Ways to withdraw queen bees

The strength of the colony depends on the fertility of the uterus. The quantity and quality of workers in the swarm depends on its ability to reproduce quickly. In good conditions, the queen lives for 3-6 years. However, already in the second year, its activity begins to subside. There is a need for replacement.

Self-hatching of queen bees for many beekeepers is an urgent problem. Not only the future of the family, but also the whole apiary depends on a well-structured process.

Conclusion of queen bees. Conditions

The main criterion for removing a strong uterus is a good bribe. Strong larvae will grow only on quality food. Under unfavorable weather conditions and lack of nutrition, females will come out small, with low productivity.

The hatching of the drones is carried out earlier than the laying of the mother liquor. Males stay in cells for 3 weeks. For full-fledged puberty, it takes about 10 more days. Therefore, the hatching of queens begins to be prepared only with the appearance of drone brood.

Basic rules for the withdrawal of queens

Ways to withdraw queen bees

To breed a strong queen, you need to follow certain rules:

  1. Weed out colonies with weak seed material.
  2. Choose strong healthy nests with high productivity and winter hardiness.
  3. Start the process of hatching the queen bees only after sealing the drone brood.
  4. Create ideal incubation conditions (temperature, humidity).
  5. Use large larvae.
  6. Perform work strictly in accordance with the calendar.

Family choice

Ways to withdraw queen bees

For breeding of drones and queens, selection begins with the “parents”. It is from them that young individuals inherit the necessary traits.

The main selection criteria:

  • high productivity in collecting honey for several years;
  • winter hardiness;
  • fertility of the uterus;
  • resistance to diseases;
  • weak tendency to swarm.

Tribal families are divided into two groups: paternal and maternal. Usually, for three dozen selected bee colonies, 2-3 best ones are left for hatching queens. All the rest are used for the production of drones.

Important!

Families selected for breeding should not be related.

The paternal and maternal material must be taken from different origins. A strong swarm is taken from another bee farm. It must be located at a minimum distance of 20 km.

How to distinguish a uterus

Ways to withdraw queen bees

The Queen Bee spends all her time in the hive. She only lays eggs. Leaves the house when it is needed for mating. However, there is no family without her.

The main female of the nest is distinguished by a number of features:

  • thickened, long abdomen;
  • lack of baskets for collecting pollen;
  • no wax mirrors;
  • slightly bent sting;
  • body length – from 19 to 25 mm;
  • weight – from 180 to 300 mg;
  • the tips of the wings do not reach the end of the abdomen.

Insects serving the uterus feed it only with royal jelly. When it comes time to swarm, she is not fed. She feeds herself on honey. Loses weight and flies.

Family preparation

Ways to withdraw queen bees

For the withdrawal of new breeding individuals, it is recommended to start preliminary work a year in advance. Additionally, they build up the strength of families before wintering and carry out a number of preventive measures:

  • checking the quality of beekeeping products;
  • procurement of high-quality feed;
  • disinfection of hives;
  • disease prevention.

They begin to breed queens only in the spring after a complete change of overwintered individuals. The family must have at least 4 frames of bee bread, 10 kilograms of honey. A strong swarm usually weighs more than 2,5 kg.

What to do with the queen bee

Ways to withdraw queen bees

The mother liquor is sealed after laying after 8 days. For the development of the female, 17 is needed. For the working individual, it takes 4 more days.

The uterus, having reached maturity, comes out gnawing the top of the mother liquor. She can destroy the remaining cells. In order to obtain a complete hatching of the females, the larvae are covered with cells. They are given royal jelly every day. Young insects should not be left in isolation for a long time. They are put into nucleus hives, specially designed for temporary overexposure of a small family.

Insects are thoroughly tested. If defects are found, they are destroyed.

Important!

With a successful brood of breeding females, they do not get rid of excess individuals. The required amount is used for layering, the rest are sold.

Artificial withdrawal methods

Ways to withdraw queen bees

The process of self-production of queens usually does not cause any particular difficulties. However, this requires:

  • experience;
  • knowledge;
  • conditions;
  • the presence of purebred families.

Important!

Fertile queens are hatched by breeding one species. When different breeds are crossed, hereditary traits are lost.

