The acanthus family, to which the pseudo-erantemum belongs, is one of the most common plants in the tropical belt. They are represented by all forms of flora: trees, shrubs, grasses, lianas, marsh and even xerophytes and are found in tropical rainforests, savannas, swamps, weeds of parks.
Pseudorantemum reticulated, or dark purple. Farmer Burea-Uinsurance.com Dinesh Valke
The beauty and decorativeness of plants, the variety of forms of leaf blades have gained worldwide fame since ancient times, being captured in the floral ornaments of friezes and capitals in ancient Greek, Roman and Byzantine architecture. Acanthus have become entrenched in the heraldry of many states, including Russia (Ulyanovsk region). Variations of acanthus ornament are used by artists at the present time.
A little about acanthus
The acanthus family has an interesting ability. They shoot seeds out of the pod for a larger spread area. For this feature, acanthus are called shooting plants. They attract the attention of florists and landscape planners with their decorative leafy and decorative flowering forms. Not only leaves, but also spike-shaped inflorescences with original bracts in white-pink, red, purple and pale lilac colors and shades serve as a real decoration of greenhouses and winter recreation corners, indoor winter gardens. In closed rooms, flowering is rarely observed.
The acanthus family belongs to the group of fast-growing ornamental deciduous and ornamental flowering plants that occupy spaces with bright diffused light. They do not like direct sunlight, which must be taken into account when growing indoors. The rest period is clearly not maintained, but the temperature conditions differ and are +22 .. + 25 ° С in summer, and not lower than +20 ° С in autumn and winter.
It should be noted that even +18 ° C is tolerated by them in summer more patiently than in winter. A drop in temperature in any case causes the lower leaves of plants to fall off, which does not always affect their overall decorative effect. Members of the family are supportive of high soil and air humidity. They need watering and spraying, shower procedures. Easily tolerate annual formative pruning and transplanting.
Distinctive features of the genus pseudoerantemum
The family is subdivided into several genera, including the genus Pseudo-erantemum (pseudo-erantemum, pseudo-erantemum, pseuderantemum), which is widespread in the tropics of the western and eastern hemispheres of the earth. The genus includes more than 120 species of shrubs, semi-shrubs, less often herbaceous plants. They are distinguished by a relatively capricious character, which is expressed in the requirement for a stable warm air temperature and high humidity.
The representative of the genus is the pseudo-erantemum, common in the Polynesian islands. A small shrub with a strong root system attracts with variegated leaves. Dark green leaves are full of cream and pink spots scattered over the leaf blade. To emphasize the beauty of the leaf surface, at home, lateral young shoots are bent to the ground in the form of arcs and fixed with a cord to a peg. The more lateral shoots, usually growing upward, are bent, the more ornamental the plant is.
Types of pseudo-erantemum
In the room and greenhouse culture of the genus, decorative-deciduous and decorative-flowering types of pseudo-erantemum are used:
Pseudoeranthemum dark crimson, the most suitable for indoor floriculture, especially in recreation areas, conservatories and greenhouses. Forms evergreen bushes up to 120 cm with large elliptical leaves reaching a length and width of 7-15 and 4-10 cm, respectively. The color and decorative patterns on the leaf blade are unusual. Green and yellow spots are scattered on a pink and red background. In strong light, they become deep red.
The plant is distinguished by the rapid evaporation of moisture, therefore, it requires abundant and frequent watering. Does not accept hard water. With overflow, root rotting begins. He loves fertilizers, especially those with a high potassium content, loses the variegation of leaves from nitrogen fertilizers. Indoors, it blooms rarely with white flowers with purple spots, collected in loose complex ears on short pedicels.
Pseudoerantemum reticulated – evergreen shrub up to 1,0 m tall, with ovate-lanceolate green leaves. The plastic sheet is decorated with a dense network of golden-yellow stripes. The wavy surface of the leaves is characteristic. The pharynx of the white corolla of the flower is red. In bloom, he is very dressed up. For the rest of the requirements, it is similar to the dark crimson pseudo-erantemum.
At present, the species of pseudo-erantemum dark-purple and pseudo-erantemum reticulate are combined under the same name Pseudo-erantemum dark-purple. In the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: Pseuderanthemum carruthersii (Seem.) Guillaumin [syn. Pseuderanthemum reticulatum Radlk. – Pseudorantemum net] [syn. Eranthemum atropurpureum W. Bull – Erantemum dark purple] [syn. Pseuderanthemum atropurpureum (W.Bull) LHBailey – Pseudorantemum dark purple]
Pseudoerantemum notched suitable for lovers of short indoor plants. Evergreen shrub no more than 50 cm in height. It differs from other species in narrow-lanceolate leaves with a notched edge. An amazingly beautiful plant with leaf blades of different colors. The top is olive green and the bottom is reddish. Corolla petals are white with occasional purple-red spots.
According to the modern classification, the view Pseudoerantemum is notched (PSEUDERANTHEMUM drabifolia) combined under the guise of Pseudo-eranthemum long-flowered (Pseuderanthemum longifolium)
Features of pseudo-erantemum care
Plants need bright diffused light and supplementary lighting in winter. In bright sunlight, the leaves acquire a juicy red color, stop developing, and with a lack of lighting, they lose their variegation and acquire the usual green color.
The pseudo-erantemum has a special relationship to ambient temperature. The plant of the hot tropics needs an average temperature regime within +18 .. + 25 ° С. When the temperature drops below +15 ° C, the pseudoerantemum begins to hurt. In winter, the temperature is within +20 .. + 22 ° С. The forced dormant period lasts from October to March, associated with reduced illumination and humidity.
