If you decide to become a happy owner of a horse, then you should figure out how to keep the animal healthy. In this article, we will discuss in more detail the topic of Horse Disease. It is important to recognize the symptoms of the disease in time, and also to choose the right treatment tactics. The article just gives an answer to the question of what the horses are ill with.
- Symptoms of equine diseases
- Horse health indicators
- Horse skin diseases
- Scabies of horses, or dermatosis
- Mokrets in horses
- Eczema in horses
- Diseases of the musculoskeletal system of horses
- Rheumatism of joints
- Naminas of limbs or punctures
- Tendon injury
- Proofing of the hoof
- Digestive disorders
- Cramping or colic
- Helminthic infestations
- Organ diseases breathing ia
- Horse flu or inflation
- Siberian leprosy
- Sap and wash in horses
Symptoms of equine diseases
A sick horse will let you know about his illness by noticeable signs, they can be detected with the naked eye. The following symptoms indicate a horse’s disease:
- The coat loses its luster, becomes dull and untidy.
- The horse ceases to eat.
- The eyes of the individual become sick, a characteristic luster disappears.
- The nature of the horse changes, the animal may become more restless or, conversely, fall into an apathetic state.
- Walking becomes shaky and unstable, the animal may fall on its side and fall.
- The nature of the excrement often changes.
If you yourself noticed one or another sign, this suggests that the horse is sick and needs help. Breeders do not recommend self-medication: only a doctor, that is, a veterinarian, can make a true diagnosis, after which an effective treatment will be chosen. Only a specialist will be able to conduct a complete diagnosis, which will include both laboratory tests and physiological measurements: pulse, respiration rate, heart rate and temperature.
Despite the fact that almost the whole picture will be opened before the veterinarian , the doctor will still be interested in the owner, how the behavior of the steed changed, what symptoms were noticed at home. For example, you can talk about recently started diarrhea or coughing and so on.
Speaking about horse diseases, it is customary to distinguish two main groups of ailments that are most often diagnosed in artiodactyls:
- Diseases of horses affecting the work of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Ailments of horses that relate to the work of the musculoskeletal system.
It’s worth saying that I’m not a horse for my life it is possible to avoid at least one case of the disease, even despite proper care and balanced nutrition.
Horse health indicators
To understand that the horse is not all right, it’s worthwhile to figure out which horse indicators are considered normal. For familiarization, we present a table in which indicators of normal functioning are indicated.
|Criterion||Indications are normal|
|Temperature indicator||from 37.7 to 38.5 ° C|
|Respiratory rate per minute||9-16 breaths in a calm state|
|Pulse rate per minute||25 to 48 strokes per minute in a calm state|
|Appearance of the mucous membranes||Normally pink, moistened surface|
|The presence of secretions||In a healthy horse there shouldn’t be a selection in principle|
Now it’s time to understand in more detail what ailments of the artiodactyl can suffer. For convenience and easy perception, you need to divide the disease into several groups. Let’s start with a description of the skin diseases in horses.
Horse skin diseases
Every second horse has skin problems, they cause the animal a lot of trouble and discomfort, but, fortunately are most often non-contagious. In order to help the animal, you have to spend a lot of time and effort, not to mention the material costs.In addition, it should be noted that during the treatment period it is worth releasing the horse from physical exertion and training, since movement and friction on the saddle or cinch can be painful.
As for the frequency and frequency of skin diseases, it’s noted that most often they appear in the summer, when the horse sweats more, is exposed to bites of gadflies and other insects. In winter, skin diseases also occur, but the cause is already lice, ticks and other skin parasites. We learn what diseases belong to this group.
Scabies of horses, or dermatosis
The causative agent of scabies is the scabies mite, which actively reproduces under the skin after infection. It is noted that the hooves of the animal are most often affected. It is dangerous that the owner is unlikely to be able to immediately detect the tick itself and understand what is wrong with the horse. Such carelessness threatens that an infectious disease will soon cover the whole stall, infecting the remaining horses. nearby objects, thus satisfying the need for combing.
- Alopecia develops in the areas affected by scabies: hair falls out, you can also notice the presence of scabs.
- The animal becomes restless and nervous, stops listening.
- General deterioration of the skin condition can be noted , It becomes dry and rough.
With regard to treatment, the horse must first be isolated to prevent further spread of the sore. Local treatment with ointments and solutions should be carried out only after consultation with the veterinarian and only with the modern drugs and methods that will be prescribed.
Mokrets in horses
Mokrets, or prickly heat more often , all develops due to the fact that the conditions of the horses are not in compliance with the norm. For example, the litter does not change on time. Outwardly, the disease manifests itself in the form of cracked skin and wounds that can later turn into ulcers. Most often, mokret develops on the legs, as does scabies. If you do not start treatment on time, there is a high probability that an infection will get into the wound and inflammation will begin. In this case, the treatment will be not only local, but also complex, since antibiotics will be required.
