Often, gardeners are forced to transplant apple trees to another place. There are many reasons: sprawling, bad nice location, strong deepening of the root neck, sending the seedling for sale. Consider how to carry out the procedure in the fall, and what dates should be followed?
- The purpose of the fall transplant
- Optimal dates
- Transplant rules
- Young apple trees
- Old apple trees
- Coloniform varieties
- Dwarf varieties
- Subsequent care
- What to do if damaged roots
- Regional features
- Moscow region <
- Midland and northwest
The purpose of the autumn transplant
The best time to move the crop to a new site is autumn.
This season the tree is preparing for hibernation, metabolic processes in the internal tissues slow down, resulting in reduced susceptibility to stressful effects.
Most often, the apple tree has to be transplanted for the following reasons:
- the initially chosen place is unfavorable, soil conditions, illumination level, protection against winds are not normal;
- the root neck is very worn out planted;
- the crown has grown, it does not have enough space;
- the seedling is preparing for sale;
- the plant is affected by a disease that requires transplantation to get rid of.
Transplanting in the fall is more favorable than in the spring, however, for the correct procedure to take place, it is important to take into account certain nuances.
The optimal time is from the second half of September to mid-October.
By this time, the leaves fall, the crop is harvested. The apple tree goes into the phase of preparation for winter sleep: despite the slowdown of metabolism, the root system is still quite active – it is easily restored until the air temperature drops below 4 ° C.
Thanks to the still warm soil, it is easier for the plant to adapt to new conditions, restore the marginal roots, which are important for the absorption of food and moisture.
You can’t pull with the procedure. It must be carried out at least 2 weeks before the arrival of frost. Otherwise, the tree will have difficulties experiencing the winter period.
Young apple trees
It is best to replant in the autumn an apple tree 2-3 years old.
It is already strong enough to survive the transfer to a new place without negative consequences. And at the same time, it is still not so large that the gardener could not do the work on his own.
The transplantation of young seedlings is carried out by the method of transshipment. First of all, choose a site with optimal conditions: it is well lit by the sun and protected from winds. It is advisable to choose a more elevated corner of the garden.
If you plan to transplant the tree before dropping the leaves, you need to trim the crown. Such a measure will allow the plant to save energy on restoration and begin regeneration of the root system.
It is better to mark the root neck on the trunk so as not to make a mistake when the tree is buried in a new place.
A month before the transplant, dig a hole – make a diameter of up to 2 m, depth – no more than 0.5 m.
Prepare it: lay out the drainage, apply fertilizer, fill it with a fertile substrate so that it can settle.
If on participation e groundwater situated higher than 1.5 m above the ground, the drainage is required, otherwise the likely root rot. Crushed stone is usually used.
The type of top dressing and dosage depend on climatic and soil conditions, as well as age.
- Take manure (only rotted, fresh can not), sawdust, ash, compost, sand, all this is mixed.
- Of the mineral compounds, ammonium nitrate, potassium, urea are suitable.
If the soil in the area is peaty, poor in nutrient content , acidic, the introduction of a neutralizing agent is required – lime or chalk.
- the plant is dug out carefully so as not to damage the roots (setting the diameter of the trench around the trunk, you should be aware that the width of the root system approximately corresponds to the size of the crown);
- the seedling is pulled out with a soil lump, carefully wrapped in tissue, transferred to the planting hole;
- at the bottom, at some distance from the central point, a support stake is driven in;
- over layer of fertilizer make a cone-shaped mound of fertile soil, put an apple tree on it, the roots are neat straighten so that they do not bend up;
- the seedling is abundantly watered, the trunk is tied to a stake;
- the hole is covered with a substrate, rammed;
- the soil around the trunk is mulched with straw or sawdust.
Old apple trees
Transplanting an adult apple tree is more difficult because its root system is developed and widely spread in the ground. If the plant is large, sprawling, then its width can reach 10-15 m.
It is problematic to dig it out of the ground, but it is weakly susceptible to stressful effects.
It is necessary to relocate by transshipment, but the problem is that his weight is very solid, you will have to take helpers.
The roots that extend outside the soil lump are cut off from the extracted tree. Sections are sanitized. Lateral shoots are tied to the trunk for convenience.
