of recipes and medicines of plant, mineral
and animal origin, known as “Pen Tsao” (“Materia Medica”),
for all citrus crops there is a common name – “chu”,
while there are 5 varieties of citrus, among which under the
name “can “(Or” chu-sha-chu “) orange tangerine is also mentioned.
But regardless of the type of citrus, it is defined as a fruit that
refreshes, quenches thirst, normalizes stomach function, manifests
itself as a “carminative” remedy, but when abused, it “increases
phlegm.” At the same time
, the peel of kuo-pi is used more often than citrus fruits in classical Chinese medicine (this is the Cantonese name for
tangerine peel).

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Mandarinovoe butter

The peel of the fruit is considered a universal medicine, the range of application of
which is extremely wide. It is used as an antispasmodic,
stimulant, anti-inflammatory and gastric remedy. Her
prescribed for shortness of breath in the elderly and wasting in children. Peel
immature fruits are prescribed mainly as a carminative.

The inner membranes of the fruit, boiled in wine, are taken to relieve
nausea. Seeds ground in a mortar to a state of powder
(with a detached shell) treat pathologies of the genitourinary system,
inflammation of the lymphatic glands in the groin area, varicose veins
ovarian veins. The juice of fresh leaves and a decoction of dry leaves are washed
and cancers. They are also used for disorders of the menstrual

Mandarin essential oil is considered by traditional Chinese medicine
the softest and most soothing of the essential oils extracted
from any other citrus fruit. It has a significant effect
on the condition of oily skin, helping to fight acne
and giving it a healthy complexion. Besides, it is effective for insomnia,
has antiseptic properties. Prescribe oil for the syndrome of
increased intestinal permeability. It reduces gas production
and stimulates the lymphatic system.

In Japan, where the imported from China began to be cultivated long ago, the
frost-resistant unshiu tangerine also has a tradition of using
dried citrus peel as a delicious spice of a
medicine to normalize stomach function. A decoction of the
peel, as well as its aqueous and alcoholic infusions, was used to improve
digestion and eliminate nausea, treat bronchitis with them and relieve
coughs. Satsuma mandarin flower tea has been recommended as a mild
sedative to relieve insomnia.

In Ayurveda – the system of traditional medicine of the peoples of India – mandarin
is considered a “heavy and hot” fruit that reduces Vata
– one of the three primary life forces (doshas) that determine the
human constitution . Vata (corresponds to the element of air, ether) is a biological
“juice”, “which moves” and is responsible for will, thinking, movement,
sensory perception. Excessive Vata provokes hypertension,
insomnia, nervous system disorders, flatulence.
Mandarin is able to get rid of these problems, and, in addition, it can
remove worms, improve appetite, relieve cramps, pain, fatigue
and give strength. In Ayurveda recipes, mandarin is also included in
funds designed to stop bleeding of various

Dried tangerine peels

In scientific research

Despite the prevalence of mandarin as a crop (and among
citrus fruits, it lags behind only orange in terms of cultivation) , there are quite few
scientific projects devoted to the study of the beneficial properties of various
parts of the plant. Of the recent
ones, attention is drawn to those who investigate the antibacterial and analgesic properties of
mandarin, the possibility of its inclusion in therapeutic programs
for the treatment of atopic dermatitis,
liver and lung cancer.

  1. 1 Unshiu tangerines cultivated in Japan may be
    helpful in combating atopic dermatitis.

Scientists have found that the peel extract of this fruit has anti-inflammatory
and anti- viral properties. For the experiment, unripe fruits were taken,
since at this stage they contain a greater amount of the necessary
flavonoids. The effectiveness of the action of the agent was checked on artificially
infected and shaved mice. After 36 days of exposure to the extract
in experimental animals, hyperkeratosis decreased (thickening of the horny
layer of the skin), redness of the upper layer of the skin, and also
decreased number of mast cells – cells that play a key role
in inflammation .

