The formation of cucumbers is one of the most important stages of their cultivation. The yield depends on how well the bush is formed. Let’s consider what methods of forming cucumbers exist and how to form cucumbers, depending on the characteristics of the variety.
- Methods of forming cucumbers
- Formation rules in greenhouses
- Garter of the plant
- Formation of the bush
- Formation varieties of bouquet type
- Rules for the formation in the open ground
- Formation of cucumbers into several stems
- Specialist tips
Methods for the formation of cucumbers
Choosing a method for forming cucumbers cp depends on several factors.
- Growing method. When growing vegetables in greenhouses, the bushes form into one stalk. Growing cucumbers on the open ground, you can form a vegetable culture in any way. Give the advantage of forming 2-3 cucumbers whips.
- Availability. When forming into several stems, the bush takes up more space than when forming into one cucumber lash.
- Features of the variety. In some varieties, female flowers are located only on the central lash. Accordingly, it is best to form a vegetable crop in one stalk. In some varieties, female flowers are formed only on the side shoots. Accordingly, when forming a bush in one lash, the entire crop is lost.Some varieties do not need to be formed at all. They are grown on a special grid, which is pulled along the beds.
When cultivating varieties that do not require formation, you need to deal only with thinning leaves.
Also on the formation method affects the type of support. So, for example, a V-shaped support is suitable for growing a vegetable crop formed in 2 lashes, and with a garter on a pyramid, a vegetable crop that does not need to be grown is grown. Also, on this design, varieties formed in one stem can be grown. The disadvantage is the inability to install in the greenhouse.
Leaves and shoots should be removed with sharp scissors or a garden pruner. Pre-disinfect the garden tool so that no infection gets into the open section. If you break off the leaf, the laceration will heal longer, which increases the likelihood of infections or bacteria getting into it.
Formation rules in greenhouses
The main method of forming cucumbers in greenhouses involves cutting all side shoots. Single stem formation is beneficial for several reasons. Such a plant does not take up much space, and the yield brings even more than a vegetable crop formed in several lashes. In addition, the plant will not be overgrown, which will help to avoid the attack of parasites or fungal diseases. On the open ground, such a problem does not arise, since there is a wind that does not allow leaves to whirl.
Garter of the plant
The formation of cucumbers in one stem begins with the garter of the plant. In a greenhouse, it is best to tie vegetable crops onto trellises. The height of the supports depends on the tallness of the bush. Experts recommend installing trellises with a height of 1.5-2 m. These supports can be made of wood or metal. Preferred first material. You can also create a one-piece structure, which is a frame with a rope attached to it. Any rope of medium thickness is suitable: twine, thin rope or thick fishing line, etc. Each thread is located above the bush. The bushes are tied up 7-9 days after the emergence of seedlings.
Before you begin to form cucumbers, you need to familiarize yourself with the options for planting patterns. To achieve the desired result when growing vegetables on a trellis, the distance between the bushes should be 50 cm on average.
Formation of the bush
Formation of the cucumber begins after the bush 7-9 leaves appeared. In the lower 4 nodes, remove the entire ovary and pinch the side shoots. You need to pinch the shoots at a distance of several centimeters from the central lash. Leave 1 flower, which will give the fruit, in the 5th and 6th sinuses. Here we pinch the shoots at a distance of 20 cm from the stem. In the 7th sinus, remove the entire ovary. In the 8th sinus, 2-4 fetuses are left. The length of the shoots is 35-40 cm. When the vegetable crop reaches the height of the trellis, pinch the top of the stem.The last 2-3 shoots are nipped at a distance of 50 cm from the central lash. There should be 2 leaves above the last fruit.
The exception is tall varieties. In some cases, it makes sense not to pinch the top, and let the cucumber whip down. But this action makes sense only if a powerful bush has formed. If the stem is flimsy, it is better if it spends energy not on the growth of the stem, but on the formation of the fruits.
With this scheme for the formation of cucumbers, all the fruits are almost the same size. In addition, they ripen at the same time, which simplifies harvesting.
Formation of varieties of the bouquet type
Separately, it is worth noting the varieties of the bouquet type. When they are formed, all side lashes are removed at a height of 1.3-1.5 m from the base of the bush. Only near the trellis a few lashes with ovaries are left. All ovaries formed near a 1-4-sheet plate from the ground are removed. Only leaf plates are left here. Starting from the fifth sheet, one bunch of ovaries is left near the main lash and along a 1-sheet plate.
