Over the question of why tomatoes rot, many gardeners are puzzling. Rot can ruin an entire crop. Tomatoes are quite whimsical plants that need an “eye and an eye”, otherwise they will quickly become infected with one of many viral diseases. Very often, summer residents choose a tomato variety that is completely unsuitable for the climatic conditions of their region. The second problem and the most important one is improper care.
Rotting diseasesTomatoes rot under the influence of fungal spores that can be carried downwind or fall on the fruit from the ground. Spores of various fungi can be in the soil for a long time, and under favorable conditions they begin to multiply actively. Due to the multiplication of pathogenic microorganisms, protein biosynthesis is disrupted and the fetal cells begin to decompose. Most often, the appearance of rot is caused by such viral diseases:
- late blight;
- alternariosis ;
- apical rot;
- black rot.
Tomato late blightThe main danger that lurks gardeners is late blight of tomatoes.A spike in viral infection occurs in the second half of summer, when temperature changes begin and much rain falls. Phytophthora fungus can persist in the soil all winter. First, the disease affects the lower tiers of foliage, and then spreads to the fruits themselves, and it affects both green and already ripe ones. The disease progresses very quickly and kills almost 70% of plants. It is not recommended to plant tomatoes in the immediate vicinity of potato beds, and in places where potatoes grew last year. It is on root crops that late blight occurs most often. Spores of the fungus do not tolerate direct sunlight. With a lack of lighting and high humidity, spores begin to spread. The main methods of controlling late blight are prevention and the right choice of crops. In order not to encounter the disease, it is recommended to give preference to early varieties of tomato. The farther the tomatoes are planted from each other, the less likely the spread of the virus. If the disease has just begun to manifest itself, it is recommended to remove the affected bushes and destroy them. Experienced gardeners advise using a solution of copper sulfate to process healthy tomatoes for prevention.
Vertex RotTomatoes rot not only in open ground, but also in greenhouse conditions. Late blight can also affect greenhouse representatives, but coping with it in a greenhouse is much easier, because here the gardener can independently adjust humidity and temperature. In greenhouses, green tomatoes often rot on the bushes. The main reason is vertex rot. When ripe, on still green fruits, a brown spot appears, which increases with the development of the fruit. The inside of the green tomato will be all rotten. Ultimately, the rot spreads to the stalks, and the vegetables fall still unripe. The disease is not viral. There can be several reasons for the appearance of rot:
- irregular watering;
- increased air temperature;
- increased acidity in the soil;
- lack calcium;
- increased nitrogen content in the soil.
AlternariosisThe second ailment from which green fruits decay is alternariosis . Most often found in southern regions with an arid climate or in hotbeds. The disease is viral. Alternaria fungus feels at ease at a temperature of 25 to 30 ℃ and a humidity of about 70%. At the stalk, in the area of the butt, spots of dark brown color appear.High humidity promotes the rapid formation of new spores, resulting in a fluff on the surface of the fruit. In addition to the fruit, the leaves also rot. Ultimately, the disease leads to atrophy of the deciduous part and the fall of the tomatoes. The method of struggle is the destruction of the affected bushes in the early stages, as well as the prevention of fungal infections.
Necrosis and black rotNecrosis affects the stems. Black rings appear on the top of the green fruits near the stalk, and the inside turns into a cloudy liquid. At the slightest touch or blow of the wind, the fruits fall from the bushes. The leafy part begins to fade from the top, without changing color. At a distance of about 20 cm from the root, wet dark spots are visible on the stem. Another type of necrosis is necrotic streak or strick. This is a viral disease that damages bushes in open ground and in greenhouses. The stems and petioles are covered with stripes of brown-red color. Often there is complete atrophy of the top of the plant. Brown spots also appear on the fruits, which later crack and become a hotbed of all kinds of mushrooms.
Black rotOver time, the stems crack and mucus spills out of them. Black rot can appear on tomatoes grown in the open field and on those grown in the greenhouse. Initially, dark green spots appear on the leaves, which grow and become darker.The virus then spreads to the fruits. Tomatoes are covered with shiny black convex spots. High humidity contributes to the accelerated reproduction and spread of fungal spores.
Vitamin deficiency and excessalso affects plant health. In addition to viral diseases, tomatoes rot during vitamin deficiency and when there is an overabundance of vitamins. Basically, seedlings speak of a lack of minerals.
- A lack of calcium leads to the appearance of young domed leaves with a tuberous structure, the stems break easily, the root partially atrophies.
- Young leaves shriveled from below about a lack of potassium. Sometimes a regional burn is noticeable.
- Root decay, sluggish leaves indicate a lack of copper.
- When a plant changes its color from green to purple, it is a signal that it lacks fluoride. Fluoride is involved in the construction and synthesis of cells. Most of all, tomatoes need it after the first pick, so the phenomenon of lack of substance is mainly observed during this period.
- The lack of chlorine is manifested by yellowing and withering of the leafy part. For optimal plant development and growth, the soil should contain 0.02% chlorine.
- Nitrogen deficiency is manifested in the pallor of the deciduous cover.Yellowness is more noticeable on the basal leaves, the stems are thinning and becoming stiff, growth is slowed down.
- The leaves turn yellow from the outside, and the veins remain green - this indicates a lack of iron.
Improper careTomatoes quite whimsical plants and require constant attention. Fruit decay is observed even in greenhouse conditions with a lack or excess of moisture. The tips of the tomatoes begin to blacken if the gardener does not comply with the watering regime. For example, he left for a few days, and then flooded the entire garden. First, dark spots appear on the bush, which grow as the fruit grows. The core of tomatoes hardens and becomes hard. If most of the tomatoes lie on wet soil, dry rot is converted to wet. Heat and high humidity stimulate the spread of apical rot. Blackening of the integument of tomatoes occurs due to the fact that moisture does not reach them, but remains in the deciduous part. Under such conditions, the fetus sings very quickly.If the irrigation regime is not observed at the pollination stage, the flowers fall from the branches and the bush may not produce fruit at all.
Preventive measuresInside rotted tomatoes are the main problem for many gardeners . If the tomatoes rotted from below, this may be the first symptom of a viral disease called phytosporosis, which progresses in mid-summer, under favorable conditions. The virus spreads rapidly throughout the bush, and fungal spores are carried downwind to neighboring bushes. In addition to viral diseases, the cause may be a banal deficiency or an excess of moisture and vitamins.
Today, there are many methods to get rid of fungal diseases with chemicals, but it’s better to start the prevention from the moment of preparation of the seed material. potassium so that there are no problems with a lack of miner On the other hand, after picking, you need to fertilize the soil several times to ensure the full development of the root system and the terrestrial part.
It is important to remember that the fungus settles in the root and then spreads throughout the plant, so it’s not superfluous when transplanting, examine the rhizomes of all sprouts and immediately remove the damaged ones. If you notice that tomato leaves rot at an early stage of growth, it is better to get rid of damaged sprouts immediately, and treat the rest with a special composition or pour a little pink solution of manganese. Watering regimen is the most important part of caring for tomatoes. Only soil should be shed, make sure that the spray does not fall on the leafy part. If the weather is wet, thinning the foliage of the lower part is recommended.
Fertilizers should be applied on time and in a certain amount. Their excess can also cause rotting vegetables. As a prevention of late blight, it is recommended to choose early ripe or purple varieties of tomatoes resistant to fungal diseases.