When growing potatoes, Experienced gardeners have noticed that this vegetable consumes a lot of nutrients from the soil during the growing season. The land is gradually depleted and becomes unsuitable for the cultivation of almost all crops.To avoid this, you need to make fertilizers for potatoes when planting. Then the crop will be good, and the soil will maintain fertility. But not everyone knows how to fertilize potatoes when planting most efficiently, which fertilizer to put into the soil, and which directly to the wells.
- Plant Nutrients
- Dosage and choice of fertilizing
- Autumn top dressing of the soil for potatoes
- Compost <
- Manure <
- Mineral nutrients
- Number of mineral fertilizers
- Feeding in the hole per d landing
- Wood ash
- Litter <
- Artificial fertilizers
- Tuber processing
- Conclusion <
During the growth of potato bushes, in order to produce a full crop of tubers, various minerals and organics are taken from the soil.Experts have determined that during the growing season of plants with 1 m² it takes up to feed the tubers:
- about 15 g of pure nitrogen;
- up to 39 g of potassium oxide;
- more than 8 g of magnesium ;
- approximately 8 10 g of phosphoric acid.
You can also add some copper and boron, manganese and zinc. To replenish microelements in the soil, you need to know what fertilizers to apply when planting potatoes, how to fertilize the soil from autumn to winter for chill, what to use for foliar top dressing.
So that the soil always remains fertile, you can add not only chemicals, but also organic matter . Plants are very demanding on good nutrition and if it is not enough, then you should not expect a large harvest.
Dosage and choice of fertilizing
The number and composition of fertilizing depends on the state of the soil. If the soil on the site is completely sandy, marsh or acidic peat, then it is better to pay attention to other crops, and not to potatoes. An abundant yield can not be obtained at all, and the tubers will grow small and tasteless.
Sandy and medium loamy soils are considered the best soil for growing plants. This crop grows well on breathable soils because carbon dioxide helps the tubers gain weight and, when exposed to it, the starch content in fruit bodies increases. A starchy friable potato is more appreciated in the preparation of dishes.
Autumn top dressing of soil for potatoes
When adding organic matter to the soil, several methods of top dressing can be distinguished.
- Sowing green grasses and crops.
- Without siderats, use rotted compost and manure.
- Apply rotted bird droppings before digging the site.
These top dressings decompose under snow cover, make the soil nutritious and light, saturating it with all the necessary nutrients.
As for the siderats, they are sown on the shovel in early autumn. For this, apply:
- winter rye;
- white mustard;
- fodder yellow lupine;
Sow grass densely and evenly, throughout the site. If before frosts the height of the plants will exceed 30cm, then they are mowed under the root and left on the soil. Winter cereals can be left to grow until spring. On warm days, the plants are buried in the ground with a hoe or digged to a shallow depth of 20 cm.
Overripe compost and manure (2 or 3 summer exposure in compost pits) is mixed in equal amounts. A mixture is added to the site: 40 buckets per 1 hundredth, leveled with a rake and dug.When digging, all components are embedded in the ground, but after that the earth is not leveled. If there are eggs or pests cysts in the soil, then frost will destroy them, because lumps of land will give free access to the icy air, to insects and larvae.
Bird droppings must be made carefully, observing the rules. It is best to mix it with wood ash 1: 1 and scatter it on the surface, 10 buckets per 1 acre, and dig it up. Fresh manure and fresh bird droppings cannot be used because they can burn young sprouts.
You can make an infusion from slurry. For 1 bucket of water take 1 bucket of manure or bird droppings and incubated at room temperature for 2 weeks, constantly stirring for fermentation. The finished mixture is diluted 1:10 with water, filtered and the wells watered. Moist soil is abundantly covered with wood ash and tubers are planted.
To find out which fertilizer is best used during planting, it is necessary to conduct a chemical analysis of the soil.
But usually the composition of the soil is determined visually. If legumes were grown in the garden, they enrich the soil with nitrogen and its introduction into the soil can be limited to a minimum. An excess of this element will give an impetus to the increased growth of the aerial part of the bush, and the tubers will grow no more than a walnut.
