Ural climatic conditions are severe and unfavorable for many southern cultures. But the cultivation of eggplant in the Urals was made possible thanks to the efforts of breeders. You can grow vegetables only following the rules of agricultural technology.
- Best varieties for the Urals
- Growing seedlings
- Planting and care
- Greenhouse <
- Open ground
- Conclusion <
Best varieties for the Urals
First, choose the appropriate varieties of eggplant for the Urals. Early ripening crops that grow 90-120 days from the beginning of emergence are successfully grown. It is recommended to plant medium early vegetables, with ripening for 140 days.
In this region, the early ripening Quartet variety is the most common, it is easiest to grow in an unfavorable climate. It is grown in open ground. Harvested after 107-122 days of maturation. Spreading bush, reaches 60 cm with small pale purple leaves. Fruits are green-purple, shortened, pear-shaped, dull. They reach a length of 15 cm. The diameter is up to 7 cm. The pulp is of a light green hue, medium in density. Yields up to 20 kg with 10 m2.
In the Urals, other early eggplants are also suitable for cultivation:
- Delicious 163;
- Donetsk fruitful;
- Dwarf early 921;
- Early ripening 148;
- Czech early;
- Station wagon.
Their bushes are medium-tall up to 60 cm, in most cases branched. On each 10-15 blue matures with a total weight of up to 2 kg. They are medium-sized 100-150 g, different shades of purple, pear-shaped or cylindrical. The pulp is medium density from white to white-green. Vegetables without bitterness, have high taste.
Before planting, the seeds are prepared. They are disinfected with 1% potassium permanganate for 20-30 minutes
After which they are kept for 2 hours in a trace element solution. This helps the sprouts to ascend faster. The procedures are not carried out for purchased processed grains.
The seedlings of the culture are unstable to transplants, therefore they plant the seeds immediately in spacious separate cells with drainage holes. Use glasses, plastic bottles, pots, cassettes.
Before sowing, they are filled with earth, watered. 1-2 seeds are lowered to a depth of 1 cm, covered with soil, watered a little. In the future, they are watered as the soil dries under the root, but only with warm water at 25 ° C.
It is necessary to grow seedlings under a film that is left until emergence. The room temperature is maintained not lower than 25 ° C.
After the seedlings rise, the air is cooled to 17-18 ° C. This is necessary for hardening seedlings, this will allow you to grow strong plants.
Landing and departure
The technologies for planting crops in open ground and greenhouses are similar. Seedlings are transplanted from the boxes into the soil fertilized with peat, humus 1 cm deeper than in the boxes. Top soil is compacted and watered. The temperature of the soil should be above 15 ° C, air not lower than 18 ° C.
Seedlings are watered once a week. After the appearance of fruits, watering is performed 2 times a week.
Harvested during the period of technical ripeness. This means that the actual characteristics of the fruit correspond to the description of the particular variety.
Vegetables are planted in greenhouses in the second half of February and the first half of March. As the plants grow, the optimum air temperature should be: during the day 25-27 ° C, at night 16-18 °. For measurements, 2 thermometers are used: near the soil and under the roof of the greenhouse.
In the greenhouse, the culture is planted in 1 row. The distance between the seedlings should be 45 cm. Practicing planting in a checkerboard pattern. In this case, 60 cm are kept between the bushes. The culture is photophilous. She needs bright natural light 12 hours a day.
They are illuminated with fluorescent or phytolamps. They are located above the bushes at a height of 50-60 cm.
On the hottest days that are in the south of the Urals, vegetables need protection from direct sunlight. To do this, a loose light cloth is thrown on the greenhouses.
Gardeners recommend sticking to low air humidity and high soil moisture in bags. Watering is carried out early in the morning. The soil is mulched, and the greenhouse is ventilated to minimize fungal diseases.
In a greenhouse, the culture grows several times higher than in open ground. She is tied to the trellis. Harvest from greenhouse eggplant in June.
Plant seedlings in mid-May and first half of June. Varieties Zamorsky, Universal, Quartet are suitable.
Gardeners use their own seedlings. It takes root well without cover, and as practice shows, such bushes are much stronger and more fertile.
Crop rotation is of great importance. Eggplant should be grown next to other nightshade: potatoes, peppers, tomatoes, but not after them. The best predecessors of vegetables are legumes, carrots, pumpkins.
It is better to plant seedlings not too sparse. Maintain a distance of 30-35 cm between the bushes and 50-60 cm between the rows.
In contrast to the greenhouse, where predominantly prepared mineralized soil is used, in the open ground the crop especially needs mineral fertilizers:
- nitrogen for the growth of the vegetative system;
- phosphorus for flowering, the formation of ovaries;
- potassium for the growth of fruits, strengthening the immunity of the plant.
After the appearance of the fruits, 10-15 best eggplants are left in the bushes. Harvested in August early September, but always before the onset of frost.
The cultivation of whimsical, thermophilic eggplant in the Urals is a laborious process. The main thing is to choose the right early variety. Gardeners mainly grow vegetables in greenhouse conditions. For many of them, southern culture has become not just a miracle of the Ural garden, but also a source of income.