How to get a lot of honey at minimal cost is a question that worries all beekeepers. This is possible if you give preference to the right bees. Karnika is a peaceful, productive gray bee. This is how the breeder G. Sklenar, who devoted most of his life to the cultivation of this breed, characterized the features of the carnica.
The breed is distinguished by a pronounced gray color with a characteristic edge. Yellow stripes on the abdomen are rare and if this is noticed, then this indicates cases of interbreeding. All karnik bees are large enough:
- a worker bee weighs up to 185 mg;
- drone – 230 mg;
- uterus – 205 mg.
Insects do not differ in pronounced aggressiveness, they rarely sting the owner when inspecting, cleaning the hives, and do not worry during transportation. The uterus continues to worm even when the frame is in the hands of the owner.
Characteristics of the breed
A distinctive feature is high productivity, even in regions with a small amount of honey plants. But with an abundance of positive aspects, there is a small drawback. This is a small daily number of eggs, about two thousand, which is a low figure.
Thanks to selection, subspecies of carnica appeared:
- pechets – is distinguished by fertility, peaceful character, cleanliness;
- trozek – one of the oldest species, which is characterized by a large increase in June, July, maximum yield;
- Lower Austrian belongs to the northern subspecies, requires spacious conditions in the hives, is distinguished by high yields and endurance in harsh climatic conditions;
- sklenar is one of the aggressive subspecies, therefore it is rarely used for breeding;
- Wintersbach trozek – a prolific subspecies, more often used on an industrial scale;
- celle trizek – rarely used by beekeepers, since the swagger begins when the uterus reaches three years old.
Karnik is rarely used for private apiaries. Unusual appearance, little knowledge of the breed does not allow the owners to have these unique bees. Nevertheless, karnika in your own apiary is an abundance of pure honey, minimum costs, no bites.
Breed of Karnik bees
Those who are fortunate enough to have such a family claim that from now on they collect much more honey. One family per day can bring the owner 6-15 kg of pure honey. Beekeepers unite in clubs of species lovers, share their experience and knowledge. This is a truly amazing breed of Karnika bees. Calm and friendly individuals, they practically do not attack a person if they do not see a threat in his presence. The owner absolutely calmly carry out any manipulations with the hives, even without using personal protective equipment.
Karnik bees perfectly tolerate wintering, they are not afraid of frost or sudden changes in temperature.
The first emergence of this breed of bees occurs earlier than all others. At the same time, in the first warm days, active construction of honeycombs begins.
The bee differs not only in its appearance. Her honey signet is slightly lighter than other families. This is due to the fact that in the construction of honeycombs, the karnik hardly uses propolis.
Carnica is distinguished by its high resistance to diseases. There are practically no cases with dementia toxicosis, carnike are not terrible:
These are exceptional workers who, in search of honey plants, are able to rise one and a half kilometers above sea level. The bee has several subspecies with characteristic differences.
- Gives high rates on early honey plants, calm, assiduous, non-aggressive.
- Rapid family development, the uterus worms until mid-October.
- They rarely dig, and can be eliminated by the usual anti-combat method.
- Up to three tricks are possible per season.
The owner of the family must understand that the preservation of the karnica is possible only with the presence of drones of this breed.
- lack of aggressiveness;
- the ability to form large families;
- winter hardiness;
- disease resistance.
Attempts to cross with other species gives offspring of increased aggressiveness.
- lack of swagger;
- late uterine cervix, until November.
The subspecies requires a lot of space, so hives are made for them a little more than standard ones. For breeding, it is recommended to use only subspecies of triplets, otherwise you can get evil offspring that has nothing to do with the subspecies of carnica.
All types of Krajina bees have many positive qualities. Hollesberg is distinguished by efficiency and productivity. Like all subspecies, this bee is hardy. It tolerates wintering well, starts the first flight early. Honey harvesting begins in early spring, and the honeycombs are quickly filled.
Some beekeepers acquire only drones and a queen of this breed, but it will not work to get a full-fledged family in this way. These will be aggressive individuals, which is not typical for breeding subspecies.
Another subspecies of carnica, characterized by a peaceful nature and resistance to tick infestation. Apiary owners note that when a uterus is transplanted in November, the whole family remains completely calm. The subspecies uterus is also referred to as “yoshka”. Breed selection is ongoing. This makes it possible to breed even more resistant individuals for further breeding. This number includes the subspecies Varroatoleranz, which is still not so much in private apiaries.
Features of queen bees
Hardworking, patient insects that do not show aggression. This is just a brief description addressed to bees of the Karnika breed. All this can be confidently attributed to the queens of this species. But it is worth highlighting the most characteristic differences.
- Exceptional fertility. Two thousand larvae give a good increase in numbers.
- Replacement of the uterus occurs almost imperceptibly for the rest of the family.