How to recognize mokret in the very beginning?
- The horse alternately raises its hooves, and tries to you can keep your leg bent longer.
- Externally, you can observe altered skin, wounds appear that can bleed and fester
Eczema in horses
Another common skin disease in veterinary medicine in horses is eczema. She appears due to the fact that horses are kept in unsanitary conditions.The fact is that untreated horse skin is more prone to irritation, which later develops into a chronic inflammation called eczema. The first thing to do is to move the animal to a separate stall. This should be done not because the horse is contagious, but because health problems often change the nature of the horse, making it restless and even aggressive.
Signs of equine eczema:
- The horse is twitching, Nervous because she is in pain and cannot scratch her wounds.
- The horse’s skin becomes dry, wrinkled, you can see the appearance of a crust and even a rash.
- The appetite may worsen, the horse is losing weight.
Diseases of the musculoskeletal system of horses
Horses are animals with a well-developed muscular system, but despite this, they suffer from ailments associated with restriction of mobility, especially often diagnosed more horse hooves, as soon as the slightest signs of ailments of the musculoskeletal system become noticeable, it’s important to immediately seek medical help, otherwise the horse may lose the ability to walk. We’ll figure out which diseases in this group are most common.
Rheumatism of the joints
Inflammation of the joints, or rheumatism, is quite common in horses. Hooves usually suffer, as they have a huge load. Rheumatism can affect both one leg and all at once. The reasons can be varied, ranging from malnutrition and leg injuries, ending with the fact that the horse has a tendency to rheumatism at the gene level, that is, the horse may have a hereditary predisposition.
- Increased temperature.
- The gait changes, the horse prefers to sit or lie down, as it hurts to stand on legs.
- Upon a detailed examination, you can see swollen, enlarged joints that cause pain to the animal.
Naminas of the limbs or splits
Horses walk and move a lot, especially if the owner changes pastures from time to time. It is only natural that on the way the steed can step on a sharp object, which will entail the development of inflammation. Most often, ungraced horses suffer: their hooves are not protected. It is dangerous that an unaware foreign object in the sole in time can lead to the development of inflammation and even gangrene. It is extremely important to pull out a splinter in time and not to treat a horse. In addition to the splinter, a big problem is the situation when the horse has crushed her legs, this also negatively affects her gait and the ability to walk in general. You can suspect a glow or namin by the following signs:
- The horse refuses to walk long distances.
- The gait changes.
- The joints are strained and sore.
A tendon stretch appears if the animal has worked hard and worked, for example, it can be long walking or excessively long sports. Usually, the metatarsal bone is the trauma, this place is the most vulnerable in the bone apparatus.
Symptoms of distension:
- The affected area of the limb swells, causing pain on palpation.
- The horse may limp on a sore leg.
Treatment at home involves the complete immobilization of the limb, for this it is fixed with elastic bandages, tissue and tires, if necessary. During treatment, the horse is on vacation, that is, it is strictly forbidden to engage her in work or training.
Rotting the hoof
This is a dangerous condition in which the hoof becomes characteristic of rotting black color, while pus with a sharply repulsive odor is released from the sole. The cause of this lesion is an infection that usually gets inside through trauma. However, there are other reasons for rotting the hoof, such as dirty stalls, an unsuitable horseshoe, improperly trimmed hooves, inexperienced forging, and so on.
Signs of suppuration of the hoof:
- Blackening of the limb.
- The hoof feels softer to the touch.
- The horse categorically refuses to step on sore limbs.
- The presence of an extraneous putrefactive smell from the wound is noted.
In case of delay in treatment, the horse runs the risk of losing his leg surgically or even dying from infection .
Diseases related to digestion
This group includes all the ills that affect the absorption of food process, its digestion, followed by excretion.It is worth saying that in general, the causes of problems in the digestive tract are poor nutrition, poor quality food, and deviation from the feeding schedule.
Cramps or colic
Colic or cramp – not a rare occurrence for horses, most often the cause of this condition is malnutrition or its imbalance. If assistance is not provided on time, then in the worst case, the horse may die due to a physical rupture of the stomach. Why do cramps occur? This condition can develop, due to the fact that the food in the stomach increases in size and presses on the walls of the stomach and intestines, even excessive consumption of too cold water can provoke such symptoms. Excessive gas formation also contributes to this. It is worth saying that colic causes truly hellish pain, so the horse’s condition can be critical.
How does the colic appear externally:
- The horse is nervous, worried for no apparent reason.
- During an attack, the head turns toward the lower abdomen, and the back tries to bend.
- Also, if colic occurs, excessive sweating in the horse, the development of shortness of breath.
