The case of pigs is a responsible process. Before you start breeding this species of animals, you need to learn more about their physiology, signs of hunting, mating rules. If successful, one sow can lead 15-20 piglets. Such fertility makes the process of breeding and growing pigs especially profitable.
- Selection of breeding animals
- Selection of a pair of pigs
- When to breed pigs
- Definition of hunting
- Technique males
- Evaluation of the success of mating and other nuances of insemination
Select breeding animals
For up to 4 months, piglets of different sexes are kept together, then they are carefully examined and sorted. with good weight gain, large, healthy and calm. Too active boar does not cover pigs well. Restless female does not care enough about her offspring.
During selection, special attention is paid to the condition of the genitals of the boar. They also check for defects in the constitution of pigs of both sexes. Male piglets that have not been screened are castrated. Females are separated from males and intensively fed. In the future, additional screenings are carried out, depending on the quantity and quality of the offspring.The following signs of piglets are taken into account when selecting their parents:
- age of piglets reaching a weight of 95 kg;
- weight gain per day on average throughout the entire feeding period should be 25-95 kg;
- the amount of feed that goes to gain 1 kg;
- the weight of the pig at the time of slaughter;
- the length of the lying carcass after complete cooling;
- thickness and uniformity of pork fat in the ridge;
- amount of meat on the carcass;
- average thickness of the abdomen;
- thickness of the pork fat on the sides.
Evaluation options may change eat, depending on the breed. For example, for Steppe White pigs a large amount of pure fat is permissible in the carcass. Vietnamese pigs should have layers of meat in fat (bacon-type breed). The average slaughter weight of animals may also vary. It is very important to determine the number of nipples in a sow. There are 10-16 pieces, females with at least 12 nipples are selected for the tribe.
Selection of a pair of pigs
A pair of pigs and a boar are selected, depending on the purpose mating. Animals mate differently in small households and on industrial farms. The following types of crosses are distinguished:
- Purebred. The case of pigs is carried out strictly within the same breed.
- Related. It is used in cases where it is necessary to fix one or another quality in the breed. A sow or a boar is crossed with their offspring.
- A case of pigs along the lines.It is carried out on highly specialized farms, animals from one pedigree line, including relatives, are crossed.
- Crossbreeding. It is carried out to infuse new blood, improve the breed, increase productivity.
- Absorption crossing. A case is carried out between unproductive and highly productive breeds to improve the quality of animals. The results are obtained after repeated mating between different generations.
- Reproduction mating. Used in breeding new breeds. For example, Vietnamese pigs are crossed with white or black steppe.
- Introductory crosses. Used to instill a particular breed of specific qualities. The uterus of the variety to be improved mates with the boar improver.
- Industrial mating. There are two-breed, variable and three-breed crosses of this type. In the first case, the mating is carried out between the male and the female of different breeds, in the second the female is crossed with several thoroughbred boars, in the third – the sows, which were obtained as a result of two-breed crosses, are mixed with the males of the third breed.
Many types of crossbreeding can be carried out only in specialized farms. Purebred or interbreed mating of pigs should be practiced at home. It is undesirable to cross relatives, since their offspring are weak. It is best to take a boar from another farm or a remote region.
When to breed pigs
The main condition for successful mating is the presence of sexual hunting in the sow. During this period, the eggs mature, which can be fertilized by the sperm of the boar. The first hunt in a female pig takes place at the age of 5-6 months. At the same time, puberty is observed in young boars. But at such an early age it is impossible to mate animals: they still continue to develop genital organs. Pregnancy in the female may not occur or the offspring will be born small and very weak.
When is it better to happen to a pig? The optimal age is 10-12 months. Females are sometimes allowed to breed at 9 months, males – not earlier than a year. The weight of the female should be 110-160 kg, males – 120-170 kg. Too fat individuals mate poorly, their fertilization rate is low, and pigs often die.
Definition of hunting
To conduct a successful mating, you need to correctly identify the signs of hunting in pigs. Here’s how you can find out that the time has come to arrange a “wedding” for the pigs:
- The female begins to eat poorly, goes through feeds.
- The pig becomes restless, rubs against the fence all the time, tries break it down.
- The pig constantly grunts and squeals.
- The pig has a frequent urination (every 30-40 minutes).
- At some points it freezes in place begins to bend his back.
- If you push the pig into the ass, it will not move, it will begin to flex its lower back.
- Often, females in the hunt jump on other pigs, regardless of gender.
- If you drive past the boar, the pigs become excited.
- When the female is taken out of the stall, she will intensively search for the corral with the boar, break through to it.
- The external genitalia becomes red, swollen , a clear liquid is released from them.
It is important to know that in multiple-bred sows, changes in the external genital organs are barely noticeable: the swelling and redness of the sexual gap is almost not visible, therefore, it should be guided solely by its behavior. The terms of the occurrence of hunting in a pig after weaning piglets may be useful:
- When piglets are weaned in 10 days, the first hunt occurs after 5-30 days (average 10 days).
- When away at 2 weeks, estrus time comes in 4-20 days.
- When absent at 7 weeks – after 2-10 days.
The hunting frequency for pigs is 21- 28 days, regardless of the season, estrus lasts 1-2 days. Pregnancy lasts 110-140 days (an average of 114 days), therefore, it is recommended to mate at the end of winter so that the pigs are born in spring and are stronger. The second mating is carried out at the end of summer, so that the offspring can get stronger in the winter cold.
In order for pig mating to be successful, you need to properly prepare the boar and uterus.It is impossible to overfeed breeding animals. The diet should consist of concentrated feed with a high content of vitamins, minerals, fiber. If you give the male too much liquid food, his sperm quality decreases. Obese individuals also become poor producers.
Successful breeding of breeding boars and pigs will occur if you follow a number of rules:
- A case is carried out immediately after hunting has been discovered in pigs.
- It is better that the process takes place on the territory of the boar. The male will feel more confident, will not be distracted by the study of a new place.
- Do not disturb the animals, push them towards each other, it is advisable to leave the pigs alone, otherwise you can discourage them from mating.
- Normal intercourse lasts 15-20 minutes, at this time nothing should disturb the animals.
- After the first coating, a control is carried out after 12-20 hours.
- You can leave the pigs in one pen per day.
- To increase the likelihood of conception, one sow is crossed with 2-3 different boars.
On b lshih factory farms spend boar semen analysis. At home, this is not possible, but you need to know the basic parameters. The sperm of the male should be light yellow in color, medium in density and with a specific smell. To better imagine the process, you can see how the mating of pigs goes on video.