Planting cucumbers in a greenhouse is a good way to grow early fruits and get a plentiful harvest, regardless of climatic conditions. It is possible to plant seeds or seedlings of cucumbers in the greenhouse, planting in spring, autumn and even winter. Consider the principles of proper cultivation of cucumbers in unheated and heated greenhouses.
- Greenhouse design requirements
- Seed method
- Preliminary preparation
- Seedling method
- Hardening and planting of seeds
- Autumn and winter planting
- Watering and feeding
- Useful recommendations
Requirements for the design of the greenhouse
- To make the frame of the greenhouse use wood or metal but it’s best to make a frame made of plastic (it will not rot or rust). It’s better to choose glass as a coating, although polycarbonate material and the well-known budget film made of polyethylene are considered good options.
- Light ones are chosen for installing greenhouses places that quickly warm up with the arrival of spring.
- Spring planting of cucumbers in the greenhouse requires special soil preparation since autumn. The top layer of soil (4-6 cm) needs to be removed, since it is in it that there are microorganisms that can cause seedling diseases. The wooden parts of the greenhouse and the soil itself are treated with a solution of copper sulfate, and then fertilized with soil (manure, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers), sprinkled with lime (300-400 g per 1 sq. M) and carefully digged to the depth of the shovel.
- In the spring, before planting the seeds, the soil is again properly prepared: fertilized with manure and form ridges according to the scheme: width – about 1 m, height – 20-30 cm. Passages should be made between ridges (about 60 cm) to be able to care for the plants and harvest.
- The layout of the ridges depends on the size of the greenhouse. So, for greenhouses with a width of 2-3 m, it is convenient to choose a planting scheme with two ridges on the sides and one path between them. For greenhouses with a width of 4 m, you can make 3 ridges or more with several passes.
- After the ridges are formed, a trellis of wire is pulled over them, to which cucumbers are subsequently tied.
In the southern regions, the seeds are sown directly into the greenhouse on the 20th of April, in the colder regions in May, when the air temperature rises to 18 ° С. (If it is possible to re-illuminate and heat the greenhouse, sowing seeds is permissible at any time.) Sowing is done in well-mannered and watered soil, due to which the heat necessary for seed germination is generated in the soil. Instead of manure, other organics are often used, for example, fallen leaves or sawdust.
per 1 sq. Km. It is recommended to plant no more than 4 plants, otherwise excessive density will negatively affect the yield.
Pit 1-1.5 cm deep and sow 1 or 2 grains in them, depending on confidence in seed germination.(If both seeds germinate, leave a stronger seedling, and cut the second to the very root). From above, the crops are covered with a thin layer of seedlings.
Some gardeners believe that with well-groomed soil additional preparation of seeds is not necessary, but others prefer to work with seeds to increase germination. A month before planting, the seeds are placed near the battery in order to warm them up well. After 3 weeks, they are dipped in salt water to remove the bad ones – those that float. Next, the seeds are soaked for a quarter of an hour in a manganese disinfection solution, and then washed and kept in a nutrient solution (one option is a mixture of aloe juice and wood ash solution).
Many people prefer to germinate seeds at home, and then plant the finished seedlings in a greenhouse. Whenever possible, when sowing, seeds should be planted in separate containers (peat pots, egg shells, etc.). Pre-seeds are prepared by heating, disinfection and soaking as described above. Suitable soil for seedlings is a mixture of peat, sawdust, compost or rotted manure, turf land.In addition, a special seedling substrate can be purchased at the store ready-made.
Seeds are planted to a depth of 1.5-2 cm, watered with warm water and covered with a plastic wrap. Seedling containers are placed in a well-lit, warm place, where they maintain a temperature of 25-30 ° C of heat and, if necessary, re-illuminate the crops. With the advent of sprouts, the temperature is lowered to 20 ° C and the film is removed. When 3-4 seedlings appear in the seedlings, they can be planted in the greenhouse.
Hardening and planting seeds
Before planting in the greenhouse, the seedlings must be hardened. For 1-2 weeks, set the temperature for seedlings: during the day – 17-18 ° C, at night – 13-14 ° C. Planting seedlings in the ground is carried out together with an earthen lump. To do this, form the wells of the appropriate size, treat them with a manganese solution and pour over warm water. The seedling is placed so that the earthen lump is a couple of centimeters higher than the edge of the hole.
Autumn and winter planting
To harvest in the fall, cucumbers are advised to plant in the greenhouse at the very end of August while the ground is still warm enough. Usually this is done by the sowing method, however, it is permissible to sow seeds for germination at home, and to plant ready seedlings in the greenhouse in early October. For autumn planting, you should choose a late-ripening variety, resistant to sudden changes in temperature.
For winter planting, you will need a heated greenhouse and additional lighting.
In addition, self-pollinated varieties should be selected for winter cultivation of cucumbers, since you can’t count on bees in the cold season.
It is recommended to sow seeds in early December, so that get fresh cucumbers already in the second half of February.
Watering and feeding
Water the cucumbers very carefully so that the water moistens the ground and does not touch the leaf (to avoid burns). Until the plants bloom, water once every 5 days, after the formation of flowers – once every 3 days. If the weather is hot, you need to water often, ideally – every other day.
Watering should be done in the morning, settled with warm water. Growing cucumbers in a greenhouse in autumn and winter requires a different irrigation scheme: in autumn, it is enough to water the plants once a week, and closer to winter and in December-January, twice a month.
If the leaf on the greenhouse cucumbers turns yellow, and the stems become sluggish and small, plants lack nitrogen.With a lack of phosphorus, a blueing of the sheet is observed, which soon dries to black. If the edges of the leaves turn brown, and the fruits become hooked, the plants lack potassium. In order not to encounter any manifestations of a lack of trace elements, it is possible to make it a rule to carry out complex dressing of cucumbers every 10 days, starting from the fruiting period (3-4 weeks after the seedlings are planted).
- When choosing a variety for a greenhouse, consider not only the desired ripening time and pollination method, but also the fitness of the variety for a particular climate. So, frost-resistant varieties are suitable for cold regions: Altai, Miranda, Amur and others. In regions with hot summers, it is especially important to choose a variety that is resistant to high temperatures (Tiburon, Lutoyar, etc.), otherwise in hot July cucumbers will burn.
- To germinate seeds sown directly into the greenhouse, it is very important to maintain high soil and air temperature. To do this, along with pre-tilling the soil, you can make individual shelters for each seed using an ordinary plastic bottle, cut and stuck in the ground.
- Before planting, the seeds can be germinated beforehand. Most often, boric acid is used for this (you can take another growth stimulator), in which the seeds are soaked for 12-14 hours. Then they are transferred to a moist marlechka and placed in warm places (about 22 ° C).When the seeds germinate, they can be planted in the ground: directly in the greenhouse or in pots for seedlings.
- On the beds with cucumbers you can not leave the remains of weed grass, fallen leaves and other debris, as this attracts pests and provokes diseases .
- From a lack of moisture on the cucumbers, a tick may appear that can nullify all the results of cultivation. Measures to combat it – thoroughly loosening the soil, timely watering, treating the leaves with tincture of onion husks, fumigation of the greenhouse with sulfur.
- If you plant the plants in cold soil or pour too cold water, they can develop a fungal infection, so called basal or root rot. Unfortunately, it cannot be cured: heavily damaged bushes must be removed from the greenhouse to protect other plants.
- Ripe cucumbers must be regularly collected to stimulate the intensive growth of new fruits. Harvesting can be done in the morning or in the evening, once every 2 days, or better – daily.