We today almost invariably associate the name of jasmine with the popular and fairly widespread garden shrub chubushnik. But in fact, this plant has nothing to do with the representatives of the legendary fragrant jasmine. And a similar scent should not be misleading. Jasmines are inimitably beautiful indoor lianas, evergreen, elegant, abundantly blooming, captivating with their simple nobility and fragrant flowers. Being a plant surprisingly graceful, real jasmine cannot boast of great endurance and even more frost resistance, and we grow it exclusively as a greenhouse or indoor plant. But on the other hand, jasmines always become a real pride in the collection. To admire them, you need to provide plants with not so easy care. And the selection of growing conditions for this exotic handsome man does not diminish the hassle.
Jasmine multiflorous (Jasminum polyanthum). Farmer Burea-Uinsurance.com floradania
Real jasmines and their elegant beauty
Beautiful jasmines, during their flowering, seem almost unearthly beauties. Formed on various supports or freely growing, but invariably elegant, they are a kind of canon of impeccable beauty. There are many confusion about the name “jasmine”. And today, some gardeners believe that indoor or greenhouse and garden jasmines are related plants, and they are all genuine. But in fact, the shrub that is grown in our gardens under the name jasmine has a completely different origin.
Chubushnik, which is customary and even fashionable in our country to call jasmine (even some large garden centers do not hesitate to give out a nickname for a generic name), belongs to the Kamnelomkovy family and can only be called jasmine by mistake. In fact, a pleasantly strong scent, similar to that of the legendary jasmine, is the only trait that unites greenhouse plants with garden imposters. But even if you compare the aromas of the two plants, the difference in shades and nuances becomes obvious. And the white fragrant flowers of the chubushnik, which is grown in parks and gardens, are in no way similar to the perennial evergreen shrub that belongs to real jasmine.
Real or genuine jasmines represent the Olive family. And it is easy to guess about their belonging by the foliage of the plant and the forms of growth. Without exception, all jasmines are evergreen shrubs belonging to the number of climbing vines. Thin and surprisingly flexible, clinging shoots of this plant must be provided with support for the formation of a beautiful and dense bush. The drooping branches are actively developing, quickly braiding and hiding support, due to which, when formed, the plant looks like a lush dense bush (the base that holds all the shoots together is usually almost invisible).
It is a typical southern plant found in the tropics and subtropics, the Mediterranean, Australia and South America. Jasmine leaves are very beautiful. Entirely extreme, ideal oval-oblong shape with a pointed tip, they sit on short petioles in pairs, forming a very spectacular classic evergreen crown. Jasmine flowers seem simple and noble at the same time. Tubular, simple or double, they have deeply dissected, wide-open corollas, divided into 6 petals, under which the cylindrical tube is practically invisible. Axillary flowers are collected in the inflorescence scutes located in the leaf axils.
The color palette of flowers, despite the fact that shining white and cream shades have long been considered classic and have become a symbol of all jasmines, also includes yellow, pink variations in a wide variety of colors.
In room culture, several types of jasmine have spread, as a rule, differing in flowering and very similar in structure of bushes, type of leaves and shoots. The most popular houseplants include the following types of real jasmine:
Jasmine multiflorous (Jasminum polyanthum), distinguished by its strong branching from other species. It is a magnificent climbing shrub. It reaches a height of 1,5-2 m. Oval, with a pointed edge, the leaves are alternately arranged, flaunting a slightly wavy edge and a dark green color. Numerous tubular flowers, the limb of which is divided into 5 lobes, are collected in loose apical inflorescences. A special charm to this species is added by the fact that brightly colored pink buds turn white when blooming. But the most popular multi-flowered jasmine aroma is stronger than that of any other species (easily felt even from a distance).
This jasmine blooms from February to August. Today, this species also includes the thinnest Jasmine (Jasminum gracillimum), previously distinguished as an independent species, although outwardly it differs slightly from the basic form. This is a compact liana with very thin, necessarily drooping shoots, very simple leaves up to 3,5 cm long with a heart-shaped base, edging below and a more unusual color of greenery – light green. But the main difference is in the flowers. The former thinnest, and today is not even considered as a separate form of multi-flowered jasmine, flowers are collected in the umbrellas of inflorescences, their corolla is divided into 8 pointed lanceolate “petals”. In diameter, the flowers of multifloral jasmine reach 2,5 cm and bloom in January-March.
