Beijing cabbage is a real storehouse of vitamins. Due to the delicate and excellent taste of the leaves, Beijing cabbage is used in the preparation of various salads and appetizers. Growing Beijing cabbage in a summer cottage requires agricultural technology.
- Characteristics of the plant
- Seedling method of growing
- When sowing seeds
- Planting technique
- Features of care
- Transplanting seedlings
- Preparing the soil
- Care features
- Shelter <
- Mulching and weeding
- In greenhouse conditions
- How to protect from death
- Prevention and treatment
- Collection and x wounding outlets
- The best varieties of Chinese cabbage
- Early ripening
- Middle and late
- Ultra-early ripening
- Regional varieties
Characteristics of the plant
This crop was first grown in China. Despite the fact that Beijing cabbage belongs to two-year-old varieties of cabbage, gardeners grow it as a one-year plant.
Beijing refers to cold-resistant cabbage varieties. At a temperature of 3-4 °, the seeds of Beijing cabbage begin to sprout actively.But the process of development and intensive growth of plants begins at a temperature of 16 to 21 °. If the temperature indicators exceed the norm, plants instantly begin to bloom en masse. In spring, the duration of daylight also affects the flowering intensity.
You can grow Chinese cabbage both in seedlings and seedlings. However, the cultivation of Beijing cabbage seedlings is considered the most rational. This method is used to obtain an early harvest of heads of cabbage. Harvesting takes place three weeks after the seedlings are planted on the street.
Seedling method of growing
Consider the secrets of growing this crop in the seedling method.
When to sow the seeds
In order to get a good harvest of stitches, it is very important to observe the timing of sowing seeds. We sow the seeds of garden crops for two months from the moment of planting in open ground, i.e., in late March – in the first ten days of April. Sowing during this period makes it possible to obtain not only an early, but also a high-quality harvest of heads of cabbage without defects and damage by pests. If you want to enjoy this vegetable all winter, you need to sow Peking at the end of June.
There are some features and basics of cultivation that every gardener must master. Consider the correct way to grow Beijing cabbage.
- It is recommended to sow Beijing cabbage in a special soil mixture.For its preparation, two ingredients are used: coconut substrate and rotted manure in a ratio of 2: 1. In such loose soil, seedlings sprout faster and have a good root system.
- Given the tenderness of young plants and their root system, picking is contraindicated for them. Therefore, for sowing seeds of Beijing cabbage, small containers are used. It is best to plant the seeds in peat tablets – three each.
- Sow the seeds to a depth of 1.5 cm. Sow the seeds of Beijing cabbage should be in abundantly moistened soil mixture. Germination and cultivation of Beijing cabbage from seeds is carried out in a darkened room at room temperature.
After the mass emergence of sprouts, containers with seedlings are taken out to daylight.
The agricultural technology of this crop includes some care features:
- Temperature conditions. During this growth period, seedlings require a low temperature – in the range of 8-9 ° heat. In such home conditions, crops grow gradually, without stretching. They need to be kept on a windowsill or on a glazed loggia and balcony.
- To properly grow Beijing cabbage at home, she will need regular watering, which is done as the soil dries. A day after moistening, the procedure of loosening the soil is carried out, which increases its moisture and air permeability.
- The time of rejection of bad shoots falls on the period of appearance of several leaves on seedlings.Strong plants are left, and weak ones are plucked or carefully removed.
- After this, the seedlings are ready for transplanting
appears young plants can be transplanted to the site. Young seedlings are transplanted to the bed and their subsequent care is carried out at the stage of the appearance of three pairs of leaves in the sprouts.
It is best to choose a well-lit sun for such a crop plot. The soil must be prepared in advance:
- it needs deep digging in the fall;
- lime soil;
- in the spring the plot is fertilized with humus (a bucket of fertilizer per 1 m2 of soil), then they dig it up again.
It is best to transplant young seedlings to a site with loose, moisture-, breathable, and nutritious soil. Before planting seedlings in the garden, the soil must be properly moistened. Loamy soil is best suited for this crop.
It is recommended to plant this crop after:
- onion, garlic;
- cucumbers ;
- siderata plants.
It is not recommended to grow Chinese cabbage after tomatoes and beets. These plants suffer from the same diseases as cabbage.