During this period, it is especially sensitive to temperature extremes. Their negative influence is so great that the plant may die. At the same time, both summer drafts and winter hot batteries cause yellowing and shedding of leaves.
Pseudoerantemum needs year-round watering, which is due to its ability to quickly evaporate water from the leaf surface. Watering should always be abundant, as the soil dries out quickly. It is enough to allow the soil coma to dry out once, so that the foliage crumbles.
It is quite difficult to return the plant to its former decorativeness. However, if the plant is poured over the norm, root decay will begin. This feature must be taken into account when caring for a plant. Demanding pseudoerantemum and water quality. Watering should be done with warm, soft water, preferably rainwater, filtered or from air conditioners.
Despite the origin of the hot tropics, psavdoerantemums need high air humidity. Air drought causes the tips of the leaves to dry out. 2-3 times daily spraying is necessary, wiping the leaves with a damp cloth, fine spraying of filtered water around the plant.
You can pour expanded clay into the pallet or lay out a moss pillow and pour water into them, but so that they are only wet without stagnant water. Especially important (as well as temperature) is the increased humidity in the winter. The plant responds to all deviations from the norm in care with yellowing and shedding of leaves, a suspension of development.
Soil and fertilizer
For the pseudo-erantemum, the physical condition of the soil is very important. A light, permeable, slightly acidic or neutral soil is required. When grown indoors, the soil mixture is prepared from turf, leafy soil and sand. Moreover, for 1 part of the sod, 3 parts of the sheet are taken, so that the soil is lightly breathable. The plant does not tolerate heavy compacted soils.
Large leaf area and rapid growth require significant amounts of nutrients. Therefore, during the period of active development (spring-summer), pseudo-erantemum is fertilized after 20-30 days with complete fertilization with a predominance of phosphorus and especially potassium. Phosphorus strengthens the vegetative organs, and potassium increases the brightness of the color of the leaves. If nitrogen predominates in the top dressing, the leaves lose their variegation (variegation).
For this culture, the most valuable is organic fertilizer, the solid form of which is simply scattered over the soil and watered. During the period of forced dormancy, the plants are not fertilized.
Young plants of the pseudo-erantemum are distinguished by high activity of growth and development, therefore, an annual transplant is necessary for them. A new container for transplanting is taken 2-3 cm in diameter larger than the previous one. The root system of the pseudo-erantemum needs a large free volume. A small container for fast-growing roots will become cramped within a year, and the plant will begin to shed the lower leaves.
As usual, the container is thoroughly washed, disinfected, drainage is placed on the bottom, about 1/4 of the height of the pot. The drainage is covered with soil. Inspect the plant and be sure to prune the roots. The prepared plant is planted, easily squeezing the soil, gently watered along the edge of the pot and for the first time placed in a shaded place, and then transferred to a constant. Adult plants are transplanted every 3-4 years. Transplant requirements are the same as for young plants.
Reproduction of pseudoerantemums
Propagated pseudoerantemum during the growing season in a vegetative way. Apical or stem cuttings 1-2 nodes long are harvested from the mother plant. Cuttings are rooted in containers, pots. A mixture of peat and sand is poured onto the drainage, cuttings are planted. The optimum rooting temperature is +25 .. + 28 ° С.
To maintain optimal conditions, the container or pot with cuttings is covered with foil. Young plants are planted in containers one by one or in groups of 2-3 plants. The cuttings take root so quickly that they form roots even in clean water or with the addition of root. In planted grown rooted cuttings, to stop growth, pinch the tops by 2-3 cm.
Formation of a pseudo-erantemum bush
Pseudoerantemum grows very intensively. In a year, the stems lengthen by 15-20 cm. But due to unregulated growth, after a few years, the aboveground mass (up to 1 m in height) loses its decorative effect. In order for the plant to decorate the interior for a long time, it is necessary to subject it to constant annual pruning and pinching. With a loss of decorativeness, cuttings are cut from young shoots for reproduction, and the old plant is destroyed.
Pseudoerantemum pruning tolerates painlessly. The stronger the pruning, the more young shoots the plant will form. Another feature of vegetative reproduction is characteristic of plants. Cuttings should be cut from relatively young mother plants. The older the mother plant is, the more difficult it is to root cuttings, even from young shoots after pruning.
Protection of the pseudo-erantemum from diseases and pests
Of the diseases in pseudo-erantemum, root rot, caused by excess watering, is common.
Pests common for indoor plants – aphids, whiteflies, scale insects, spider mites and mealybugs, are destroyed by biological products that are harmless to plants, humans and animals, using solutions. The main sign of spider mite infestation is the appearance of white delicate cobwebs on the underside of the leaf. The mealybug and scale insects are more often located on the petioles at the base of the leaves (brown spots or soft white fluff). Aphids inhabit any plant organ.
If pests are found, treat the plants with one of the biological products Iskra-bio, Fitoverm, Vertimek according to the instructions on the package. Aphids can be removed with a working solution of a preparation for cleaning windows or washed off with a stream of water (if the infection begins) in the shower, having previously covered the clod of earth with a film from washing out. When a mealybug, whitefly and other pests appear, it is necessary to replace the top layer of the soil with fresh one. As a precaution, the plants are irradiated weekly for 1-2 minutes with an ultraviolet medical lamp.