Gusmania is a perennial evergreen with light green leaves and spectacular bright, often red, bracts. Many types of gusmania are popular houseplants. Guzmania blooms, depending on the species, in spring or summer. It amazes with its beauty and brightness. Will fit perfectly into any room. We will tell you about the features of growing gusmania in indoor conditions in the article.
Gusmania. Farmer Burea-Uinsurance.com abudhabiplant
Briefly about the genus Gusmania
Guzman (Guzmania) Is a genus of evergreen herbaceous plants of the Bromeliad family (Bromeliaceae). Sometimes the plant is incorrectly called guzmania.
The genus Gusmania has about 130 species of epiphytes and terrestrial plants that are widespread in South Florida, West Indies, Central America, Venezuela, Brazil; grow in forests, on open mountain slopes at an altitude of 2400 m above sea level. The flowers of some species of gusmania are cleistogamous, that is, they do not open and self-pollination occurs inside the buds.
Gusmania requirements for growing
World: bright intense. In summer, at noon hours, gusmania should be shaded. Good lighting is essential in winter.
Temperature: moderate, in the spring-summer period + 20 … + 25 ° С, in the autumn-winter period – the optimal one is about + 16 … + 20 ° С, not lower than + 12 ° С. For the successful flowering of guzmania, it is recommended to maintain the temperature within + 25 ° C.
Watering: moderate, in the spring-summer period in the outlet, the water in it must be constantly. In the autumn-winter period, watering of gusmania is reduced, it is not recommended to water it into an outlet.
Air humidity: high – 70-80%. In the spring and summer period, gusmania requires frequent spraying. In the autumn-winter period, it is not recommended to spray. Grows successfully in wet terrariums, florariums, greenhouses.
Top dressing gusmania: in the spring-summer period, once a month with diluted fertilizer into the socket.
The dormant period of Gusmania: forced, due to reduced daylight hours and low air humidity, from October to February.
Gusmania transplant: as needed, after 2 years.
Reproduction: side suckers, seeds.
Features of care for gusmania
Lighting for gusmania
Gusmania can be grown in a bright or shaded place. She prefers diffused light, from direct sunlight at noon it should be shaded, for example, with translucent paper or cloth. Grows well on west or east windows. Grows well on northern windows, but may not bloom. In the summer, gusmania can be taken out into the open air, but it should be protected from sunlight, rain and drafts. If you do not have the opportunity to place the plant outdoors in the summer, then you should regularly ventilate the room.
In the autumn-winter period of gusmania, good lighting is needed; during this period, shading is not required. Additional lighting can be created by using fluorescent lamps, placing them above the plant at a distance of 50-60 cm, for at least 8 hours a day. In the autumn-winter period, it is also necessary to ventilate the room, but drafts should be avoided.
Gusmania watering and air humidity
During the growing season (from March to October), gusmania is watered abundantly, as the soil dries up. Water is poured into the outlet funnels, preferably in the morning. The water must be changed periodically in the funnels. Before the onset of the dormant period after the flowering of the gusmania, the water is drained from the outlet. In winter, watering is moderate, with a content below + 20 ° C, water is not poured into the funnels, but the plant is sprayed.
Plants placed on a bromeliad tree are removed from the support at least 1 time in 10 days and immersed in settled water until saturated, after which excess water is allowed to drain and returned to its place.
Water for watering gusmania is used well-settled and soft, 2-3 degrees above room temperature.
If the plant is kept above + 20 ° C in winter, you can occasionally pour a small amount of water into the outlet, only in the morning and always warm.
Like all bromeliads, gusmania prefers high humidity. Growing in a terrarium or a humid greenhouse is optimal for her. It is necessary to spray the plant several times a day. To increase moisture, the plant can be placed on a pallet with damp moss, expanded clay or pebbles. In this case, the bottom of the pot should not touch the water. You should periodically wipe the leaves of gusmania with a damp cloth, cleaning them from dust, the use of a special wax to make the leaves shine is not desirable.
From May to August, gusmania fertilizers are carried out once a month, while the fertilizer is diluted with water for irrigation and poured into an outlet. Fertilizer is used special for bromeliads or for common indoor plants, but taken in a dose four times less than for other plants. It must be remembered that the dose of nitrogen in the fertilizer should be low, its excess can cause the death of the plant.
Gusmania transplant and substrate
Gusmanias are transplanted as needed, 1 time every 2-3 years. During transplantation, the neck of the plant is not buried; this can cause the plant to rot and die.
The substrate for growing gusmania should be porous, drainage should be at least 1/3 of the height of the pot. For epiphytic species, the mixture is made up of crushed pine bark, chopped sphagnum, high peat, leafy, humus soil (or dry mullein) in a ratio of 3: 1: 1: 1: 0,5 with the addition of perlite and pieces of charcoal.
For terrestrial species of gusmania, a substrate is prepared from leafy, humus earth, peat and sand (2: 1: 1: 0,5). Sphagnum, sod land, bark of coniferous trees, and charcoal are used as additives. The planting container should not be too deep, it is better to use wide bowls.
Reproduction of gusmanias
Guzmania is rarely propagated by seeds, mainly by offspring.
Propagation of gusmania by seeds
The seeds are sown in crushed sphagnum or peat with added sand. Before sowing the seed, it is washed in a weak pink solution of potassium permanganate and dried. Gusmania seeds are not embedded in the soil, as they germinate in the light. Maintain the temperature within + 22 … + 24 ° С, regularly ventilate and spray. After 10-20 days, seedlings appear, after 2-2,5 months they dive into a mixture of sod, leafy soil and peat (1: 2: 4). After about 6 months, the mature seedlings are planted. Young plants bloom in 3-4 years.
Reproduction of gusmania by shoots
The easiest way to propagate gusmania is by shoots (offspring). After flowering, the plant dies, but at the same time, renewal buds awaken at the base, giving numerous offspring. After 1,5-2 months, they form 3-4 leaves and a weak root system.
They are carefully separated along with the roots, and planted in containers filled with sphagnum, or in a substrate consisting of leafy soil, pine bark and sand (3: 1: 1). You can use a substrate consisting of light turf, leaf, humus soil, peat and sand in a ratio of 1: 1: 1: 1: 0,5, or a ready-made mixture for bromeliads.
Place the container in a warm place with a temperature of + 26 … + 28 ° C, cover it with a glass cap or a transparent plastic bag. Under glass, in a warm and semi-shaded place, young gusmanias grow quickly.
When the plants take root and get stronger, they are accustomed to the conditions of care of adult specimens.
Diseases and pests of gusmania
Gusmanias suffer from fungal diseases caused by high humidity and ambient temperatures. Excess moisture in the leaf funnel can cause wilting of the plant, as well as rotting of the root system and base of the stem.
Over-watering the gusmania can rot its roots, so reduce watering and put water into a leaf outlet. Direct sunlight causes burns on the leaves.
Gusmania is also affected by spider mites – in dry air, when the leaves and stems are braided with cobwebs; scale insects – brown plaques appear on the leaves and stems, leaving a sticky discharge; mealybugs – when the plants are covered with white cotton wool, aphids.
The plant can be helped by treatment with soapy water, warm washing and spraying with actellik (1-2 ml per liter of water).
Dry tips of Gusmania leaves indicate too low air humidity or lack of water in the funnel.
White limescale on the leaves of Gusmania occurs as a result of spraying / watering with hard water. For this purpose, use only well-settled, rain or filtered water.