Beijing cabbage is planted in open soil after ten days of hardening. Young sprouts of Beijing cabbage are taken out into the yard every day, increasing the time of its hardening every day.
As soon as the seedlings are fully adapted to street conditions, they are planted on the site. A few days before the transplant is made, the plants stop watering. Abundant watering is done before the sprouts are planted.
You need to plant the plants at a distance of 20 cm from each other. The width of the row spacing is 0.5 m.
If the cultivation of Beijing cabbage is carried out in order to obtain shakers, the distance between the pits will be 30 cm, the row spacing will be 0.5 m.
We plant the seedlings in a preliminary fertilized pits. In each hole, it is necessary to put 30 g of phosphate fertilizers, 500 g of wood ash and 15 g of universal fertilizer – urea (urea). The fertilizer is mixed with the ground, then watered abundantly. Seedlings, together with a tablet of peat, are lowered into a dug hole, instilled and slightly trampled down.
After the landing of Beijing cabbage on the bed is completed, it must be covered with a non-woven dense.This is necessary for the following purposes:
- So that the plantings are protected from spring frosts and sudden changes in temperature.
- The first sun’s rays are very harmful to young plants and can burn them severely. Non-woven material will be an excellent protection against the scorching sun.
- Such a shelter will protect plants from decay during frequent rainfall and rain.
- Cruciferous flea is one of the most dangerous parasites of cabbage, including Peking . The non-woven material will protect young plantings from being damaged by this parasite.
- Cabbage covered with such material at night will become faster to tie heads.
Mulching and weeding
In the process of growing Chinese cabbage, a section with plantings is mulched. Mulch is introduced a couple of weeks after the plants are planted on the garden. A mixture of peat and fine straw is used as mulch. Also, in the process of growth and development, the soil around the plants is gently loosened and weeds are removed as they grow.
If you decide to plant Chinese cabbage, you should ensure that it is competent watering, which is carried out no more than once a week. Plants are watered under the root with water at room temperature. In the process of watering, it is very important that the water does not fall on the delicate leaves, otherwise they can rot. Watering is carried out in the morning or in the evening.
To prevent rapid drying of the soil, the next day after watering, the soil around the plants is loosened and mulched.
Growing and caring for Beijing cabbage involves the repeated application of fertilizers.
The first meal is carried out two weeks after the seedlings are planted in open soil. In this case, organics are used. There are several options for top dressing that can be used for Beijing:
- dissolve 1 liter. mullein in 10 liters. water;
- chicken manure fertilizer – 1 l. substances are dissolved in 20 liters. water;
- herbal infusion – 1 l. fresh and ground raw materials are dissolved in 9 l. water.
On one plant spend l. finished dressing. Cabbage planted in the spring must be fed three times for the entire season. If you are going to grow this variety of cabbage in the summer, two top dressings for the entire growing season are enough.
The second and third meals are carried out in a non-root way. They are introduced during the period of intensive plant growth in order to increase green mass. For these purposes, use the following solution:
- 1 l. hot water;
- 3 g of boric acid.
The resulting mixture was brought to a volume of 10 liters. cold water. Irrigation of the aerial parts of plants is carried out in the evening. Under such conditions of care and maintenance, Peking grows very well and quickly, and most importantly – it gives a juicy and tasty harvest of heads of cabbage.
In areas of Russia with warm climatic conditions, the optimal planting dates are early spring or late autumn. In such conditions, when the temperature does not exceed the norm (7–9 ° C) and the daylight hours are shorter, the heads of cabbage are non-shooting. It is much easier to prevent the shooting of cabbage in the northern regions of Russia, in particular in Siberia, where the climate is cool.
At the beginning of growth, the plants form a small leafy rosette. Then, as nutrients accumulate, the plants form an extended head of cabbage. The heads are large, weighing up to 2 kg.
In greenhouse conditions
Consider how to properly grow Chinese cabbage in greenhouse conditions. The technology for planting Beijing cabbage in a polycarbonate greenhouse is not much different from the characteristics of planting in the garden. The same pattern and density of planting are maintained. True, the growing conditions of this crop in the greenhouse are slightly different.
The temperature in the greenhouse for seedlings should be between 14-19 °. If the temperature exceeds the norm, the plants will begin to produce color. Plants susceptible to shooting form loose and tasteless heads of cabbage. In addition, high temperature can trigger the development of various diseases in plants.