Thinning of the ovary should be handled carefully. A feature of bouquet varieties is that up to 10 cucumbers are formed in one ovary. These varieties are obtained artificially.Accordingly, breeders made sure that the plant had the strength to ripen all the fruits. Thinning of the ovaries in this case is not necessary. We only remove those that are formed in the sinus 1-3.
Experts recommend not pinching the cucumber lash. After it reaches the top of the pylon, it is allowed to grow down.
Formation rules in open ground
Consider how to properly form cucumbers in open ground .
Formation is much simpler here. It is not necessary to follow the step-by-step instructions and calculate how many leaves and shoots have appeared. It is necessary to pinch the central shoot after 4 leaf appears. This will provoke active growth and development of side shoots, and when growing a crop in the open ground, in most varieties, female flowers, which give fruit, are formed on the side shoots. Further, nothing needs to be done. The main thing is to provide the plant with proper care, which requires timely watering, top dressing and loosening of the soil.
Having chosen a variety of cucumbers for planting, we must carefully study its characteristics. Today there are hybrid varieties with a female type of flowering. This means that on all shoots, female flowers are formed. Accordingly, the formation of such plants can not be dealt with at all. They are easiest to grow on a grid.
The formation of cucumbers into several stems
This method is used infrequently, since the formed plant takes up a lot of space on the site. Most of all, this method is suitable for low-growing varieties that produce many lashes.
All leaf plates that touch the ground are cut off. Before the formation of the first ovaries, shoots are not removed. Carefully inspect all the resulting lashes. The most powerful of them will be the central stem. The remaining side lashes are tilted at an angle of 60-70 ° to the central stem. This procedure is performed carefully so as not to break the fragile lashes. For fixing, use supports made of improvised means. If the shoots develop too actively, some can be pinched. Scourges of the second order are not removed, but nipped.
This method must be approached creatively. Leaves that interfere with the penetration into the depths of the plant of light and wind are carefully cut with a clean tool. The lashes that have finished bearing must also be removed.
The method of forming a plant in several lashes is suitable for hybrid varieties Rodnichok, Moscow greenhouse, Bylina, Topolek. As for non-hybrid varieties, Monastery cucumbers and the Neroshimy greenhouse variety can be grown in this way.
- In the phase of active growth, pinching lateral shoots is recommended daily, therefore You should not plant a large territory with cucumbers. With a small bed with proper care, it will be possible to harvest more than from a large area.
- Experts recommend removing leaf plates and shoots in the morning. During the day, wounds formed by pinching heal faster, which minimizes the risk of plant infection.
- All the ovaries that appear on the bush before the fifth leaf are removed. The plant will spend a lot of energy on their development, which will not allow it to grow stronger.
- Some summer residents twist the lashes in order to better fix them on the support, however, such an action can cause fruit rejection. In addition, some hybrid varieties have delicate lashes that are easily injured during twisting or bending.
- The correct formation of a vegetable crop involves the removal of all drying leaves. They only take over part of the world that healthy leaf plates need. In addition, dead parts of the plant prevent the penetration of air.
- Do not pinch more than 7 cm of cucumber shoot.This action will adversely affect the development of the bush and may cause its death. Those who are late with pinching the cucumber lash should either change the way the plant is formed or start forming correctly starting from the next cucumber lash.
- You can extend the fruiting process of a vegetable crop by pinching all yellowed and empty processes. The procedure is carried out in late summer or early fall. After removing parts of the plant that have finished bearing fruit, its base is covered with peat and wood ash.
- When choosing the method of formation, we take into account the type of pollination. As a rule, in bee pollinated varieties, empty flowers (male flowers) form on the main stem. Accordingly, for bee pollinated varieties, one should choose the method of formation in several stems, pinching the central lash after the formation of the fourth leaf plate.
Gardeners have been experimenting for many years trying to find the most effective methods of forming cucumbers. A huge contribution to the solution of this issue was made by Galina Kizima and Oktyabrina Ganichkina. The latter, being a candidate of agricultural sciences, has released many programs related to the care of cucumbers.