Emergency withdrawal of uterus

Ways to withdraw queen bees

This method is considered one of the simplest. Frames with clutch and brood are taken from the strongest family. The upper part of the honeycomb is cut out in the form of a hole 4 cm by 3 cm. Only two larvae are left. The prepared cut frame is installed in the queenless socket. Insects lay the queen cell for three to four days. When a sufficient amount is formed, they are cut off.

Insulator

Ways to withdraw queen bees

This method makes it possible to breed up to 10 females. In a strong family, the uterus is taken away. She isolates herself. There is also a mature brood here.

The structure is covered with frames, closing the exit to the uterus, and placed back. The nucleus is formed after 3 days.

Fresh brood is trimmed at the bottom and placed back into the house. Queen cells are cut out two to three days before ripening. After the young animals emerge, they are placed in cores.

System Nick

Ways to withdraw queen bees

This method of breeding queen bees requires some preparatory work.

Necessary materials:

  • cassette (honeycomb with grate and plexiglass cover);
  • bowls (up to 100 pieces);
  • holders;
  • plinths with attachments for the grafting frame;
  • cells.

The work is carried out in several stages:

  1. In the central part of the frame, a cassette is installed in several ways: with dry, with foundation, on an empty one (attached to a bar).
  2. A grafting frame is being made. Any one will do for this. Can be used with defects.
  3. The cassette is polished and cleaned by bees. The structure is placed in the hive in advance. Not less than one day. The cassette is smeared with honey or sprinkled with honey fed. The bees get used to the new object. During this time, the honeycomb is saturated with the smell of the nest and warms up to the desired temperature.
  4. We plant the “queen”. We close the cap. Insects pass freely along the passage between the cassette and the frame to the uterus for feeding. The honeycomb is checked in a day. If the uterus has laid a clutch, then it is released. The frame with the honeycomb “Nicot” is retracted into place. Bowls with one-day-old larvae are placed on the grafting frame.
  5. A family is being formed. All combs are removed from the hive without brood. Only frames with bee bread remain. The center is left free. Honey stocks are placed behind the diaphragm. Ceiling feeders are installed a week before loading the grafting frame. The family is fed with coniferous syrup. Cobalt is sometimes added. The uterus is deposited in 3 hours. On the fifth day, the family is monitored and all fistulous queen cells are removed.
  6. Installation of the grafting frame in the prepared place. The bowls must be placed quickly so that the larvae do not have time to cool and dry.
  7. The larvae are received according to the calendar.
  8. Culling queen cells is a simple process. Usually they get rid of small, curves, leaving even and large ones.
  9. You need to prepare for the selection of young females. All queen cells are placed in cells in order not to lose the rest after the first one comes out.
  10. The exit of the uterus, control of the reception and subsequent laying of eggs.

Plaque on the mother

Ways to withdraw queen bees

The scheme of family division by raid: A – divided family; B – united family

The method is effective when it becomes necessary to eliminate the swarm state of the nest. It is used if the family has established queen cells before the selection of the layers. It is too late to form layers, but it is possible to return the swarm to a working state. The method of dividing by “bloom on the mother” immediately mobilizes the bees to work, the efficiency of the queen’s egg-laying does not decrease.

The method is successfully applied in different regions and helps to stop swarming. The method is used immediately when the first signs appear.

Withdrawal in syringes

Ways to withdraw queen bees

This method saves valuable tribal “material” from internecine strife. Practice has shown that you need to use a 20 ml syringe. The piston should move easily and not pop out. This “equipment” will cost much less than specialized tools.

To make a mother isolator, you will need up to 12 syringes for each rail, a drill with a drill with a diameter of 2,8 mm. The drilled holes are cleaned with a knife. Plastic bowls are attached to the inside of each tank.

The method is quite convenient and economical. Keeps a large number of queens. The containers are convenient for transporting insects. They provide free air access.

The lack of the method can be considered the preparation of tools. However, the work is worth the result.

Incubator hatching

Ways to withdraw queen bees

In 5-6 days after artificial and natural swarming, bees grow more than 10 queen cells. With a plentiful bribe and a calm behavior of insects, they can be left. Individuals are raised in an artificial incubator. The device can be purchased ready-made or made by hand.

