The genus includes several types of treelike or shrub succulents. The popular name of the adeniums is “desert rose”. They attract our attention with their huge oil-olive leaves, sometimes variegated, with their large flowers of different shades from white to red, as well as with a tint of purple on a white background and with various ornaments on them from solid colors and borders to variegated colors. The flowering time of adeniums in our latitudes is summer and early autumn.
Adenium is a rose of the deserts. Farmer Burea-Uinsurance.com jeffs bulbesetpots
Description of the adenium
Genus Adenium (Adenium) has about 5 species of plants of the kutrovy family (Apocynaceae).
Representatives of the genus are small trees or shrubs, with thick trunks, shiny or velvety leaves and large flowers from white to dark crimson.
What only names, rather poetic than botanical, are not worn by representatives of this genus: “desert rose”, “impala lily or rose”, “star of Sabinia”.
The stalk is thick, up to 3 m high; grows up to 35 cm in culture. Lateral, thinner stems are formed at the top of the main stem and are covered with leaves. The leaves are elongated, fleshy, shiny or velvety; during the rest period they turn yellow and fall off. The flowers are funnel-shaped, up to 6 cm in diameter, in various shades from white to dark crimson; collected in clusters at the tops of the shoots. The roots are powerful and grow rapidly.
Homeland is central and South Africa. Representatives of this genus belong to the group of treelike stem succulents. In nature, they reach gigantic proportions – up to 10 meters in height. In culture, they are quite demanding and whimsical, they grow on average about 30-35 cm. Adenium was popularly called the Desert Rose for flowers that look like rose flowers. Adenium juice is poisonous in all parts of the plant.
In culture, the view of Adenium thick Adenium obesum has become widespread. It has a thickened stem – caudex. Lateral, thinner stems extend from it. Caudex is capable of storing enough water to survive fairly long droughts. Leaves are linear, fleshy, covered with a waxy bloom. Flowers usually appear in late spring, before the leaves appear, when the plant is just emerging from the dormant period. The flowers are pink or red, up to 7 cm in diameter.
Features of adenium
Temperature: Adenium is thermophilic, about 25-27 ° С in summer, not lower than 10 ° С in winter. Does not tolerate hypothermia of the root system. For the summer, it is better to put it outdoors in a garden or balcony.
Lighting: Adenium needs a very bright sunny place. Grows well on the south window. However, you should gradually get used to the bright sun in spring.
Watering: After the leaves have fallen off, the plant is not watered until new shoots are formed. Water sparingly in spring and summer so that the soil dries out between waterings. For example, in the summer on hot days, water is watered about once a week. Adenium is very sensitive to excessive watering, and root rot can easily begin from this.
Fertilizer: With the formation of flowers and new leaves, adenium is fed with a special fertilizer for cacti, adding it to the water for irrigation. Top dressing no more than once a month.
Air humidity: Adenium likes regular spraying from a fine spray bottle so that the water does not run down the branches in streams. During flowering, it is impossible for the water to fall on the flowers.
Transfer: In the spring every year. The soil should be loose and slightly acidic. Any fertile clay soil with the addition of river sand will do. You can use a commercial cactus potting mix – “Cactus +”, again with the addition of 1 part sand. Drainage is required. Young plants are transplanted annually, adults over 3 years old are transplanted in a year, but the top layer of the earth is replaced annually. After transplanting, they are watered no earlier than a week later.
Reproduction: Seeds, cuttings, layering. Adenium seeds lose their germination during storage, so it is advisable to use only fresh seeds. Seeds germinate when heated with soil.
Adenium prefers bright direct light, without shading (southern exposure is optimal for it). But if in the winter there was little light, then in the spring you should gradually accustom yourself to direct sunlight. The trunk of young adenium plants is quite sensitive to sunlight and if you have direct sunlight indoors for 3-5 hours, then in order to avoid burns, the plant should be shaded (for example, with other small succulents).
Adenium is thermophilic, in summer it feels good at a temperature of 25-30 ° C. It is advisable to take out adenium in the open air in the summer (it should be protected from precipitation, in order to avoid waterlogging of the soil). With a decrease in daylight hours and air temperature, the growth of adenium slows down, it falls into a rest period. During this period, his leaves turn yellow and fall. During the period of winter dormancy, the optimum temperature is 12-15 ° C, not lower than 10 ° C. Adenium does not tolerate hypothermia of the root system.
In the summer they water it regularly, making sure that there is no waterlogging of the soil, since adenium is sensitive to excessive watering, the soil should dry out between waterings. In winter, water is limited, depending on the temperature, if the temperature is within +16 .. + 20 ° C, then water is limited, and when the substrate is completely dry. In a cool room, water is rarely watered or not watered at all; if the plant is young, then it must be watered limitedly.
When the plant leaves the dormant state, the first watering must be done very carefully and with a small amount of water, if the plant was in a dry state during the dormant period, then it is not watered immediately, but after two to three weeks, after the growth buds wake up and the plant moves into height.