  1. 2 The essential oil from tangerine skins and the separately extracted
    terpene limonene have been tested for their
    anti-cancer properties.
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In a test tube experiment, the scientists used oil and limonene
to fight cell lines A549 (lung cancer) HepG2 (liver cancer).
Depending on the dose, both substances had a detrimental effect
on pathogenic cells. At the same time, the essential oil showed the best
results. Researchers believe that it can be taken to create
drug that will be used as an additional
treatment, although scientists admit more experimentation is needed
to confirm the information .

Mandarin leaves

  1. 3 Mandarin leaves can be used as raw materials for the creation of pain relievers

Mandarin leaves are usually a little pungent, so scientists speculated
that they may contain components with analgesic properties.
As a result of experiments, they were able to establish that purified
mandarin essential oil contains molecules that can become
part of drugs for relieving pain of various nature .

  1. 4 Inhaled aromatherapy with mandarin essential oils reduces
    pain and anxiety.

In 2016, a large-scale experiment was conducted in which
10,262 people participated (81.71% of women and 18.29% of men, 87.32% of
Caucasians and 12.68% of representatives of other races). Participants were
patients with different diagnoses in hospitals in
Minnesota and West Wisconsin. The essence of the experiment was
aromatherapy in the form of inhalation was included in the set of routine patient care procedures . The nurses used
different essential oils (lavender, ginger, tangerine, or a
mixture of these). As a result, patients reported a decrease in nausea, pain
and anxiety .

  1. 1 Mandarin essential oils suppress the activity of the bacterium Listeria

The antimicrobial properties of tangerine oil have been tested in a
procedure to increase the shelf life of food.
Green beans were used as the object in this experiment. In the
composition of the substance providing the protective function and designed to
deal with the bacterium Listeria innocua on the surface of vegetables, was added
0.05% mandarin essential oil. Together with other protective procedures,
the effect of the substance with tangerine oil met the expectations of the researchers

Tangerine in peel

For losing weight

Sports supplements use naringin
, a flavonoid derived from the peel of tangerines and grapefruits, to reduce body weight .
Although it does not directly burn fat, its inclusion in preparations
can suppress appetite, improve glucose metabolism and improve absorption of
a number of components from the intestines.

Also in sports nutrition designed to burn fat,
a substance called synephrine is widely used. It is believed
that synephrine accelerates metabolism, mobilizes fat depot,
enhances heat production and breaks down fats by activating
thermogenesis. This substance is often mentioned on the Internet in connection with
the benefits of tangerines in
weight loss programs .

However, such a mention requires significant clarifications:

  • First, the pharmacological effect has been proven for m-synephrine,
    but for its isomer p-synephrine (which is extracted from citrus fruits),
    this effect has not yet been reliably confirmed. Research in 2004
    suggests that some lipolytic effect of p-synephrine
    occurs only at high doses . In 2011, researchers
    studied the combination of p-synephrine with green tea extract and caffeine,
    as a result of which the proportion of synephrine’s contribution to fat burning remained
    unknown, although scientists calculated that thanks to synephrine
    , the metabolic rate probably increased by 6.7% .
  • Secondly, p-synephrine is obtained from bitter orange, not
    from mandarin, although there is a hybrid of mandarin with bitter orange,
    which partially inherited the characteristics of both “parents”.
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At the same time, tangerine itself, with its 30-55 kcal / 100 g, really
belongs to low-calorie foods and, on this basis, becomes
part of unloading short-term complex diets. For example,
it is part of a 7-day diet of 200 g of
curd with
tangerines four times a day. It is said that on such a diet
in a week you can get rid of 3-5 “extra” pounds. but
it should be borne in mind that tangerine fruits in the diet increase appetite,
and it will be quite difficult to hold out on a tangerine diet.

Mandarin with chicken meat

In cooking

In cooking, mandarin is popular both fresh and in preserves,
jams, syrups, compotes.
When preparing jam, in addition to the pulp, the
zest is usually laid , which gives the dessert astringency and enhances the tangerine

As a spice, the fruits of this fruit are added to meat and fish
dishes; numerous recipes for making tangerines
with rice are known .
In this case, usually the mention of tangerines is included in the name of the dish
as “advertisement” of taste: “Duck with tangerines”, “Turkey escalopes
in tangerine marinade”, “Red cabbage with tangerines stuffed with
cloves”, etc.

