Spices have long occupied an important place in the human diet, so they are planted by both large agricultural companies and summer residents. Proper cultivation of garlic will eliminate the slightest mistake at any stage of development. What are the proven technologies for plant cultivation? Let’s look at the popular ways.
- Preparatory procedures
- Plot <
- Crop rotation <
- Watering <
- Harvesting and storage
- Possible problems
- Characteristic signs of the disease
To to harvest a plentiful crop is necessary about knowing the features of your favorite spice. Without thoughtful agricultural work, the species will not be able to fully reveal its potential, and the yield of the variety will be minimal. There are not very many requirements, but the formation of the culture depends on them.
Growing garlic is best started by looking for a suitable place. The plant is photophilous and will not tolerate the slightest shading. If you plant a view under the canopy of trees or a fence, the result will be small, painful heads, even in large species such as Elephant variety. The beds cannot be located in the lowlands (moisture accumulates) and on the hills (the wind blows heat).
The root system of the spice is very weak, therefore it needs the most nutritious soil.At least a month before the agrarian work, the site is carefully dug up, the plant residues are removed and fed. As fertilizers make the soil:
- wood ash;
Experienced farmers prefer not to plant garlic in other plants, but to form separate beds. Cultivated fertile soils of loamy and sandy loam type with neutral acidity are suitable for crops. If the selected place does not meet the criteria, it is allowed to add sand and chopped charcoal.
The technology for growing garlic, like garlic onions, requires farmers to work with considering successful or unwanted neighbors, predecessors. Suitable plants complement each other in the garden, helping to deter pests and resist disease. A successful “duet” makes it possible to fully return the variety.
When choosing a place correctly, be sure to pay attention to previous plantings. The accumulation of microorganisms in the soil leads to a significant decrease in productivity. Crop rotation rules prohibit planting spices after:
- onion species (flowers, vegetables);
- root crops (turnips, beets);
- spices (cilantro, basil , mint, celery).
After the nightshade, pumpkin or cabbage you can get the most out of it. Leafy greens, parsley and dill are excellently combined with spicy spices.It is useful to plant carrots and spinach nearby in the spring. On adjacent beds are prohibited:
Garlic, like garlic onions, propagates with cloves and airy seeds. If in the first case the crop is received in a few months, then the last option gives the opportunity to find spice only for the next year. First, the seeds from the box on the arrow are grown as seeds, which will later become full-fledged heads.
Before embarking on agricultural work on weaving, you must carefully sort out the planting material. The teeth should be strong and without visible symptoms of decay. Large heads with three lobules show signs of degeneration, therefore they cannot be taken for reproduction. Air bulbs must be large and resilient.
Before planting, the material is etched with any suitable fungicide with the addition of trace elements. The product is diluted in water according to the instructions, after which the seeds are soaked for several minutes. Folk methods suggest treating the material with salt and copper sulphate.
Garlic is cultivated using different methods. It all depends on when you want to plant the plant.The winter and spring sowing technique is practiced in Russia, China and the countries of Europe, which allows you to get a plentiful crop with certain characteristics of keeping quality.
In the spring
Agricultural work will begin in mid-spring – April 15 or 25, and you can plant it with both dry cloves and sprouted. The last option involves getting the crop a couple of weeks ahead of schedule. To do this, the seeds are soaked in warm water for three hours, after which they are covered with a damp cloth and left on the windowsill until the roots appear. Some craftsmen prefer to “wake up” the culture in hydroponic cylinders.
They begin planting when the temperature of spring soil reaches 7 degrees. By this time, snow should have melted and constant heat will be established. Dig the soil before sowing and irrigate plentifully. The earth should be moist, but not dirt.
The depth of the hole is determined by the height of the clove, multiplied twice. For example, if the standard seed has 6 cm, then the pit is torn out by 12. Sprouted specimens are planted very carefully, being careful not to damage the roots. The action is carried out according to the scheme (in cm):
- the space between the rows is 20;
- the distance between the beds is 50;
- the distance between the heads is 10.
After the landing is formed, it is better to mulch the soil. A very popular procedure saves care time. Agrarians do not often need to loosen the earth, to harvest weeds.Plants receive natural air exchange, useful for roots.
The technology for growing winter garlic is almost the same as spring. The only exception is the time of the event – from September to October, until the first frosts. If you start work earlier, then the culture will grow greatly and die from frost. Late plantings do not have time to grow roots, therefore, they are destroyed in winter at temperature extremes.
