Today, the quality of products sold in stores and on the market is difficult to determine without special research. More and more people are thinking about raising livestock on their own. The most promising and economical in terms of breeding and keeping are pigs. Their meat is by far the most sought after. Fattening pigs for meat to large sizes is not an easy task and requires some knowledge and skills from the farmer.
Feeding pigs at home
Factors Affecting Fattening
Fattening pigs at home begins with a study of the structural features of their digestive system. This knowledge will provide an opportunity to better understand the principles of nutrition of individuals. When organizing pig fattening, it is important to consider the fact that these animals are omnivores. The breakdown of food occurs already in the oral cavity under the influence of saliva. With age, the pig’s stomach increases to 8 liters. Its inner surface is covered with mucous membrane and is divided into 5 sections. Food is further processed in the stomach.
In the early stages of development in piglets, the digestive function of the stomach is insufficient. The gastric glands secrete hydrochloric acid in small quantities or do not secrete it at all. The period of absence of gland hydrochloric acid in piglets is called achlorhydia. With age, the stomach increases, and therefore, the glands secreting more and more secret.By the age of 7 months, a pig’s stomach is capable of digesting a large amount of food.
Based on the above-described features of the development of the gastrointestinal tract in young animals, piglets are fed with coarser food from 3 months of age.
Due to the intestinal type of digestion, animals can digest any type of feed. The most rational is feeding, which does not require the mediation of microflora. In large industrial enterprises, concentrates are often used. In addition to concentrated feeds, pigs are introduced into the diet:
- root crops;
- fresh herbs: nettle, bean tops, alfalfa;
- waste from the food and dairy industries.
Fattening pigs for profit is considered the most economical. Compared to other representatives of the farmyard, pigs require much less feed. Many precocious breeds gain up to 100 kg in a month, with 1 to 5 feed units spent per 1 kg of weight gain, while cattle need 7 to 12 feed units for intensive feeding.
Pigs , like any other farm animals, according to production data can be of 3 types. Accordingly, the types of fattening pigs are divided into:
- meat fattening;
Feeding pigs for meat
Meat fattening pigs is the most effective at this moment and is most often used by our compatriots.Bacon fattening of pigs begins with the right choice of animal breed. Meat breeds include Duroc, Pietren, Hampshire, Temvors.
Beef fattening begins at 3 months of age and continues until 7-9 months, until the pig gains weight 100-130 kg. In representatives of meat breeds, the percentage of meat leaves 70%, the fat layer on the ridge – 4 cm.
At home, it is very simple to make your own diet. There is a special table of norms for feeding pigs for meat, bacon fat.
The basis of food in the summer is juicy green feed. Free-range keeping significantly reduces feed costs. In winter, feed is enriched with root crops, silage and hay. The diet of pigs for fattening also includes yeast, all kinds of wet mixes from bran, bakery products, dairy products.
Piglets are usually selected for fattening for bacon. It will probably be the most difficult to feed a piglet to bacon. For this, young growth of 2-3 months is chosen, which has already reached 25 kg. Most often they prefer breeds that have an elongated body, because the final product is obtained from the middle part of the carcass. Feeding involves a clear control of the amount of protein in the diet: 130 g per kg of body weight at the beginning of feeding, and 100 g at the end.
Piglets with a body weight of 90-100 kg are sent for slaughter.If the weight gain is too fast, when at 5 months the pig already weighs 90 kg, the bacon will be watery. Such a product will not be able to be stored for a long time, on the contrary, with a slow mass gain of up to 10 months, the bacon becomes stiff, dry and stretches like rubber. During fattening pigs, bacon is carefully selected. Not suitable:
- boars neutered for three months;
- uncastrated males;
- pregnant and lactating sows.
Feeding pigs for fat
The type of fattening pigs to greasy conditions involves the use of individuals rejected for various reasons. With this method of fattening, breeders aim to improve the quality of fat, meat and fat. The percentage of fat in the carcass is 50%, meat – at least 40%. Most often, such representatives are sold on sausages. This is the fastest feeding of piglets: it takes only 2-3 months.
In the diet for the most part should be high-carb foods with a low protein content. In total, the regimen is a 2-3-time feeding with wet mash mats. The average daily weight gain is 800-900 g.
Features of the diet
The technology for feeding pigs consists in the selection of high-quality feed. You can not feed the pigs that fall from the table, otherwise it will not work to achieve the desired result. Keep in mind that some products can spoil the quality of meat. This applies to fish waste.A month before slaughter, they are removed from the diet, otherwise the meat will have a specific aftertaste and smell.
Meat fattening of pigs begins at 3 months of age. The same goes for greasy fattening. Upon reaching a weight of 25 kg, pigs are transferred to fattening: this technology involves an effective set of muscle mass in the first stage due to the nutrition of proteins. The fat begins to fat pigs rejected for various reasons, from any age. When feeding Vietnamese piglets, almost the same scheme is used as for other representatives. It is important to remember that in the diet of meat pigs, proteins should predominate, but for feeding lard, mainly carbohydrate food is introduced into the diet, while the amount of protein, on the contrary, is reduced.
From the age of 5 months, the pig begins to feed more high-calorie foods and try to limit motor activity. So that the pig quickly gained weight, in the diet must be combined feed, enriched with vitamins and minerals. It is best to administer vitamin liquid top dressing at a suckling age. When fed to fat, pigs quickly gain weight, literally in 2-3 months.
Peculiarities of feeding young calves
The most effective method of feeding for meat involves several stages. Upon reaching 4 weeks, the piglets are weaned from the mother. Monthly weaners at home continue to be fed with cow’s milk and little by little wet mixers are introduced.Appropriate technology allows you to get juicy meat with uniform fatty layers and excellent taste of meat products.
Many novice breeders are wondering how to choose piglets for fattening when switching to dry concentrated feed. As a rule, piglets of 3 months of age, having reached 25 kg, are selected. At this age, the young have already formed a stomach, individuals can feed on their own.
The content of pigs for fattening involves 2 main phases:
- active set of muscle mass;
- fat growth.
For fattening pigs for meat, you need to choose the right piglets and move them to a separate bright room. Weaker individuals are also placed separately. Weaning requires special care. During this period, babies who are not yet weaned from their mother can experience stress, so a deterioration in appetite is often observed. The feeding base for the most part consists of moist sackcloths and green grass.
Due to the fact that the pigs have not yet fully formed the stomach in 3 months, the feeding technology assumes adherence to the diet. Piglets are fed up to 6 times a day, gradually reducing the number of feedings and introducing dry concentrated feed with age. Just at this time, an active set of muscle mass begins, so it is important to provide piglets with a sufficient range.
Pig farming is a profitable branch of agriculture. The hearts of the representatives of the barnyard in pigs have the highest productivity. Growing pigs at home involves the use of several feeding technologies. The most effective and often used method of feeding meat. Special nutrition can significantly improve the quality of meat.
How much food should be given can be found in the table of feeding rates. Effective feeding allows for a quick set of muscle mass and an even distribution of body fat. The content of pigs at active feeding involves the study of digestion and providing all the necessary conditions for a comfortable stay. Feeding to fatty conditions can begin at any age. To improve the taste of fat, a lot of low-protein carbohydrate feeds are introduced into the diet.
You can learn how to quickly feed a pig from a video that contains all the necessary materials.
It’s not so easy to properly feed pigs. Today’s best practice is feeding on meat Growing pigs is the most economical type of farming activity. Unlike other livestock, pigs require much less feed for rapid weight gain. Even before and after photos, stunning results can be observed.