Sunflower is a type of herbaceous plant. An annual plant.
The stem grows up to 3 m high, straight, covered with hard hairs.
Leaves oval-heart-shaped, dark green
up to 40 cm long, covered with tough, short, pubescent hairs.
Flowers of large diameters 30-50 cm, turning during the day
to the sun (only in young plants).
Reed petals, orange-yellow, 4-7 cm long; internal
– brownish yellow, tubular, numerous – from 500 to 3000
Inside the flower there are 4 stamens with fused anthers. They are
form one flower on one stem, but occurs with additional,
Sunflower blooms in August for 30 days.
Fruits – achenes, slightly compressed, slightly cut, 8-15 mm long
and 4-8 mm wide. May be white, gray, black or striped,
with a leathery pericarp.
The sunflower is native to North America. Archaeologists confirm
the fact that the Indians cultivated this plant more than 2000 years ago.
In Europe, this plant appeared at the beginning of the XNUMXth century, when the Spaniards
they brought a sunflower and began to grow it in botanical gardens.
… the sunflower began to be grown during the reign of Peter I,
who, seeing a sunflower in Holland, ordered to send seeds
back home and cultivate this plant.
Sunflower is a symbol of unity, justice, prosperity and sunny
Sveta. In some countries, even a symbol of peace.
The sunflower is harvested with special devices – reapers. It
grows in rows located at a distance of 40-50cm from each other.
Cleaning requires care and experience – if you don’t get into the row,
then the stem will simply break and the yield will decrease.
The main thing in a sunflower is the seeds. For their sake and grow it very much
fertile plant. A whole flower grows from one seed, in
which is about 3 thousand of the same seeds.
Sunflower seeds are consumed raw, fried, oil is extracted from them,
which is called – sunflower.
Nowadays, a very common agricultural crop.
At this time, many varieties of sunflower have already been bred, which
differ in oil content and the size of the baskets (flowers).
Useful properties of sunflower
Sunflower oil is made from the fruits (seeds). The cake goes to feed
impurities for livestock and for feeding for fishing.
A tincture is made from marginal flowers and dried leaves, which increases
appetite. Infusion of marginal ligulate flowers is used as an antipyretic
Leaves and flowers contain coumarin glycoside, scopolin, flavonoids,
triterpene saponids, carotenoids, anthocyanins, phenolcarboxylic
Sunflower seeds contain linoleic, oleic, and others
unsaturated acids, amino acids, and vitamin
E and magnesium.
Moreover, the latter is much more than in rye bread.
Sunflower oil is used not only in cooking, but also as
remedy. The oil is taken internally – as a mild laxative,
and outwardly, rubbing them with sore joints. Fresh seeds take
with bronchitis, malaria and allergies.
Sunflower is the main melliferous plant, as bees
collect a large amount of honey
and pollen from the sunflower. Depending on the agricultural technology of crops
and the weather, the honey yield is within 13-25 kg per hectare, nectar
45-79%. In some areas, 40 – 50 kg per hectare. Sunflower honey
has a golden color, sometimes with a slight greenish tint.
Dangerous properties of sunflower and contraindications
Discontinue use at the first sign of an allergic reaction
and consult a doctor immediately.