Rules for planting and caring for broccoli

Rules for planting and caring for broccoli

Thanks to the beneficial properties and taste of cabbage Broccoli has become the darling of many consumers. This overseas vegetable, containing a large amount of vitamins, minerals and other useful substances, can be planted on your site. If you follow the simple rules of care and maintenance, growing broccoli becomes a successful business. As a reward for this, you will get a quality and tasty crop.

Правила посадки и ухода за капустой брокколи

Rules for planting and caring for broccoli

What is broccoli

Surely not everyone knows what broccoli looks like. After all, this culture came to us from the northeastern regions of the Mediterranean. Broccoli annuals, like cauliflower, have loose inflorescences gathered in a bunch. Numerous green buds are located on fleshy peduncles. In appearance, the stumps resemble a bouquet and compacted flower inflorescences.The color of broccoli inflorescences is dark green, sometimes with a purple tint.

The description of this culture includes abundant fruiting for several months. In the first year of growth, the plant stretches intensively upwards, reaching 1 m in height. At its top, a large number of peduncles are formed with numerous green buds. Small flower buds are tightly collected in the head – this is the stalk of broccoli cabbage, which is eaten.

Among all plants of the broccoli family Cabbage – a vegetable that has become very popular and in demand among consumers. Therefore, today we will share with you information on how to plant this crop, prepare seeds, grow strong seedlings from them and transplant it into the ground.

When to sow seeds

Sprouting broccoli with seeds is not difficult. The planting technology practically does not differ from the technology of seedling germination of cauliflower.

Broccoli is planted in seedlings in the first decade of March. This is the best time for the seedlings to germinate and grow stronger before planting on the site.

Some gardeners use the conveyor method to grow broccoli. You can plant seeds every two weeks. Sowing of seeds is carried out until mid-April. At the end of the month, seeds in the country can be planted directly on the site.

For those who want to grow broccoli in the Urals and in the regions of central Russia, it is recommended to use early and mid-ripening varieties of vegetables. Since later species simply do not have time to ripen.

Seed processing

Presowing seed treatment is a prerequisite for growing high-quality seedlings. They are treated with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. The seeds are kept in the solution for half an hour, then they are slightly dried and the largest ones are selected for sowing.

After that they go through the hardening procedure. They are dipped in hot water – about fifty degrees for a quarter of an hour, then dipped in ice water.

The last treatment is soaking in Epin’s solution for ten hours. Epin is necessary for the rapid germination of seeds. After soaking, the seeds are laid out on a paper towel, dried, placed in a refrigerator for 24 hours, then dried to a friable state.

Sowing features

For growing broccoli from seeds at home, you will need a special capacious container for seedlings – a plastic or wooden box at least 20 cm high.

A good layer of drainage is laid on the bottom of the container. As a drainage layer, pebbles, expanded clay, pieces of red broken brick can be used.

Germination of seeds is carried out in well-moistened, fertilized and loose soil.As gardeners’ experience and practice show, broccoli grows well in soil with a neutral pH.

To grow broccoli, like other cabbage varieties, gardeners use nutritious mixes of turf, ash, sand, and rotted manure.

The optimal scheme for sowing seeds is 3×3 cm. It is recommended to plant the seeds to a depth of 1 cm. After planting, the seedlings are slightly crushed.

Crop care

Обеспечьте всходы хорошим уходом

Provide seedlings with good care

To successfully germinate seeds e that sort of cabbage, seedlings need competent and timely care. Before the shoots appear, seedlings require special care:

thermal conditions – within 20 °;

air humidity – 80-90%;

the soil needs to be regularly moistened, not allowing its overflow.

After emergence, the temperature of their content is reduced to 10 °. Three days later, it is increased to 15 ° in the daytime and to 9 ° at night.

Planting sprouts

Sprout seedlings in a separate container at two weeks of age. Peat pots are best for planting young shoots.

Transplanted plants should be protected from the scorching sun. Therefore, when growing on the windowsill of the house, they need to provide reliable protection from sunlight. Also, planted plants need to increase the thermal regime to twenty degrees of heat.