Fragrant citruses often become components of alcoholic
and non-alcoholic
drinks. Popular combinations of tangerines in champagne with star anise
and cardamom, warmed wine with tangerines and lemongrass, tangerine-banana
smoothies, etc. In China, pu-erh tea is made from Xinhui fruit.
To do this, the top of the fruit is first cut off, then the pulp is partially
removed, and in its place are filled with tea leaves, which are poured
with water. The tea brewed in this way is also covered with a
“cap” from the previously cut top, which results in a
very fragrant citrus drink.

In cosmetology

In skin care cosmetics, mandarin extract is used, which
is found in formulations under synonymous names: Ext.
Mandarin Orange, Mandarin Orange Fruit Extract, Citrus Nobilis
Extract, etc. It exhibits mainly antiseptic properties
– as an antibacterial agent, the extract fights against the causative agents of
rash. But the functions of tangerine extract in cosmetics are
not limited to this.

Mandarin in cosmetology

  • Toning effect. Upon contact with the skin, the
    extract has a cooling and astringent effect. It stimulates
    local blood circulation, thereby
    improving the supply of oxygen to the skin , increasing the firmness and elasticity of the skin.
  • Anti-age. Intensive microcirculation
    also prevents aging – prevents the formation of fine wrinkles.
  • Whitening effect. In this role, the extract
    does not act as the main component, but is often added to
    brightening compositions, where together with a more potent ingredient
    controls melanin biosynthesis, inhibiting the development of hyperpigmentation.
  • Regulation of seborrhea (for oily skin). The
    stretch from tangerine peels eliminates flaking, tightens pores, reduces the
    secretion of the sebaceous
    glands, which has a beneficial effect on the appearance of the hair.
  • Perfume component. The strong and pleasant
    scent of mandarin is often used in relaxation aromatherapy.
    In shampoos and soaps, it deodorizes hair and skin.
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Masks, lotions, scrubs based
not only on tangerine oils, but also on the peel and pulp of fresh citrus are popular in home cosmetologists .

  • Refreshing mask from fruit pulp. Mandarin (1 pc.) Is peeled
    , the pulp of the fruit is stirred into a gruel, to which
    honey (1/2 tsp) or sour cream is added. 2-3 times a week, such a mask is applied
    to the face for a quarter of an hour, after which it is washed off with water.
  • Scrub mask with tangerines and flakes. Mandarin pulp gruel
    (1 pc) mixed with heavy cream
    (1 tsp) and chopped barley
    flakes (1 tablespoon). Massage the scrub onto the face,
    and then, after 15 minutes, it is removed with a napkin.
  • Zest toning mask. Dried tangerine peel
    crushed in a coffee grinder, after which 1 tbsp. l. such powder is
    thoroughly mixed with egg
    yolk (1 pc.) and sour cream (1 tsp.). The mask is applied to the
    entire face, except for the eye area, for 20 minutes.
  • Lip balm with essential oil.
    Mandarin essential oil
    (10 drops), palm
    butter (1/2 tsp) and
    cocoa butter (1/3 tsp) are added to beeswax (10 g) melted in a water bath . After mixing until smooth, the
    balm is applied to the lips before going out in windy or frosty
  • Hair Mask. The juice squeezed out of 2 tangerines is mixed
    with mustard
    (1 tablespoon) and applied for 20 minutes along the entire length of the hair. Then the
    mixture is washed off with water and shampoo. This mask eliminates dandruff
    and reduces sebum.

We have collected the most important points about the benefits and possible dangers of mandarin
in this illustration and we will be very grateful if you share
a picture on social networks, with a link to our page:

When choosing the best tangerines, you should focus on the country of origin,
variety, and on the compliance of the characteristics of the mandarin with the varietal criteria of the
selected fruits.