Jasmine large-flowered (Jasminum grandiflorum) – majestic, in nature, reaching 10 m in height, liana with absolutely naked shoots. Cirrus, opposite leaves differ from other species not only in dark color, but also in an elliptical shape with a pointed tip. Flowers are collected at the tops of the shoots in umbrellas in an amount of up to 10 pcs., Appear in fairly large numbers evenly from June to October. In this type of jasmine, the limb is divided into 5 petals, and the flowers themselves are very fragrant and snow-white.
Jasmine Bisa (Jasminum beesianum) – an evergreen shrub vine with shoots covered with longitudinal grooves up to 2 m long.Simple, lanceolate, opposite leaves reach 5 cm in length and stand out with a light, almost invisible edge and a rich dark green color, brighter than other species. The flowers are pink or dark pink, very fragrant, bloom at the tops of the shoots, gathering in whorls of up to 3 pcs. The flowers of this species reach 2 cm in diameter. It blooms in May, for a shorter period of time than other species.
Jasmine (Jasminum nudiflorum) differs from other types of indoor jasmine in weaker branching, rare foliage of graceful shoots. The leaves are small, colored bright green and, as a rule, fall off for the winter or remain in very small quantities. The color of the flowers is dazzling yellow, they are quite large, more than 3 cm in diameter, they bloom in the axils of the leaves only one at a time, but they appear from January to April and along the entire length of the stem. This type of jasmine has received the eloquent nickname “winter jasmine”.
Jasmine Sambak (jasminum sambac) – the most unpretentious, easy-to-grow type of jasmine, which is suitable for a warm winter. In nature, shoots grow up to 6 m in length. Its shoots, unlike other jasmines, are pubescent and woody. Opposite leaves sometimes gather in whorls of 3, ovoid, up to 10 cm in length. The rounded base is almost imperceptible, but the top can be either pointed or blunt.
Leaf cover ranges from glossy to slightly drooping. Very fragrant large flowers are collected in clusters of 3-5 inflorescences, most often semi-double or double, painted exclusively white. This jasmine bloom lasts from March to October and is unusually long. In appearance, double flowers resemble camellias or semi-double roses rather than other jasmines.
Home care for indoor jasmine
This indoor liana “in payment” for an unprecedentedly strong aroma, abundant flowering and beauty of greenery requires a considerable price. Jasmine is not even a medium-demanding houseplant. This is not the most persistent and rather capricious culture, which, even with standard careful care, can still suffer and die. And sometimes it is very difficult to find the reason for the wilting of jasmine. For jasmine, you need to strictly control the growing conditions, monitor the stability of the environment, carefully check the degree of soil moisture and air humidity.
The slightest violation of the parameters comfortable for the plant, even not obvious at first glance, can lead to serious consequences. So this magnificent classic plant can only be advised by experienced flower growers who are able to sensitively notice and respond to any problems in a timely manner.
Lighting for jasmine
Jasmine, like most tropical plants prone to abundant flowering, belongs to light-loving crops. It not only needs good lighting for the production of a large number of flowers over a long period of time, but also for the normal development of shoots and leaves. At the same time, jasmine cannot stand direct sunlight, and southern, sunny locations in the rooms will not be comfortable for him.
It is best to place jasmine on the eastern and western windowsills or in locations similar to them in terms of lighting activity in the interior itself. With this location, there is no need to shield the vine from the midday sun with a screen, even during the summer. Jasmine cannot stand artificial lighting, like any shading. For the dormant period that most jasmines have at the end of autumn, plants do not need lighting correction, and some species even partially shed their foliage.
