Sowing tomato seeds in open ground is a backup option for cultivating the plant, as it is not always possible to grow seedlings.
- Advantages and disadvantages of the
- How to prepare the soil
- How to prepare the seeds
- Watering, weeding and loosening
- Fertilizer <
- Pests and diseases
- Conclusion <
The method includes almost all of the same processes. The difference is that the seeds immediately sown in a permanent place.
Seedling cultivation of heat-loving crops, including tomato is used in those regions of the country where the duration of the growing season (more simply, the warm season) is less than the growing season tomato.
Advantages and disadvantages of the method
If you plant the seeds immediately in open ground, you can get a good result. Indeed, the seedlingless cultivation method has its positive aspects:
- Plants develop a strong root system. There is not enough space in the cup, so the roots are not so powerful. They also have healthier foliage.
- Seedlings after the first shoots adapt to ultraviolet rays.
- Tomatoes bypass the process of transplanting seedlings to a permanent place, so they do not give in to an additional stressful situation.
- With this cultivation, the plant does not affect the black leg.
- In good light, the culture quickly catches up tomatoes planted in the seedling method.
The advantages of the seedless method include its low cost, as material means (no need to buy containers for seedlings, to spend electricity for heating and lighting), and physical labor (picking, transportation seedlings for a permanent place).
Planting tomato seeds in open ground has its drawbacks:
- Poor germination – may occur due to poor-quality seed, cold, a lot of moisture.
- Lost seedlings – this problem occurs when improper care.
The disadvantage of the seedling method is that seed germination in field conditions are always lower than in artificial climates. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the number of seeds sown in the soil by almost 2 times.
Tomatoes prefer a sunny, draft-protected area. The best predecessors for them are legumes, early white cabbage, pumpkins, zucchini, and cucumbers. You can also plant after onions, late cabbage.
Do not cultivate tomatoes in the area where potatoes, eggplant, peppers were grown before.After all, plants affect the same diseases, the causative agents of which persist in the earth for several years. For this reason, it is not necessary to grow in one place for up to 4 years. Potatoes are also a bad neighbor. It can infect tomatoes with late blight. And for the Colorado potato beetle, it will not be difficult to get to them.
How to prepare the soil
It is better to prepare the soil in the fall. To do this, after harvesting, ash, manure or compost are introduced into it. They dig the earth and leave it in this form until spring. During the winter, it is saturated with useful substances. 2 weeks before planting, the soil is loosened with a rake, watered abundantly. You can cover it with plastic wrap – this will help to warm it up faster.
If you could not prepare the garden in advance, then sowing tomatoes in open ground with seeds can be done in prepared holes. They are made in turf and filled with purchased or leafy soil. If there is fertile soil beneath the topsoil, you can only remove it. To warm the soil, you can also cover the area with the holes in the film.
It is necessary to select the tomato variety that is most suitable for the seedling method of cultivation. Often planted undersized species, but you can choose tomatoes that grow to medium height.
Since tomato plants grow slower and do not have a run in growth compared to seedlings, the main criterion for choosing a variety is its early maturity and friendly yield. After all, fruiting and harvesting will occur in late summer and early fall, when frosts and prolonged cooling and rains are likely.
How to prepare seeds
Seeds must be pickled and temper. To do this, they are soaked for 15 minutes in a solution of potassium permanganate. For hardening, wrap in a fabric in 3 layers and place in the refrigerator for 1-2 days. Put it in the compartment where vegetables are stored. This procedure will accelerate future seedlings and crop growth.
Seeds can be planted dry or sprouted. For germination, they are placed on a damp cloth, gauze or bandage, folded in 3 layers. Leave in a warm place (temperature 26-28 ° C). Make sure that the fabric does not dry out. When the seedlings appear, the tomato seeds are ready.
It is advisable to sow sprouted seeds in the ground, this will reduce the time of emergence of seedlings. For many amateur gardeners who do not have, for various reasons, the ability to grow seedlings at home, this is the only way to get tomato plants without resorting to purchased seedlings.