Adenium can be sprayed during the growing season, from a small spray bottle, but during flowering, water should not get on the flowers, as they lose their decorative effect.
From spring to autumn, they are fed once a month with fertilizers for indoor plants, diluted to 1-2% concentration.
In the spring, if necessary, you can trim the adenium. This operation must be carried out at the beginning of vegetative growth. If, when forming adenium, you want to get a plant with one stem, then you need to cut off the branches or trunk by one third of their height; if you want to get a bushy plant with several trunks, then cut the plants as low as possible. In young plants, you can pinch the tops of the branches.
Adenium is transplanted in the spring: young annually, adults – as needed. A pot for adult plants is chosen wide and shallow, it is also advisable to use light-colored pots, since they heat up less under strong light. After transplanting, adenium is not watered immediately so that the damaged roots dry out.
The substrate for adenium transplant should be breathable, loose, with an acidity close to neutral. It is made up of equal parts of sod, leafy land and coarse sand (1: 1: 1); it is also necessary to add charcoal to the mixture. For older specimens, sod land is taken in large quantities, and crushed brick is added to it. Good drainage is essential. The plant is not watered for the first 5-6 days after transplantation.
Reproduction of adenium
Propagated in spring by seeds, apical cuttings, or grafting on oleander.
When adenium is propagated by seeds (seeds lose their germination during storage, take this into account when sowing), they are sown in February-March, before planting in the ground, you can pre-soak for 30-40 minutes in a solution of potassium permanganate, or in a systemic or biological fungicide. Then they are soaked for several hours in warm water with a solution of zircon. The substrate for sowing seeds is made up of vermiculite, sand and charcoal. Seeds are sown in a moist substrate, without embedding in the ground, and lightly sprinkled. The containers are placed in a warm place with a temperature of +32 .. + 35 ° C, seedlings appear within 7 days.
At a lower temperature +21 .. + 25 ° C the germination time increases and there is a risk of seed rot. After the seeds hatch, they must be illuminated with a fluorescent lamp. The required air humidity and temperature (at least 18 ° C) should be maintained, ventilated regularly. After the appearance of the first pair of leaves, adeniums are gradually accustomed to the conditions of keeping an adult plant. When the seedling has a second pair of leaves, they are dived into suitable pots.
Reproduction by apical cuttings is carried out in spring or summer, but this is not always possible, since the cuttings rot easily. The stalk is cut into a length of 10-15 cm, then it must be treated with charcoal and dried. Cuttings are rooted in perlite, crushed expanded clay, a mixture of sand with charcoal. Clean sand is poured around the root collar or pieces of charcoal are placed, which protects the base of the stem from decay. Maintain a temperature of +25 .. + 30 ° C and good lighting. It is necessary to ensure that the substrate is not very waterlogged, as this threatens the rotting of the cuttings. Rooting under favorable conditions occurs within a month.
Reproduction by air layers should be carried out in late spring or early summer, during the active growing season. A shallow circular incision is made on a shoot with a thickness of at least 2 cm in diameter with a sharp knife, dried, and then treated with a rooting stimulator. The incision is wrapped in sphagnum and a polyethylene opaque film (secured with thread, wire or tape). Sphagnum is periodically moisturized. Roots appear within a month – after the roots appear, the layers are separated and planted in soil suitable for an adult plant.
The plant grown from cuttings does not have the thickened stems – caudex, typical of adenium.
Inoculate adenium on oleander or adenium. When grafted onto oleander, such specimens are more hardy and bloom better. Oblique cuts are made on the scion and rootstock, they are combined and fixed with an elastic tape or a special spray for inoculation. The temperature is maintained at +30 .. + 35 ° C, intense lighting and high air humidity are provided. The grafted plant should be protected from direct sunlight and tops, sprouts from the stock should be removed in time.
Adenium juice is very poisonous. After working with adenium, wash your hands with soap and water. Take care when growing adenium if there are small children or animals in the house.
Possible difficulties in growing adenium
The leaves of the plant turned yellow and fell off
The reason may be a sharp change in conditions, or hypothermia or drafts.
In the autumn, with a decrease (but not abrupt) in temperature and daylight hours, this indicates the beginning of a dormant period.
Types of Adenium
Adenium obesum, or fat (Adenium obesum)
A slow-growing plant with a pronounced lignified trunk, branched in the upper part, reaching a height of 1,5 m and a diameter of more than 1 m. The grayish-brown stem is thickened and fleshy at the base, has a bottle shape. At the top of the branches grow elongated grayish-green leaves, leathery, 10 cm long. In summer, the plant appears many flowers up to 4-6 cm in diameter with red, pink or white petals; flowers are collected in small corymbose inflorescences.
This is a plant with a pronounced lignified trunk, branched in the upper part, reaching a height of 2,5 m and a diameter of more than 1 m. It differs from the previous species by an abundance of flowers.
Lesser known Adenium boehmianum, characterized by lilac-pink or bluish-white flowers with a purple throat and corolla tube.