The equatorial zone occupies a wide strip of several continents, including Southeast Asia, Africa and South America. b regions are striking in variety. Orchids in the equatorial forests occupy a special place. There are about 700 of their species. A humid and hot climate contributes to good plant growth.
- Features of the wet forests
- Features of orchids of the equatorial forests
- Varieties of orchids of the equatorial forests
- Conclusion <
Features of humid forests
Equatorial air masses are constantly located above this area, which is due to lush greenery.
the environment has the following characteristics:
- Year-round temperature of 20-30˚С and higher. The annual amplitude of the indicators is insignificant – 2-8 ° C, daily – 3-10 ° C.
- In the cold months, considered winter, heavy rains occur. In the rest, the amount of precipitation decreases, but there is enough moisture for the vegetation. There is practically no change of seasons here. There are dry and rainy periods.
- Humidity is a minimum of 55-65% in the daytime and a maximum of 100% in the night. Indicators vary at different heights.
Greenery in the equatorial forests grows in several layers. Light practically does not enter the earth. Orchids are found only on the trunks or branches of trees, that is, they are epiphytic. The most suitable conditions for their growth are created in the middle of the forest canopy, where diffused light is well received. The air is humid, it circulates. Plant trunks, insect bodies and other organics fall on tree trunks. Over time, they turn into humus, which provides nutrients for epiphytes.
Roots develop in the air.Because of this feature, the Indians called the flowers “daughters of the air.” When it enters the soil, the root system rots and dies. All species of these plants have not been studied so far, because the overgrowth of many areas is almost untouched by humans. p20>
- from pale white to pink;
- from lemon yellow to reddish brown.
There are also spotty and striped. They also differ in the shape of the petals – there are specimens similar to butterflies, birds, mushrooms, etc. The roots are white or silver. Top have a sponge layer that absorbs water. The leaves are dense, leathery. Perform a protective function for soft tissues. Pseudobulbs store moisture reserves. Orchids also differ in size – from the smallest to the gigantic. Some flowers are 15-25 cm in diameter. This is not uncommon for equatorial forests.
Orchids in this zone settle on trees with a thick, rough bark. Many species grow in clusters. Pollination occurs with the help of insects. For some of them, especially ants, flowers are home. This interaction does not interfere with the normal development of plants.
Varieties of orchids of the equatorial forests
Many varieties of these flowers are found in the basins of the Amazon, Orinoco, Congo, Niger, Zambezi.
They also grow in Madagascar, India, the Malay Archipelago, in New Guinea and on some islands of the Pacific Ocean.
From different specimens of orchids of the equatorial forests, the following are distinguished:
- Gramatophyllum is a large and tall plant. It grows to 55-60 cm. The flowers are light yellow with a brown splash. Branched peduncles, large pseudobulbs.
- Bulbofillum – blooms in two rows with small buds. The leaves are ellipsoidal, star-shaped flowers, a specific aroma.
- Poliriza is a rare species. According to the description, it differs in the absence of leaves. It receives nutrients from fungi attached to its roots. The flowers are white-green, the aroma is apple.
- Fragmipedium – has flowers similar to a shoe. Their color is pink, white, beige and olive. The leaves are pointed, collected in a basket.
- Phalaenopsis is the most famous type of orchid that is grown at home. The socket is basal. Flowers resemble butterflies. The color is varied.
- Oncidiums are one of the most exquisite plants. Has small, linear leaves. Flowers resemble figures of dancing women. It blooms profusely. Pseudo-bees are well developed.
The equatorial zone is most suitable for living . Orchids growing in it are of great interest to scientists and gardeners. Many get huge profits from their implementation. Entire collections of unique flowers are created.
Recently, the number of known species of these plants has decreased.The reason for this is the intensive felling of trees, which entails a reduction in the location of orchids.