Growth and crop productivity directly depend on the quality of planting material. When growing potatoes, the selection of high-quality seeds is also important. Elite varieties of potatoes give good results. Professional agricultural companies grow varietal potato seeds, and their high quality will satisfy even an experienced professional.
- Propagation of elite seeds
- The best elite varieties
- Advantages of the elite species
- Elite varieties of foreign selection
- Evolution <
- Elite varieties of domestic selection
- Selection of potato seeds
Reproduction of elite seeds
The process of selection and cultivation is long and can take about 10 years. And the production of high-quality seed elite potatoes is laborious and responsible In order for the characteristics of the variety to be preserved and the planting material to produce a good crop, it must be properly grown and go through several stages of propagation in the laboratory, and then in the field.
- Crossing and obtaining seeds.>
- Sowing and growing mini-tubers.
- Propagation of mini-tubers and obtaining the first field reproduction.
- Cultivation of the superelite.
- Cultivation of the elite.
- Planting the elite for the first reproduction.
The first two stages (1 crossing to obtain seeds, 2- sowing of the obtained materials, cultivation of the first tubers.) are carried out in the laboratory under the close supervision of geneticists-breeders. But the following are carried out in the field, by agricultural firms that specialize in this type of activity. At all stages, cultivation is carried out under strict control and in accordance with all the rules. The resulting crop of superelite must have all the declared characteristics and be absolutely healthy.
Remove plants that do not meet the requirements or grow weak. Selected bushes are intensively treated for diseases and pests. All this allows you to grow the highest quality seeds of the superelite and elite category for planting.
Only certified plants that meet the requirements for growing potato seeds can be grown international and state standards. These are specialized agricultural firms that carry out all stages of selection and cultivation until the desired reproduction and sale are obtained or grow the first and second reproductions from the elite.
To agricultural firms that have established themselves in this field, include:
- IPM Potato;
- Institute of Potato Production of the NAAS;
- EUROPLANT Pflanzenzucht GmbH.
The elite varieties produced by these agricultural companies are presented in the lists of the best in the world and present them at the International Exhibition in Holland for several years.
The best elite varieties
Thanks to such labors, everyone displays more new elite varieties and grow high-quality seed potatoes.
Among the best species are both representatives of domestic and foreign selection with different ripening periods and distinctive characteristics. The maximum seed yield of superelite and elite is noted. Each subsequent reproduction during planting reduces yield by 25%.
Advantages of elite species
- high yield;
- disease resistance;
- high palatability;
- weather resistance.
- renewal of planting material every 3-5 years;
- decrease in yield with each next reproduction.
Elite varieties of foreign selection
Well proven for growing in the middle lane varieties of Dutch breeding. Easily adapt to weather conditions and give the highest possible yields.
It belongs to the early ripening tubers of universal purpose.Evolution is characterized by large tubers, and their rapid growth. Up to 12 tubers ripen under one bush. The shape of the potatoes is oval, with even outlines. The skin color is dark red, and the flesh is light white. The main advantages of the variety include high productivity of more than 60 t / ha, resistance to scab and viral diseases. Among the shortcomings are the requirements for watering.
Ultra early table appointment. The first crop can be harvested 50-60 days after planting. 12-14 potatoes grow in the nest. Has beautiful rounded tubers of almost amber color, the pulp is uniform yellow. Well kept. The indisputable advantage of Colomb is its perfect presentation, high productivity, resistance to adverse weather conditions.
Mid-season, growing season 110-120 days. The first tubers grow after 90 days. The potato is beautiful pink in color, the fruits are elongated oval in shape. Tubers grow with an average weight of 140-150 g, under one bush up to 14 pieces. Eyes are set shallow. The advantages of Flamenco include high productivity, resistance to drought and high temperatures, high resistance to disease. The disadvantages include low resistance to late blight, which requires preventive treatment with fungicides.
Medium early potatoes. The ripening period is 70-85 days. The size of the tubers is large.Bulbs are oval with a light yellow skin and the same color as flesh. It tastes good. Universal purpose. When grown, it gives about 90% of marketable large tubers. The advantage of this elite variety is that tubers germinate at low temperatures, productivity is preserved even under bad weather conditions, and is resistant to mechanical damage. Arizona’s disadvantage is sensitivity to scab and late blight.
Elite varieties of domestic selection
Often, domestic elite varieties are able to show themselves no worse than imported ones. This is due to regionalization and resistance to frequent weather changes in the middle lane. It is worth highlighting especially high-quality ones.
Relate to super-early selection. The vegetation period is 45-50 days. If you collect potatoes after 45 days from the appearance of seedlings, then the yield reaches 15 t / ha. The tubers are large, the shape is close to an oval, the eyes are set shallow. The peel of the tubers is reddish in color, the pulp is homogeneous, white. Suitable for industrial cultivation and providing the market with early potatoes. Advantages include resistance to bacterial diseases and mechanical damage.
Early has table appointment. The fruits are elongated, smooth outlines, has an attractive presentation.Tubers weighing 90-140 g. The peel of the fruit is reddish in color, the flesh is light with a yellowish tinge. The starch content reaches 20%. The advantages include resistance to cancer and some bacterial diseases. The disadvantage is the rapid rotting of tubers at temperatures above 3 ° C
of the average ripening period. It is radically different from other varieties with the purple color of the peel and pulp. The shape is oval, elongated. Tubers weighing 90-120 g. Under the bush, up to 15 fruits ripen. A special feature and advantage of the Gourmet is its taste, the ability to use it fresh. As well as belonging to diet foods with a high level of antioxidants. Gourmet’s disadvantages include poor adaptation to low temperatures and demanding watering.
Mid-season, universal purpose. The tubers are large up to 200 g. The shape is round, the skin color is red, the middle is yellow. Forms on average up to 10 tubers in a nest. Productivity reaches 55 t / ha. They note good keeping quality, as well as undemanding to growing conditions. Resistant to potato cancer and nematode. The variety is sensitive to scab and late blight of the tops.
Selecting potato seeds
Choosing a variety, the question arises, how to choose the right planting material and where to buy it.You can buy high-quality seeds of elite tubers at exhibitions directly from producers, in nurseries, as well as in specialized garden centers or save time and order seeds online and they will be sent by mail. Manufacturers pack seeds for sale in bags from 25 kg to 1 ton, but in retail chains and representatives of agricultural companies you can buy smaller quantities starting from 1 kg.
When choosing seeds, you should pay attention to such characteristics:
- of the Producer, choose the seed of positively proven agricultural companies.
- Appearance, seeds must be healthy, without defects, without damage by pests.
- Compliance with the description, color, form.
- Size, seed potatoes should be medium in size.
The selection of elite potato seed material is currently huge Genetics and agronomists do not stop working in this field, starting to grow vegetables or doing this professionally, you need to remember and understand that high-quality elite potato seeds will guarantee a good harvest.