A week later, when the cabbage planted by seeds is adapted and take root in peat pots, it can be fed.

To increase the yield of broccoli, mineral supplements containing molybdenum and boron must be added to each plant. These micronutrients not only increase productivity, but also help to obtain a high-quality and abundant crop of dark green cobs.

During this period, the temperature of the content of pickled seedlings should be about 17 ° in the afternoon and 9 ° at night.

Hardening seedlings

Planting broccoli in open ground is carried out after it is quenched. Hardened plants adapt better to the new growing conditions. They are regularly taken outside, first for a couple of hours, then time is increased. Before planting in the soil, the seedlings are left to spend the night on the street.

Transplanting to the garden

Before planting the plants on the garden, not 1-1.5 months should pass. During this period, at least three pairs of leaves ripen on seedlings. Usually, sprouts are transplanted in regions with warm climatic conditions in the second decade of May. This is the ideal time when the risk of freezing shoots is excluded. In regions of the middle lane – at the end of May.

Preparing the land

It is recommended to grow broccoli in a well-lit area. This vegetable grows well and sets heads in the area where it used to grow: cucumbers, carrots, potatoes, onions and garlic.

Garden crops such as radishes, radishes, tomatoes, beets and turnips, often suffer from the same diseases as broccoli. Therefore, it is recommended to grow broccoli after them no sooner than four years later.

In order to successfully grow broccoli and get a worthy crop from your labor, you need to choose a site with fertile, loose and light soil. It should be slightly alkaline. Soil preparation on the site is carried out in the fall. First, the plot is sprinkled with manure or compost at the rate of – 1 bucket of substance is consumed per 1 m2 of land. Acidic soil can be deoxidized using lime or dolomite flour.

Having prepared the plot, let’s learn how to grow broccoli in the garden. We will present you all the secrets of planting and caring for this crop in the country.

Planting is done in cloudy weather or in the evening when the sun sets. The planting scheme of the sprouts is 40×65 cm. Mineral fertilizer (1 teaspoon) is poured into each hole and thoroughly mixed with soil. Then plants are planted, sprinkled with soil and slightly trampled down.

To grow broccoli in the garden and keep the plantings from freezing as much as possible, you need to cover the seedlings with foil overnight.Since broccoli is not a cold-resistant crop, young shoots die at a minimum freezing temperature.

Sowing seeds

How to grow broccoli from seeds on a site is very simple! Seeds are planted in the same soil as seedlings. After the threat of the last frost has passed, the pickled and hardened seeds are planted according to a certain pattern – 35×55 cm. Before planting, the wells are fertilized with mineral fertilizers consisting of boron and molybdenum. Seeds are sown to a depth of 1.5 cm.

Care rules

To get a good broccoli crop, planting on the ground must be given proper care. Caring for this garden crop is a snap. Features of care are regular watering, top dressing, loosening the soil.

Watering

In particular, this crop includes an increased need for moisture. Therefore, plants are often watered under the root, and also moisten the soil around them. In regions with moderate climatic conditions, one wetting of the site per week is sufficient. In the south, where the temperature is 25 ° C, more frequent watering is required – every 3 days.

In addition to watering under the root of the plant, you can water it in a non-root way, irrigating the aerial part of plants with artificial rain. Spraying is carried out in the evening hours.

Fertilizing

From the beginning to the end of growth and fruiting, each plant is fed with nutrients.

1.14 days after transplanting seedlings to the site. For this, nitrogen-containing fertilizer (mullein) is used. 200 g of the substance are dissolved in a bucket of water. Then, 10 g of urea (urea) is added to the resulting solution. On one plant 1 l. top dressing. For cabbage grown from seeds in open ground, top dressing is applied no earlier than 20 days after sowing the seeds.

2. It is carried out in a clearly defined period – exactly 2 weeks after the first fertilizer is applied. In this case, ammonium nitrate is used. 1.5 tablespoons of the substance are placed on a bucket of water.

3. It is made a month before the harvest. This time, the plants are fed with the following composition: ammonium nitrate – 1 tsp, 2 tbsp. l potash fertilizer and 2 tsp phosphoric fertilizers. The resulting mixture was diluted in 10 l of water.