What fertilizers should be applied when planting seed potatoes, when oxal crops and sour acid were abundantly grown on the plot? In this case, phosphorite flour must be added to the wells, which neutralizes the acidity of the soil. It can be mixed in equal amounts with bone meal and granular superphosphate. 5 kg of mixture is added per 1 acre.
Number of mineral fertilizers
For the autumn tillage, various minerals can be effectively used to fertilize the soil. It is best to process the garden before the onset of frost. For 1 hundredth you need to make:
- 1.2kg of superphosphate;
- 1.9kg of potassium sulfate;
- 0.9kg of urea;
- 1.1 kg of ammonium nitrate.
The last 2 components will give the best effect during spring planting of fertilizer in the ground before planting potatoes.
If gardeners are late with autumn fertilizing, then this procedure can be carried out in the spring. The composition of top dressing per 1 acre remains the same, only some components are added. Fertilizers for planting potatoes are supplemented with wood ash – about 5 kg, nitroammophos – up to 3 kg and nitrophos – not less than 3 kg or use complex mineral fertilizer, according to recipes for use.
Fertilizing a well before planting
The best of all fertilizers is wood ash, which is recommended for use specialists. Its composition includes magnesium, potassium and phosphates. Enough 5 tablespoons of ash per 1 hole to provide the plant with all the necessary inorganic nutrients. 750 g of dry humus are added to the ash, mixed in a hole and tubers are planted.
The soil in the wells can be enriched with useful substances using bird droppings. Aged for 2 years, droppings are dried and ground to a powder state. Mix with rotted compost 1: 1 and lay on the bottom of the pit. A handful of chopped onion husks is poured on top. The husk serves as a feeding component and repels small pests such as wireworm, cicadas and nematodes.
Along with organics, a complex mineral fertilizer is used for potatoes when planting tubers in holes. It should not be entered throughout the site, as the roots of the plant cover a small area and it is enough to feed them in the radius of the holes. You can add 2 tablespoons of microfertilizer to the planting pits immediately before planting the seed.
Micronutrient fertilizers (Agro and Kemir Zerebra)
Chemical preparations are added to the pits, counting their amount per 1 m². The following must be added to this area:
- 7g of urea or 10g of ammonium nitrate;
- 85g of magnesium sulfate;
- 25g of dolomite flour;
- 35g nitrofoski.
Very often gardeners use professional top dressings such as Zerebra Agro and Kemira. Putting them into the soil must comply with the instructions on the packaging.
One of the most effective fertilizers is the drug Giant. You can buy it in the form of granules that dissolve well in water. The composition of the Giant includes peat, phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen in quantities necessary for the full development of plants and the formation of tubers. To add to the wells, it is enough to use 1 tablespoon of granules or powder, and for the first watering of potatoes make a solution: 55g of the drug should be added to a bucket of water.
Each gardener decides for himself which fertilizer is best for potatoes when planting on his own plot. He knows the composition of the soil and weather features of the region of residence. It should be borne in mind that the application of top dressing directly to the wells provides a more rapid supply of nutrients to the area of the root system.Potato roots are limited in growth, so if the nutrients are outside the ridges, they will not benefit the plant.
To learn how to fertilize potatoes during planting, draw on the experience of gardeners. Some of them recommend processing tubers. To do this, you can use:
- boric acid;
- potassium permanganate;
The presence of these substances in seed potatoes, will ensure a good development of the root system and abundant flowering, a large number of strong and durable lashes.
Sometimes solutions can be purchased ready-made. But if there are none in the distribution network, then they can be easily prepared on their own. For 2 liters of warm water take 0.8 g of each drug. The volume of solution depends on the amount of planting material.
Tubers are packed in nets and dipped in liquid. Processing time ranges from 3 hours for small potatoes and up to 4.5 hours for large tubers. After that, the treated seeds are carefully removed so as not to damage the shoots and planted in a permanent place.
Considering the question of what is better to fertilize potatoes when planting, we came to the conclusion that mixed feeding is effective. Using organic and mineral fertilizers you can achieve good results and get a plentiful harvest. Large and tasty potatoes will appear on the table, with proper care of the plants, subject to the timing of irrigation and, of course, when fertilizing the holes before planting seed tubers.After the plants grow, apply foliar top dressing.