For the cultivation process to proceed successfully, you need to know when to plant tomatoes in open ground with seeds. It is better to do this after passing the threat of frost – after about May 14.
For uniform sowing, add 1: 5 ballast to the seeds. In its quality use humus, sawdust, earth. More seeds must be introduced, since one cannot guarantee one hundred percent germination. 3-4 seeds are put in the wells. the distance between them should be about 2-3 cm. In the future, the shoots are thinned out (when they appear 2-3 leaves). The one that needs to be removed is cut off. It is not worth digging out so as not to damage the root system of the strongest germ.
Sowing tomato seeds in open ground can be done by the horizontal method or in the wells, after moistening the soil with warm water. If the seeds are not disinfected, you can pour a solution of potassium permanganate. The distance between the rows should be 60-70 cm, between the holes – 30 cm. Deepen by 3-4 cm. From above, the soil is compacted with a palm. Before emergence, watering is not performed. After all, the sprouts will not be able to break through the formed crust.
The beds after sowing are covered with a film. It must be removed from time to time to prevent mold on the soil. If the temperature is more than 18-20 ° C, the plants can shut up, so the film must be removed.
Tomatoes need to create optimal conditions under which they grow healthy and strong, namely:
- loosening the soil;
- top dressing.
Watering, weeding and loosening
Watering is worth it as needed. After each moistening of the soil (and after the rain also) it must be loosened. The first shoots appear 12-25 days after sowing. During this time, a lot of weeds grow on the bed, which must be periodically removed with subsequent loosening of the soil. At the same time, they turn up the stem.
The formation process depends on the type of variety:
- The indeterminate varieties are formed into 1 stem.
- Determinant varieties form in 2 stems.
- Superdeterminant varieties form depending on the growth of the bush, but more often in 3 stems, since upward growth in this species of nightshade is limited.
All varieties require the removal of damaged or yellowed leaves in essays formation.
The first fertilizer produced in 2-3 days after thinning. For feeding, a mullein infusion is prepared: 2 buckets of substance are taken for 20 liters of water. Insist 10-12 days.Fertilizer is diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10. Under each plant pour 1 liter of funds. Instead of mullein, you can take chicken droppings, but then you need to breed in the ratio 1:15.
Some gardeners use mineral fertilizers. To do this, prepare such a solution: 10 g of water give 15 g of ammonium nitrate. After top dressing, the soil is mulched.
Second top dressing
The second fertilizer is applied when the fruits begin to grow. Of the chemicals used, superphosphate and potassium chloride. The first drug is dosed in an amount of 20 g per 1 sq. m., the second – 10 g per 1 sq. km. m. They are introduced into the grooves with a depth of 6-7 cm. The distance from the tomatoes should be 20 cm. The soil must be watered during application.
Pests and diseases
planting a tomato in the soil with seeds must take care of plant health. It is always easier to prevent diseases than to treat them. Therefore, for this purpose, you can apply a spray of tomatoes with infusion of garlic. It is prepared as follows:
- take 1.5-2 tbsp. garlic, chopped;
- pour hot water (boiling water can not be used);
- add a little potassium permanganate;
- bring the volume of the product with warm water to 10 l;
- mix, filter (no need to insist).
For better adhesion, you can add liquid soap. 3-4 plants are treated at intervals of 6-10 days.
The spread of disease is facilitated by thickened plantings, so avoid this. Mulching the soil will also be beneficial for tomato health.
To prevent late blight, you need to plant an early maturity varieties that will yield a crop before the onset of the disease. For the treatment of late blight, tomatoes are sprayed with 1% Bordeaux liquid or copper sulfate solution: 40-50 g per 10 liters of water. 2-3 treatments are carried out during the growing season.
It is quite possible to grow a good tomato crop using the method of sowing seeds in open ground. The absence of seedlings should not deprive the gardener of the desire to cultivate tomatoes.
You just need to take into account the climate of your region and choose the appropriate variety. Observing all the rules of cultivation with seedling cultivation, you can achieve a fairly high result.