The planting algorithm is the same as for a young seedling:
- dig a planting hole in advance according to the volume of the root system, prepare it;
- at the bottom, drive thick supporting stakes;
- put the apple tree in the hole, tie the trunk to the supports;
- fill it with fertile soil;
- water it, use sawdust as mulch.
The specifics of the transplant is that the crown must be trimmed. If it is not carried out, then there is a high probability of dying of shoots and a decrease in yield.
The procedure makes the culture more resistant to insect pests and adverse climatic conditions, strengthens its immunity.
It is carried out in October, when the tree threw off the leaves, prepared for hibernation, metabolism in the wood slowed down.
It is extremely important to catch the frost, because the crop takes about 2 weeks to recover, heal the slices. If the deadlines are not respected, there is a high probability of problems with the wood frame.
The pruning pattern is age-appropriate.
- Seedlings under 5 years old are cut by a quarter of the length, strong shortening is unacceptable.
- After 5 years, a third of the shoot is cut.
- Half of the old tree is removed.
- And long-livers necessarily undergo anti-aging pruning.
A garden var that promotes rapid healing is applied to the slices.If young seedlings are easy to cut with secateurs, an adult apple tree can only be cut with a saw.
The varieties have a short fruiting period. An apple tree that has reached 5 years old is already old, it is being replaced with a new one.
The planting algorithm is the same as for classical varieties. The crown of the trees is compact, so when planting in a row the distance between the trunks can be made 0.5 m.
Nuances that should be taken into account:
- the size of the landing hole 0.5 × 0.5 m, depth 0.6 m;
- annual seedlings better tolerate stress;
- it is unacceptable to transplant to a site with a surface occurrence of groundwater;
- the root neck should be on 5 cm from the soil;
- the grafting point should face south;
- the layer of mulch should be thick, because in the colonized varieties the roots are superficial.
Autumn transplantation of dwarf trees is carried out at the end of September. The procedure is the same as for classic varieties.
The size of the planting hole is 0.7 × 0.7 m, the depth is 0.5 m. The root system is surface, this must be taken into account when mulching and watering, but the depth is groundwater does not matter.
A transplanted apple tree, especially an old one, requires special care, which will allow it to take root in a new place faster.
Experienced gardeners advise:
- often water the plant;
- do not dig the soil in the first season after transplanting;
- mulch with peat and humus;
- before coming in winter, wrap the trunk with artificial insulation or spruce paws;
- cut branches in the spring to accelerate their development;
- remove flower buds in the first spring after transplantation.
What de if the roots are damaged
The survival rate of the apple tree depends on the state of the root system.
If the main rods are healthy, then the roots of the second order departing from them quickly regenerate. Therefore, having removed it from the soil, the injured roots are removed, a garden var and an antiseptic preparation are applied to the slices.
If one of the leading rods conducting nutrients to the trunk is injured, then the damaged area is treated with an antiseptic, covered with var.
To root quickly restored, cut branches – this increases the chance of its survival.
Timing and method are determined by climatic and soil conditions in the region where the garden plot is located.
By Moscow region
Dates – September-October. Soil temperature should not be lower than 8 ° C.
Gardeners living in the suburbs take into account the depth of groundwater.
- If the distance between groundwater and the surface of the soil is significant, then you can transplant the tree anywhere.
- If it is less than 1.5 m, and there are no hills on the site, then you need to fill the hill at the landing site.
Middle lane and northwest
The optimal time for a transplant in the middle lane is September and early October. In the northwestern regions, it is carried out earlier – until the end of August.
Gardeners in the northwestern regions prefer to plant apple trees in autumn, because the climatic conditions are humid this season, which positively affects root restoration.
Since deep soil strata are cold and poor in nutrients, the root system grows predominantly in width.
It is problematic for Siberians to transplant trees in autumn. It is highly probable that the culture will not survive the cold.
But if the gardener decided to take a chance, then it is permissible only to dig young trees for the winter. A hill is prepared, and after spring thawing, the seedlings are transplanted to another place.
Autumn is a favorable period for transplanting young and adult apple trees. The main thing is to comply with the terms and agrotechnical rules, taking into account the climatic characteristics of the region, age, variety and condition of the tree. And then it will quickly recover, henceforth it will please with a plentiful harvest.