- The cost of each uterus of this species is high. This is due to the fact that one individual lays several queen cells.
- Larvae require a large amount of pollen to develop, which is supplied by worker bees. Otherwise, the uterus will not postpone them.
This guarantees a good, healthy offspring.
When crossed with bees of other breeds, all the positive characteristics of the carnica disappear.
Karnika is valuable not only for its peacefulness, but also for its high rates of productivity. Having such bees, the owner gets the opportunity to develop a highly profitable economy.
Immediately after the appearance of this species of bees, they were considered swarm. This unfavorable process is not difficult to control. Another thing is strange that high swelling has not been a negative characteristic not so long ago. Now the situation has changed a bit. In apiaries with large families, this is a disadvantage rather than an advantage.
But the process is easy to control. This is not particularly difficult, given the goodwill of the insects. It is better to start observations in the second half of the summer. Experienced beekeepers recommend preparing and placing additional frames for this time. Sometimes such simple actions are enough to exclude adverse consequences.
Productivity of the breed
Most bees need areas with a lot of honey plants. Karnika does not require this, but the yield of the bee is much higher. Most owners of this breed claim that after the establishment of karniki in the apiary, the amount of honey has increased significantly. Professional recommendations will be useful for beekeepers:
- carefully choose a subspecies of the breed, focusing on the region;
- not to allow even accidental crossing of the breed with other types of bees;
- keep hives closer to such honey plants as clover, rapeseed, these are the favorite plants of such a bee;
- do not choose standard hives, the carnica needs space;
- it is not forbidden, rather even recommended, to keep drones of Italian species in every family;
- monitor the health of bees.
The breed is extremely unstable genetically. Accidental relationships with extraneous drones can affect the quality of all future offspring. Karnika has no dominant data, so the offspring inherit the characteristics of other random breeds. Calm disposition in young animals disappears, fertility decreases,
Advantages and disadvantages
Representatives of this breed are quickly gaining popularity among beekeepers. Insects are bred not only for their high productivity, long period of honey collection. These are individuals distinguished by good health, economy in maintenance. It is worth highlighting a number of characteristic advantages that have made the bee in demand among apiary owners.
- The productivity of one family per season, depending on the climate, reaches 70 kilograms. White honey.
- Small swarming, which is easy enough to foresee or eliminate. Often the fault lies with the beekeeper if the living space for the family is untimely expanded.
- The worker bee is able to work. Frosts, rains, sudden temperature changes do not stop.
- The high level of smell excludes the possible falling of individuals into other people’s families.
- The bee is peaceful. Shows aggression only when there is a real threat. The beekeeper can maintain the hives without protective equipment.
- They overwinter in incomplete composition. This makes it possible to save on bait.
- With the arrival of spring, families are actively developing and early fly-overs. This allows an early harvest of up to 30 kg per hive to be harvested.
But a small number of disadvantages are present, which is important to consider when breeding.
- The uterus has limited fertility. This is due to the low pollen content in the hives.
- Due to the excessive activity of insects, bees wear out quickly. The same situation can happen due to a long warm autumn.
- Warm days activate the queen, which sometimes produces offspring until November, forcing the worker bees to carry more pollen, which is already scarce at this time of year.
But the listed disadvantages do not affect the popularity of the breed. Beekeepers are successfully breeding, although it is difficult for a beekeeper to obtain identical offspring.
Features of the content
Many beekeepers are interested in the question – can a bee normally hibernate in the harsh Russian winters. Germany, where Karnika was bred, is distinguished by mild winters. This is not entirely true. The main habitats of Karnika are the Alpine Mountains bordering the Adriatic Sea. The climate of these places cannot be called mild due to frequent winds, high humidity and harsh winters. Therefore, such climatic conditions will not be detrimental to the life of the karnica.
The Norwegian line of the queen bee gives her the ability to worm even in unfavorable weather conditions, when there is no abundance of pollen. But it enters wintering in small families, so the survival rate is high and the food reserves are enough for new bribes.
Wishing to breed Karnika bees, beekeepers should pay attention to the recommendations of experienced beekeepers.
- When choosing a subspecies of a bee, it is better to choose the one that is more suitable for the climatic conditions of detention.
- To exclude the appearance of aggressive offspring, you should not cross the breed with other types of bees.
- For yields, you can keep in one hive at the same time the uterus of a carnik and Italian drones. This is an opportunity to get a strong family and an abundance of honey.
- The best honey plants for carnica are rapeseed, clover. If an abundance of these plants is not observed in the region, then it is better to give preference to other types of bees.
- To prevent swarming, remove frames with brood, set empty.
The listed conditions suit, then the karnik is exactly the bee that will bring success to the beekeeper. The breed is actively used in private apiaries and for industrial breeding.