Listeriosis in rabbits is really a complex and sometimes even dangerous disease that occurs with signs of minenoencephalitis (CNS damage), mastitis (affects the mammary glands ), metritis and aborted fetus (lesion – genitals).
- Historical background
- Basic data
- Epizootological information
- Methods and treatment
- Preventive measures
The symptoms of listeriosis were first discovered at the end Of the 19th century, it was later reported that this virus was found in birds and other animal species. the disease in 1936, today it has spread to more than 50 countries of the world Farmers and ordinary owners of rabbits need to know all the moments associated with the disease so that they can be able to recognize the infection in time and start the treatment process.
Listeriosis in rabbits gives rise to a harmful microorganism called listeria. In fact, this is a mobile gram-positive rod that does not form capsules and spores, has an optional aerob, 5 flagella, and is formed on standard media. The peculiarity of this microorganism is that for a long time it can easily survive in the external environment and multiply in silos or keratinized tissues, it is not afraid of temperature changes.Listeriosis can be in the straw or hay for 6-7 months, in the feed – 8-9, in the urine – 11-12, in water – up to 24. In order to kill the listeria in the water, it is necessary to bring it to a boil and boil for 5 -10 minutes.
Many people ask a perfectly normal question: what causes listeriosis in rabbits? Most of the animals, especially domestic ones (cows, pigs), quickly adopt the disease. The appearance of listeriosis in rabbits is more characteristic of pregnant females, young animals and newborns, the rest are very rarely infected.
Lister carriers are the main sources of viruses that play a role in their rapid spread, as these animals secrete listeria. Infection can occur in the simplest way: through the respiratory tract, damaged skin and mucous membranes. Most often in nature, small rodents are the first to become infected, which, through secretions, can transmit the disease to other domestic animals. In the transmission of the causative agent of listeriosis, a certain role is played by ticks, lice and fleas. They can migrate from a sick animal to a healthy one, thereby infecting the entire farm.
Stationarity is characteristic of this disease: it cannot be repeated in the same place for several years in a row. This is due to the fact that Listeria survive well in the environment, plus some species of insects can be listeria carriers for more than 2-3 years. Outbreaks of the disease can occur at any time.But the greatest activity of the spread of listeriosis in rabbits is observed in spring and summer. At this time, the female produces offspring, so she is more susceptible to infection.
Clinical signs. Listeriosis in rabbits has its own characteristics, it can manifest itself in the following forms:
|Chronic and subacute||If rabbit listeriosis manifests itself in these forms, then they quickly lose their appetite, become inactive and depressed. But females do not lose offspring: childbirth does not occur. Since the cubs simply die, the decomposition process begins. Through the outer side of the abdominal cavity, you can feel the cubs, but they are already motionless. After 14-21 days, the rabbit dies, it is extremely rare that the animal recovers.|
|Acute||A typical condition for dysteriosis. The most important sign of the development of this form of the disease is that in the second half of pregnancy, the fruits are aborted. Animals very quickly lose weight, categorically refuse to eat. Genital discharge begins to come out. Some have hind legs paralysis. Within 2-5 days, the rabbits die.|
|Super-sharp||Typical for the onset of the outbreak of the listeriosis epidemic, the main sign of the development of the disease is that the female dies sharply during childbirth or a few days before the appointed time .|
|Erased||There is a death of the cub, somewhere in the middle cycle, it gradually dissolves. Even during the development of the disease, pregnancy (multiple) is visible in the uterus, but it is represented by nodes of white or scarlet hue, which are filled with pus or curdled contents.|
|Atypical||Without clearly visible reasons, the females have an abortion, but their general condition does not change and after a while normalization and full recovery take place.|
|Nervous||This is a violation of the normal functioning of the central nervous system. Very often, with this form, an edema of the brain, hemorrhages, both in the head and in other internal organs, injection of blood vessels is detected.|
|Septic||In the period the development of this type of disease, there is pulmonary edema, hemorrhage in the heart, catarrhal inflammation of the gastrointestinal canal, enlarged spleen, small-sized necrotic lesions, represented by white nodules on the liver, kidneys and heart muscle.|
Ways and methods of treatment
Today There is no maximum effective treatment option for this disease.The infected animal on the farm must be isolated and destroyed. Even corpses need to be burned or buried, since the virus is able to live separately on the surface for a long time. It is important to thoroughly disinfect the cells: this will help completely remove the virus from the rabbit’s place of residence, because this disease also threatens human health.
Preventive therapy will be the most common treatment method. Tetracycline, biomycin, and symptomatic drugs are prescribed from medications.
To be sure that the virus was completely destroyed, it is necessary to calculate the number of dead animals, how many stillbirths. It is also important to monitor the general condition of the sucral females: if they have one of the symptoms, then the infected animal must be removed immediately.
After the animal has overcome the disease, certain (complementary binding) form and accumulate in its blood. ) antibodies, as well as agglutinins. In order for rabbits to receive active immunization, it is worth using a dry vaccine. It is unique in composition in that it consists of living microbial cells. A vaccine is introduced into the inner part of the thigh, previously this area is treated with alcohol or phenol. Immunity is developed 7-14 days after vaccination.
This virus is very dangerous because it can ruin the whole economy. In order to prevent the spread, you must follow certain rules.
- Only purchased rabbits, complete and conduct monthly preventive quarantine.
- Time from time to time they arrange trapping of rodents, conduct laboratory tests for infection with listeriosis.
- The rabbits’ residence is systematically treated with specialized means to remove ticks and other bloodsucking.For this, a chlorine-known solution is used, which consists of active chlorine, soda ash and xylonaphth emulsion.
- Only those feeds that meet quality standards can be used in animal food. Do not expose straw and hay for long periods of time. Under no circumstances should grain be cooked.
- If infected animals appear among animals, restrictions must be introduced. The Sanitary and Epidemiological Station forbids the transportation of animals, except those that are taken out for destruction.
- Animals with obvious CNS lesions are killed, suspicious (those with primary symptoms), isolated from the rest and tried to be treated. All animals are immunized, tetracycline, ampicillin (antibiotics) are administered to them.
- Meat can be eaten only after careful processing (boiling) for more than 2 hours.
- The farm is considered normal only after a few months after the diagnosis of animals, as well as after receiving negative results from certain tests. For them, the blood of animals is taken with an interval of 2-3 weeks and a full-fledged study is conducted on DSC, RIGA, RA. A mandatory item on this list will be disinfection.
The withdrawal of new offspring is allowed only after full implementation of recreational measures. Another condition is that all serological test results must be negative.