The work is carried out in several stages.

  1. The mothers are trimmed only after complete sealing. You need to act carefully, since the age of the young growth is unknown.
  2. When making incubators yourself, you need to install heating elements, a thermostat to maintain the temperature, provide humidity and install ventilation.
  3. A conventional apparatus for hatching poultry eggs has shown itself well in practice. The conditions it creates are suitable for storing the mother liquor.
  4. The temperature is kept constant – 340C. Humidity level – 75%. You need to feed it by hand.

Future queens come out on the 16th day from the day of laying.

Natural ways of withdrawal

Swarming

Ways to withdraw queen bees

A very simple method of rearing queens, since no beekeeper’s intervention is required. Under certain conditions, the swarming process can be accelerated. For this, three frames with brood are placed in the hive, and the empty ones are removed. Bees immediately begin to build queen cells. Beekeepers make layers on them.

This method has several disadvantages:

  • there is no possibility of forecasting;
  • there is no quality control and number of females at the exit;
  • if the appearance of the queen bee went unnoticed, then she will fly away and take part of the family with her.

Fistulous mothers

Ways to withdraw queen bees

When the queen is lost, the colony begins construction of a new queen cell and transfers several larvae to “queen” feeding. The queen, bred in a short time, is called fistulous.

Beekeepers use this bee ability for emergency recovery to breed queens. For this, the queen is taken from a strong swarm. Together with the brood, she is housed in a new house. Workers with 2-3 frames are also planted here.

In the old nest, noticing the absence of a queen, family members begin to prepare queen cells. For blasting, those of them that were laid on immature larvae are left, on adults they are cut off.

This method allows you to quickly get a uterus and increase the family. Such females are small in size and low in fertility.

Benefits of self-withdrawal

Ways to withdraw queen bees

Getting young queens on our own has a number of positive aspects:

  1. The hatching of females is planned.
  2. They receive young growth in the required quantity and within a specific time frame.
  3. Tribal individuals are not swarm. They are distinguished by high productivity.
  4. For hatching, take larvae of a certain size and age.
  5. The method allows you to avoid large financial costs.

Errors in the removal of queens

Ways to withdraw queen bees

Novice beekeepers, due to lack of experience and certain knowledge, often make mistakes when breeding breeding individuals. Experienced beekeepers do not recommend:

  • to engage in selection in the absence of a pure breed;
  • shake the honeycomb;
  • carry out activities in the absence of the necessary conditions (temperature, humidity);
  • do not delay the vaccination process.

Useful tips:

  1. During vaccinations, use additional tools: binocular glasses, a flashlight, a special spatula. This will allow you to perform the procedure accurately, without wasting time.
  2. Larvae are selected the largest, the same size. Most often they are located closer to the center of the honeycomb.
  3. To obtain large eggs, the uterus is placed in an isolator.
  4. Small, uneven queen cells are best discarded.
  5. The family – the teacher should be fed with fodder containing protein, carbohydrates.
  6. The presence of an open brood in the family educator is obligatory. In such a nest, there are many bees that produce milk.

Breeding calendar

Ways to withdraw queen bees

There are clear deadlines for any type of breeding work. When planning, you need to consider the following points:

  1. It is good to get queens early, given that development from larva to fetal individual takes a whole month. However, you first need to get a strong drone offspring.
  2. Determining the number of queens, the strength of the family is taken into account. The hatch is often divided into several batches for the gradual colonization of the cores.
  3. The withdrawal of the last batch should be completed before the onset of the main bribe so that the division of families does not affect the honey collection.

The action plan is drawn up in accordance with the queen bee hatching calendar. Usually, every beekeeper chooses a comfortable shape for himself. It can be a table or a circle where the days of the month and the stage of growth of the larva are indicated.

Breeding queen bees does not require huge labor and large material costs. The main thing is to follow the rules. Work only with a strong and sturdy swarm. Create optimal conditions. Compliance with the basic recommendations will give a guaranteed result in the form of strong offspring.

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Ways to withdraw queen bees
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Anna Evans

Author ✓ Farmer

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