Helminthic infestations in horses are often diagnosed, these can be ordinary roundworms, threadworms nye, and so on.All these simplest parasites penetrate the gastrointestinal tract of the animal through food, and depending on the subspecies they can migrate to other internal organs, for example, to the heart or liver.
Symptoms of an invasive parasitic disease:
- The horse dramatically loses weight.
- The nature and appearance of the hairline changes.
- The appetite changes in waves, then it grows, then it disappears altogether.
- Maybe develop diarrhea.
- Along with traditional excrement, an admixture of mucus appears in the stool, sometimes you can notice the worms themselves in the feces.
The final group of diseases are respiratory diseases caused by infections or viruses. Horses have a well-developed respiratory system, however, like all living organisms, they can become infected by the traditional contact route. Often horse breeders do not pay enough attention to the usual coughing or periodic shortness of breath in the animal, and in vain, because this may be the first alarm bell that the horse becomes ill. Below we will try to talk about infectious or viral respiratory ailments in more detail, describing those that are most common.
Horse flu, or inflation
Influenza in horses is one thing of the most dangerous infectious infectious diseases that develops in the upper respiratory tract to the larynx.If you notice disturbing symptoms in your pet, you should not self-medicate, you will need a thorough examination by a veterinarian and subsequent professional treatment according to his instructions. Such caution is necessary, because the flu is dangerous for its consequences, especially if it is not treated. However, it is worth mentioning that the farmer can protect the horse from this disease by vaccination, which has recently become increasingly popular.
- A dry cough develops.
- Mucous discharge from the nostrils, mouth and sometimes eyes is observed.
- The temperature rises sharply to a critical point.
- The general condition of the horse is unsatisfactory, it does not eat and does not drink, does not want get up.
- The color of the mucous membranes is pale, almost white, and gum inflammation is often observed.
Another dangerous disease of horses, which I must say – it’s anthrax, leprosy and rabies. At present, this extremely contagious disease of horses is not found as often as before, and this cannot but please the breeders. It is worth saying that about 75% of cases of all infections with Siberian leprosy end in the death of the animal, it is not possible to save the horse. This is due to the fact that the disease acts aggressively, symptoms appear suddenly and progress rapidly: only one day can pass from the manifestation of the first sign to death.
Causes rabies in horses fungus, which is dangerous not only for cattle and animals, but also for people. That’s why you need to observe safety precautions and monitor compliance with sanitary standards when keeping pets.
Symptoms of anthrax:
- Pulse is increased, the heart makes more than 115 in one minute strokes are a symptom of an acute stage.
- Chills characteristic of high fever appear.
- The mucous membrane is dried, inflamed.
- The breath is frequent, not deep.
- A white coating forms on the upper side of the tongue, which once again confirms the fact of infection with the fungus, and multiple tumors appear on the body oli.
- The animal doesn’t look well, lies, showing no interest in anything.
- Characterized by a complete lack of appetite.
- In the terminal stage, the pulse slows down, cramps appear, the horse is dying.
Unfortunately, it is not possible to help the horse, the miracle of cure happens only in one out of a hundred cases when the veterinarian was asked for help on time. In the event of a horse’s death, it is imperative to inform the relevant veterinary services. This is to prevent the spread of the disease to other farms. The corpse of a horse is disposed of by a special veterinary service, it also produces complete disinfection of the stall and yard.
Sap and wash in horses
Sap belongs to the group of infectious diseases of horses, sometimes it proceeds in a chronic form. During infection with glanders, the lower parts of the respiratory organs are affected, that is, in fact, this is a lung disease. In addition, the development of characteristic nodes on the body is noted, which eventually grow together and degenerate into ulcers. People can become infected with a glanders, therefore, necessary precautions must be taken when treating glanders in an animal. The horses themselves become infected with glanders in contact with a sick animal, having contact with biological fluid: saliva, blood or sperm. Sap has a popular name: accidental horse disease. Despite the frightening symptoms, glanders can be successfully treated, but it is important to start them on time.
Myt also affects the respiratory system, but the upper section is affected, unlike glanders. Wash is most often diagnosed with foals, because their immunity is not yet sufficiently strengthened, for this reason the wash is in the first place among all diseases of foals, including newborns, in the diagnosis. What causes young animals to wash?
- Errors in nutrition.
- Poor ventilation of the premises with horses.
- Insufficient grazing in the fresh air.
- Poor immunity.
- Ignoring the examination before a random period.
The wash is treatable, but you need to be prepared for the fact that it will be long in order to eliminate the wash completely .As for the symptoms, the following can indicate the presence of horse wash:
- Decreased appetite.
- Increased body temperature.
- The development of ulcers in the oral cavity.
- Increased lymph nodes.
- Dry cough.
- Pain when neighing and swallowing.
Now you know what horses get sick, and you can understand that the animal is not healthy. The owner’s task is to ensure that the horses remain healthy and not hurt.