A spice plot is prepared two weeks before sowing. They dig the earth, after which they make large furrows. A thick layer of a mixture of coarse sand with wood ash is poured into the bottom of the grooves. The substance prevents contact with the soil and protects the teeth from rotting.
According to the technology of growing winter garlic, planting is carried out in deep holes – from 0.10 to 0.15 m. The beds are necessarily mulched from frost, and the thickness should not be less than 2 cm. As a raw material, a mixture of sawdust and peat is used. In conditions of a snowy winter, the earth is covered with a film. The use of greenhouses is allowed on an industrial scale.
After planting is completed, many farmers forget about the plant. Lack of attention always negatively affects performance. To rule out mistakes, you need to be careful about spices.
After the first sprouts appeared in spring, the soil is gently loosened and mineral or organic top dressing is applied. Nitrogen activates metabolic processes, which contributes to the growth and development of the heads. The substances are diluted in water to the desired concentration, and then slowly poured into rows. It is important that the liquid does not get on the young greens, otherwise there may be burns.
The second stage of application is carried out in the spring, two weeks after the first procedure. Two tablespoons of fertilizer (nitrofoska or nitroammofoska) are bred in a bucket of water. Each square meter of crops is watered with three liters of liquid.
The final stage of fertilizing takes place in July. This month begins the formation of bulbs, so it is necessary to control the process. Super-phosphate fertilizer is dissolved according to the same recipe as for the second application, but irrigation is increased to five liters per square meter.
Garlic, cultivation and care of which light enough, loves irrigation. In the southern regions throughout the entire vegetative period, at least 7 events must be carried out. When watering in the northern regions, soil moisture and precipitation are observed. After the bulbs begin to ripen, it is necessary to shorten the procedure, otherwise the keeping quality will worsen.
By the way, to maintain a constant humidity before flowering, you can use the drip system. Agricultural technology of large farms provides complex multifunctional units. At home, homemade equipment is used for watering.
In addition to loosening the soil and irrigation, arrows need to be removed from the crop. Plants without an air box consume all the nutrients to form heads, not seeds. Several large specimens are left as future planting material.
Harvesting and storage
How long does it take to develop and ripen the spice? The crop planted for the winter is ready for harvesting 100 days after germination. Most often, this date will come in handy at the end of July, and spring should be excavated in early August. If the lower leaves turn yellow in garlic, then this is a characteristic sign of ripening: the bulbs are covered with thickening scales, staining in a specific color for the variety.
The yellowing of the leaves will serve as a signal for harvesting. Depending on the weather, this can happen from late August to mid September.
Harvesting is carried out in dry weather, morning or evening. It is important not to reach the last moment, otherwise overripe heads fall apart in the ground and have poor keeping quality.During the procedure, each bush is dug up with a shovel, after which the plant is gently pulled out of the upper leaves. The soil from garlic is forbidden to knock on hard surfaces.
Dug specimens laid out to dry in a warm shaded place for 3-5 days. The tops are not immediately cut off, otherwise the natural assimilates will be destroyed inside the bulbs. Arrows and foliage are removed after the product dries.
Spice seeds are collected a week before the main harvest. Air boxes are cut off, connected by bundles, left to “ripen” at open currents or the window of the cottage. You can’t keep planting material in the sun and in the rain.
You do not need a lot of space to store winter and summer garlic. Most often, housewives collect heads in braids, which are hung in pantries and in the kitchen. You can cut the tops, leaving a stump of 6 cm, and spread the crop in cardboard boxes in the cellar.
Spicy spice is a very unpretentious crop and is excluded with proper cultivation diseases, pests. If someone violates the rules of crop rotation, does not calibrate the seeds or plant seedlings incorrectly, then a negative result will not be long in coming. At home, it is easy to detect a problem at the initial stage.
The most common diseases of garlic are fungi. If the plant has seized an ailment, then treatment is useless. Mycelium spreads through leaves, roots and leaves the ground.Other plants cannot be grown on such a site without chemical pretreatment.
Characteristic signs of the disease
- rotting of the bulbs;
- sores on the teeth;
- plaque on tops;
- dying of the upper part of the plant;
- unpleasant odor.
Of the insects, onion flies and their caterpillars s. In addition, the destruction of crops involved thrips, moths and stem nematode. To repel parasites can be planted in the garden Calendula and chicory.
Popular spice survives perfectly in any garden. Growing garlic will not be a problem if you know how to plant and care. Thanks to our recommendations, dressing, watering and cleaning will not be a secret for you.