The ideal humidity level in the greenhouse is about 80%.
Beijing cabbage is planted in the greenhouse both by seed and seedling methods. The optimal planting dates in greenhouse conditions are mid or late March. You can sow this crop with seeds – in the middle of April. The seedling method makes it possible to get a crop a week earlier than the method of planting with seeds.
Planting seedlings or seeds is carried out in the same soil as when planting plants on open ground. During the cultivation, cabbage is fed with organic matter and mineral fertilizers containing nitrogenous substances.
How to save from death
It is better not to grow Chinese cabbage if you cannot properly provide this crop care and conditions. As practice shows, even experienced gardeners have problems with growing this crop. Plants are often sick and affected by pests. Therefore, it is important to know not only how to properly grow Beijing cabbage, but also to protect it from damage by pathogenic microflora.
- sprout and cabbage flies;
- bugs, aphids;
- garden scoops;
- petiole mosquitoes;
- flower beetles;
- little bears.
On the leaves of infected plants growths, black, red, yellow spots may appear. Holes on the leaves indicate the defeat of the head of the leaf beetles.
No less dangerous for planting are diseases such as fusarium wilt, black leg, alternariosis, white rot, vascular bacteriosis, phomosis, ringing black spotting and others .
If you notice black dots, stripes, yellowness on the leaves of plants, then they are affected by some kind of disease. Pests affected by the pests change their natural green color. They turn yellow and then blackened.
Prevention and treatment
To grow a quality crop, you must first follow the rules for growing this crop and ensure proper care.
If however, pests have already appeared on the site or plants are affected by some kind of disease, urgent measures are needed.
In the fight against fungal disease, systemic fungicides are used – Quadris, Fundazole, Topaz or Ridomil.
Plantings of this culture are not resistant to viral infections. Therefore, if you find black spots on the leaves of plants, they must be urgently removed from the site to protect healthy specimens. Damaged plants need to be burned.
To destroy pests on the leaves, you can use insecticides or insectoacaricides.
It is worth remembering that in the fight against pests, the last treatment is allowed to be done no later than a month before the harvest. Otherwise, heads of cabbage will be toxic and unsuitable for food consumption.
Collecting and storing outlets
The head of cabbage can be stored in a cool place until October. For long-term storage, cabbage planted in the summer is suitable. Cabbage planted in the spring is not stored for a long time.
Harvesting starts from the moment the cabbages become dense. Heads of cabbage are wrapped in cling film and placed in wooden boxes. The best place for long-term storage is any cool basement.
Storage of all varieties of cabbage requires certain conditions:
- thermal conditions ranging from 0 to 3 °;
- air humidity – 90-95%.
In apartment conditions, in the absence of a basement for storing cabbage, you can use the glazed balcony. The main thing is that the room temperature does not fall below 0 °.
The best varieties of Chinese cabbage
Consider the most popular, high-quality and resistant to various diseases, varieties of Chinese cabbage. Currently, Dutch and Japanese Peking hybrids can be purchased by ordering them online on the manufacturer’s website.
Early ripening varieties are resistant to shoots, and this is their main feature.The following varieties are most popular among gardeners:
- spring grass;
- nagaoka 50;
Other early Peking varieties and hybrid species – Monaco, northern beauty, orange mandarin, optic, spectrum, tenderness, marfa, Victoria, hydra.
The ripening time of early ripe varieties from the time of sowing is about two months. Therefore, they are more suitable for the regions of central Russia.
Middle and late
This group includes the largest number of varieties of Chinese cabbage than the group of early and late species:
- autumn beauty;
The ripening period of these varieties varies from 65 to 75 days. The weight of the stumps is 2.5-3 kg. In regions of the middle zone, the most often cultivated variety is cha-cha, brocken.
Given that this vegetable ripens quickly enough, There are not so many varieties:
- Russian size;
This group consists of two types of very delicious varieties called Shanghai and broadleaf. High-yielding hybrids ripen on the forty-fifth day from the moment of sowing seeds.
Khibinskaya variety belongs to half-ripened early ripening varieties. The ripening period of heads in the open field is 40 days, in the closed – 25 days.
The best varieties for central Russia and the Urals are: orange mandarin, Beijing express .