Jasmine is relatively undemanding to temperatures. They feel quite comfortable in normal room temperature ranges; content at 21-25 degrees of heat or slightly higher during the entire stage of active development will be quite comfortable for jasmines. Dropping temperatures below 16 degrees in summer or spring can significantly harm the plant. As for the wintering period, different types of jasmine need to be kept in different conditions. Warm wintering does not affect the abundance of flowering only in Sambac jasmine, which prefers to spend the entire dormant period at a temperature of 17 to 18 degrees, with a maximum allowable temperature of 20 degrees and a minimum of 16 degrees.
All other types of jasmine bloom profusely only if they are kept cool during the entire pre-flowering phase. The optimal temperature range is from 8 to 10 degrees. A drop to 6 degrees can kill jasmine. If jasmine is kept warm in winter, you can still achieve a fairly spectacular flowering, but not abundant and short. With such a wintering, it is necessary to adjust the care and maintain a high air humidity in order for the jasmine to somehow bloom in the next year.
Watering and air humidity
The intensity of watering for jasmine directly depends on the growth rate, the stage at which the plant is. In the spring-summer period, all jasmines need quite intense and plentiful treatments. Watering is carried out after the top layer of the substrate dries up and does not allow the soil to completely dry out or become waterlogged. A strategy with constant control of the moisture content of the soil is also ideal from the point of view that this creates a more stable environment for the jasmine. In the fall and winter, especially during cool wintering, watering for jasmines should be as careful as possible.
Excessive waterlogging of the substrate must not be allowed. It is the lower humidity that is the basis of care, which is responsible for the abundant flowering. Even if the jasmine is kept warm, then watering must be reduced, allowing the middle layer of soil in pots to partially dry out, maintaining only a slight moisture of the substrate. At the same time, it is necessary to reduce watering at least a month in advance, gradually transferring jasmine to a “cautious” mode.
Particular attention should be paid to the quality of the water. Jasmine needs watering not only with soft and settled, but also slightly lukewarm water, this plant does not really like the hypothermia of the substrate. For jasmine, it is best to use rainwater, boiled or filtered water. Plants tolerate lime extremely poorly and simply choosing a substrate with the right reaction is not enough for jasmine. To compensate for the effect of salts in water on plants, acidified water should be used instead of regular water for watering jasmine 1-3 times a month. It is enough to add a few crystals of citric acid or 1-4 drops of lemon juice to 5 liter of water. If you do not increase the acidity of the substrate and do not take such measures, the plant will develop depressed and bloom poorly.
Without exaggeration, the most difficult thing in caring for jasmine is to ensure the highest possible air humidity. In dry conditions, plants not only do not bloom, but also suffer from pests and diseases, are in a depressed state, gradually dying. At the same time, it is advisable for jasmine to combine several methods of increasing air humidity. They just love spraying, especially in the summer, when the air temperature exceeds optimal values. Daily procedures with soft, settled water from a finely dispersed spray help to maintain the greenery in perfect condition, allow you to achieve the maximum beauty of the crown.
During flowering, spraying is not stopped, but they try to prevent water from getting on the flowers, increasing the distance from the plants when spraying. But to maintain optimal humidity, it is better to supplement the classic procedures with the installation of humidifiers or their artisanal counterparts, for example, pallets with wet moss or pebbles under a pot of jasmine itself. During the cool wintering, jasmine is not sprayed and does not take other measures to increase air humidity. If the plants are kept in warm conditions (except for sambac), then the air humidity must be increased even in comparison with the summer, by resorting to additional measures and making the procedures more frequent. This is the only guarantee that the jasmine will bloom after a dormant period.
If the plant is in a depressed state, sheds leaves, dries out, and the presumable reason for this is low air humidity, then it can be placed under a hood for several days (from 4 days to 2 weeks) with daily ventilation.
Actively developing jasmine during the stage of rapid vegetation and flowering requires very frequent feeding. For this plant, special complex fertilizers are used, intended for flowering indoor plants. The frequency of feeding during the period of active growth is 1 time per week. Immediately after flowering, feeding is stopped and resumed only when the first signs of the beginning of growth appear. Jasmines do not respond very well to long-acting fertilizers, so it is better for them to prefer the classic method of liquid feeding.
