The success of the livestock industry will depend on how seriously the breeder takes the matter. Breeding pigs requires knowledge and skills. To increase the number of livestock, novice pig farmers study information on mating pigs at home. One must seriously approach the choice of breeding animals in order to obtain healthy offspring. The video provided at the end of the article will help to understand all the intricacies of breeding pigs.
The process of mating pigs
The maturity dates of pigs
The first and main question: at what age can pigs be mated? The mumps and the lace reach maturity at six months of age. However, the complete formation of the reproductive system is completed only by 9-10 months.
A case is performed only when the female weighs at least 100 kg. Animals with good health and physical fitness are selected. It is best to mate so that farrow falls in the spring. To do this, use a special calendar.
Signs of readiness for mating
Sexual hunting is determined by external signs. The female begins to behave aggressively, becomes more active, when a boar appears, makes characteristic sounds, inviting him. You can find out that the sow is ready for mating by spotting from the labia.Females during estrus eat little or refuse food altogether.
During estrus, the egg leaves the follicle. The hunt lasts for 2 days. It is during this period that mating is necessary. If it passes naturally, a couple happens 3 times with an interval of 6 hours. If fertilization does not occur, after three weeks the pig begins to hunt again.
How to choose breeding individuals
In large pig farms, strict accounting and tracking of production data, pedigree is carried out. Also, before mating, boar biomaterials are taken for testing. At home, choose the strongest and most hardy boar, paying attention to what piglets were from previous incidents. It is recommended to mate a young female and a wild boar who already had experience in inseminating pigs.
The sow is selected, depending on physical data or on the previous farrow. The female must have well-developed all 12 nipples, otherwise she is rejected for meat. Already giving birth to females mate immediately after weaning piglets, about a month after farrowing.
There are 2 methods for selecting pigs for mating:
The essence of the selection process is ultimately to obtain a strong, prolific offspring with the best signs fixed. When mating 2 individuals with outstanding characteristics, the result is the offspring with improved qualities.It is recommended to select for females with less outstanding abilities a boar with a good pedigree to improve the herd’s quality.
Preparation for cover
If at home the boar is constantly used for fertilization a large number of females, he loses a lot of energy. The lack of vitamins and minerals in the diet of the male producer leads to a decrease in sperm activity.
4-6 weeks before mating, the males begin to cook. Most often, one proven boar is used to inseminate the entire pig population. In a natural way, a male can fertilize 50-70 females, with artificial insemination it is possible to cover about 200 females.
A preliminary examination of the genitals of males and females is carried out. During preparation for mating or collection of sperm, it is necessary to provide the male animal with a full balanced diet. Particular attention should be paid to free-walking in the fresh air to improve the physical characteristics of the boar.
It will be more difficult to prepare the uterus for mating at home. Many breeders claim that only a well-fed pig that eats well can tolerate and give birth to healthy piglets. It is necessary to enrich the sows ’diet with all kinds of vitamins and minerals 2 weeks before the mating. .
- The fat-lipped, thick-bodied females often have little estrus, and ovulation is much slower, so the first mating should be done no earlier than 12 hours after the start of the hunt.
- With weak signs of estrus, the female is expelled from the paddock for accurate determination and see if it goes to the cage with the boar.
- Mating should occur naturally in a place that is familiar to the male, otherwise he may begin to explore new territory, instead of doing business.
After that of females have led to the boar, it is necessary to leave the couple alone. The presence of a person can frighten away the boar, and he refuses to cover the pig. If after three weeks the female has no signs of hunting and she behaves calmly in the presence of a knur, then the process has completed successfully and we can proceed to calculate the timing of farrowing.
At home, when keeping a large number of pigs, it is advisable to carry out artificial insemination. This method allows you to cover a large number of queens in a short time, which greatly simplifies the care of piglets. The difference between farrowing in females can be up to 10 days. In addition, artificial insemination helps to prevent infection with all kinds of sexually transmitted diseases.
Boars-producers are kept separately from the rest of the herd.For the first time, knur mate in a natural way, and then gradually accustom to the dummy.
In the room for the collection of seminal fluid, a certain temperature regime must be observed. All materials for making dummies, and especially mimicking the female genitals, should be made of durable safe material. A heated thermostat is installed inside the dummy, which will regulate the temperature.
The light in the room is dimmed, otherwise the male will feel uncomfortable and begin to worry. If the biomaterial does not freeze, it should be used within a few hours, otherwise the sperm will die and you will not be able to use the sperm for its intended purpose. Frozen, the seminal fluid can be stored for a long time and even transported over great distances.
Females are injected with sperm in the uterine cavity in a diluted form. For the introduction, special devices are used, consisting of flasks and 2 tubes made of flexible plastic with catheters. After carrying out all the manipulations, you should give the pig a rest, make sure that the animal does not leave the machine for a couple of hours. After 2-3 hours, you can feed the animal. The video describes in more detail the entire process of artificial insemination and the necessary equipment for this.
The final part
In order for the piglet population to be healthy and to receive only the best genetic qualities from the parent pair, you must carefully choose the breeding individuals and determine in advance the method of fertilization . You can learn how to do this correctly from a special video.
Pig maturity occurs in 5-6 months, but mating of pigs at this age is not possible, because their reproductive system is not yet fully formed. It is recommended to have pigs in 10-12 months.
Before mating, male and the female is carefully examined. Sperm samples are taken from males in a large farm. A couple of weeks before the start of sexual hunting, the male and female are transferred to a special they have a Tamin-fed diet and are kept separate from the whole herd. Pigs are estrus once a month, or rather, once every 27 days, and lasts two days. It is recommended to cover the pig several times over the entire hunting period with an interval of 6 hours between mating.
It is recommended to mate only in a place familiar to the male, otherwise he will feel uncomfortable and begin to develop a new territory. A more reliable method is artificial insemination. It allows you to solve a lot of problems. To improve the quality indicators of livestock, you can order samples of biomaterials from the best breeding boars from abroad. The quality of the offspring will largely depend on the breed and age of the selected breeding animals.