4. It is carried out in order to stimulate the growth and development of lateral shoots. Feeding consists of the same components as in the previous case. It is introduced after a cut of the central stump. Some gardeners sprinkle wood-ash planted land, consuming 200 g of substance per 1 m2 of land.

Growing in greenhouse conditions

Регулярно поливайте и окучивайте растения

Regularly water and spud plants

The agricultural technology of this crop allows its cultivation in the greenhouse.The rules for planting broccoli in the greenhouse are as follows:

  • seeds are sown from the end of April to the end of June;
  • for growing seedlings in closed ground, early varieties are planted 45 days before planting in the garden, and mid-season and late – in 30 days.

Seeds are planted at a distance of 5 cm from each other. For this, seedling boxes with a depth of 10 cm with drainage holes are used. They are filled with nutritious, loose and light soil. Moisturize the soil well the day before planting the seeds. The seedling depth is 1.5 cm.

Subsequent care of plantings in the greenhouse consists of regular watering, loosening the soil, top dressing and hilling.

The features of these procedures are no different from the techniques for their implementation in open ground.

The temperature should not exceed 18 °. The optimum humidity level is 90%.

Disease Prevention

It is not difficult to take care of this crop if the plants are not sick and are not affected by harmful insects throughout the entire growing season. Therefore, the cultivation of this crop in the garden involves a series of preventive measures against pests and diseases:

  • thorough cleaning of the site from the remains of vegetation, both weedy and useful;
  • deep digging of the soil in autumn period;
  • burning damaged plants.

Unfortunately, this variety of cabbage as well as other varieties of this crop is often sick and damaged by harmful parasites.

Diseases

The following diseases are characteristic of this culture:

  • alternariosis;
  • white rot;
  • downy mildew;
  • vascular bacteriosis;
  • mosaic (rust);
  • black leg;
  • tracheomycosis.

Disease control is carried out with the help of systemic fungicides and insecticides.

Pests

Malicious insects pose a great danger to planting broccoli. Most often, this variety of cabbage is affected by scoops, fleas, moths, petioles, aphids, leaf beetles, cabbage.

To destroy these parasites, plants are sprayed repeatedly with herbal infusions, as well as systemic pesticides – Foxim, Actellik, Spark-bio , Rovikurt, Ambush.

Cutting heads

Стебли капусты можно употреблять в пищу

Stalks of cabbage can be eaten

You can determine the ripened head of cabbage by its size. The diameter of the ripened head varies from 10 to 20 cm. The collection of central heads begins until the flower buds open. If at least a few buds open and you do not have time to harvest, the stumps will be hard and tasteless. In addition, the side shoots simply stop growing. The harvesting period is not long, because the ripened heads of cabbage quickly decay and crumble.

Harvesting is recommended to be carried out in the cool time of the day.The heads are cut along with stems up to fifteen centimeters long. The stalks are also suitable for eating.

The heads are cut at the cottage site before the first frost, in greenhouse conditions, ripening takes longer and the harvest is done until the end of November.

The shelf life of the harvested crop is short. At room temperature, heads of cabbage remain juicy and fresh for no more than two days, after which they turn yellow and become lethargic. Cabbage is stored in the refrigerator for about seven days. The best option for preserving broccoli is freezing.

Varieties and hybrids

Broccoli has long been a favorite of many gardeners. Not demanding in maintenance and upkeep, resistant to disease and cold, the crop has good yield and maintenance ability.

Consider the most popular varieties of different ripening dates.

Early

The ripening period of stitches in these varieties varies from seventy 2.5 to 3 months. Ripe heads of cabbage are used for cooking in both fresh and processed form.

The early varieties include:

  • tone;
  • linda;
  • batavia;
  • agassi;
  • curly head;
  • vitamin;
  • purple queen;
  • F1 broccoli.

Other types of early ripening have also worked well: Vyarus, Corvette, Fiesta, Tribute, Comanche, Laser.

Anna Evans

Author ✓ Farmer

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