Jasmine, like most evergreen vines, tolerates formation well. And it is by no means reduced to the direction of the shoots along the supports, giving the desired outlines and sizes to the bushes with the help of their fastening and interweaving. A shaping haircut is also perfect for jasmine, and the more often it is carried out, the better and more abundantly jasmine blooms. The main pruning of plants is carried out immediately before the onset of intensive growth (most often in spring, but focusing on the flowering time and the stage of vegetation – for jasmines that bloom in winter, haircut is carried out at the beginning of the stage of active development in late autumn), shortening all shoots by 1/3 or 1 / 2 lengths.
Thanks to this pruning, the plant produces more young side branches on which buds are formed. When pruning, you must completely remove all elongated shoots, twigs with too small deformed leaves, as well as dry and damaged shoots. Young jasmines, if the shoots do not reach 50-60 cm, only need to pinch the tops for more tillering. Jasmine sambac can be trimmed 2-3 times a year, constantly shortening the branches to form and thicken the crown. The rest of the jasmines can be content with a single haircut.
Transplant and substrate for jasmine
For jasmine, only a soil mixture with neutral, at least slightly acidic, characteristics (optimal pH – 6,0) is suitable. No less important than the reaction of the soil is its composition. Jasmine can develop only in a loose and high-quality, nutritious soil mixture. When self-mixing the substrate, it is necessary to measure in equal proportions the clay-sod soil with deciduous, peat and sand. But it is better to use ready-made universal substrates for jasmine, which are better suited in their texture.
Jasmine transplant is carried out annually only at a very young age. Adult plants are transferred to new containers with a frequency of 2-3 years. The transplant procedure itself is quite simple. The main task is to lay a thick layer of drainage and provide the plants with increased air humidity after this procedure.
It is worth paying attention to the fact that for any jasmine, the diameter of the container cannot be increased by more than 2-3 cm. The presence of too much free soil for a plant is the most serious risk of soil acidification and a violation of the comfortable air and water permeability of the substrate. At the same time, jasmine develops better if its roots almost completely fill the substrate.
Jasmine diseases and pests
The capriciousness of jasmine is fully manifested in the fact that this plant is very vulnerable to pests at the slightest violation of care. Spider mites, aphids, and leaf weevils are found on jasmine. At the same time, pest control should begin as early as possible. It is best to remove damaged shoots and spray the plant prophylactically to prevent the spread of pests. At the same time, as a control measure, it is better to first try biological methods, as well as washing with soapy water, and only in a neglected state resort to insecticides.
Common growing problems:
- shedding leaves when waterlogged, drying out the substrate, drafts, insufficient lighting or low air humidity;
- drying out of the tips of young branches and leaves at low air humidity or drying out of the soil;
- gradual drying of branches with improper selection of water for irrigation, accumulation of alkali in the soil, lack of acidifying irrigation.
Reproduction of indoor jasmine
This delightful flowering vine can be propagated in two vegetative ways. The most popular of these methods is grafting.
It is advisable to cut cuttings exclusively in the spring-summer period and only from non-flowering shoots. For spring cuttings, powerful, lignified, mature shoots are chosen, cutting off the tops with at least 3 internodes. For summer cuttings, young green twigs are used. Plant cuttings must be planted in a mixture of peat and sand or sand and leafy soil, deepening oblique cuts by 1,5-2 cm. After treatment with a growth stimulant, rooting increases several times. A prerequisite for success in cuttings is to maintain a temperature of about 20 degrees Celsius without sudden fluctuations.
The release of roots from cuttings takes about 1 month or a little more, after which the plants should be immediately planted in small individual containers with a diameter of up to 5 cm. It will be possible to increase the size of the first pots to the standard 9-11 cm only after the roots are completely entwined with the substrate. cups. After that, the transplant is carried out annually, and from the 3rd year of cultivation, jasmine is transferred to “adult” conditions with a transplant with a frequency of 2-3 years.
Layers of jasmine are obtained by the standard method, wrapping a section of the shoot in the internode, on which a vertical cut is made, with wet moss or substrate. With constant maintenance of soil moisture, plants form roots at the cut site after a little over a month.