When buying tangerines, you should also not forget about the general rules.
the choice of any vegetables and fruits: the fruits should not have dark spots
and mold, soft “dips” of the onset of decay, the integrity of the peel
should not be disturbed, and healed
surface cuts are also not allowed . Tangerines should look healthy overall,
however, slight abrasions or superficial scratches in taste and
fruit quality are not affected. In addition, the shiny surface
is not indicative of the health of the fruit, but rather of the supplier’s
protective wax treatment of the peel.

The freshness of tangerines is determined primarily by the density of the
adhesion of the peel. For despised or stale fruits, it lags behind,
and when fresh and picked on time, it adheres tightly to the fruit. At the same time, the
presence of green leaves on the stalk is not considered an indicator of freshness.
The leaves of tangerine trees may not fade for a long time, only drying out
over time. However, the popular opinion among consumers is that citruses
with the stalks are better stored, since this is how the integrity is guaranteed
peel at the attachment point.

Tangerines brought home from the store rarely stagnate for a long time,
and for a week they can be stored without creating special conditions
at room temperature. If you still need to stock up
for a longer period (up to a month), the fruits are put in a container,
providing air circulation and removal of excess moisture (for example,
perforated cardboard box), and placed in a refrigerator or
a cellar with a temperature in the range of + 4-8 ° C and a humidity of about 80%.
A low level of moisture leads to drying out of the fruit, and excess
moisture in a tightly closed plastic bag can cause

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Some tangerine lovers do not stockpile for food, but
then, throughout the year, use the fruit in traditional medicine recipes.
But it must be borne in mind that the longer the citrus lies, the more useful
properties it loses. So, for example, the concentration of oil in the peel of a tangerine
after 4 months of storage is reduced by an average of 35%.

To grow a tangerine tree from a bone at home, you need to stock up on
patience and be prepared for unexpected results. Without human
help the tangerine may never bloom and not bear fruit at all
while remaining an ornamental plant. But if the fruits do set
and grow, their taste and size are likely to differ
from the fruit from which the stone was taken, and not always
for the worse.

To speed up the growing process, they try to choose
seeds of hybrid varieties for planting , which sprout faster and bear fruit more often.
Seeds are selected “plump” (not dried), without blackening on the “nose”.
It is advisable to plant several (5-10) seeds at once, so that then
select the strongest shoots. Important after removing the bone from
immediately put the pulp in the soil at an approximate depth
of 3-4 cm.

The soil you need is not acidic with a pH of 6.5-7 – without peat content.
When self-preparing the soil, mix the soil from under the deciduous
plants, rotted humus and sown sand in a ratio of 2: 2: 1.

You can even plant a bone in an ordinary plastic cup,
in which a drainage hole is made. Germination is sometimes practiced
in a damp cloth (gauze) that is placed on a saucer in warm
a place out of direct sunlight.

Above the soil surface, tangerine sprouts can appear after
2 weeks, and a month later. However, they will sprout under the condition of regular
увлажнения и поддержания температурного диапазона 20-25°С окружающей
Wednesday. Greenhouse conditions with a higher temperature create
not recommended, because the plant will have to get used to it again
to room conditions, which complicates care.

If two sprouts appear from one tangerine seed, then either
they are seated (with a separate root system), or weaker
of them are pinned. The first transplantation of sprouts is performed at the stage
the appearance of four leaves. The second – when filling everything with roots
the volume of the glass (they cannot immediately transfer it into a spacious pot, so that
avoid the risk of waterlogging). Subsequent transplants of infertile
растений производят ежегодно, а плодоносящих – раз в 2 или 3 года.
During the fruiting period, the tangerine grown from the bone enters into
5-6th year.

In our country, mandarin was and remains the main New Year and Christmas
fruit that can create a festive
mood with just its scent . But besides that, as we now know, the aroma of this citrus
helps to relieve anxiety and muffle pain, and the fruits
– to ensure the normal functioning of the digestive tract, which makes tangerine useful
not only during the New Year’s celebrations.

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Anna Evans

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