All shields and false shields cause great harm to plants. The accompanying signs are characteristic of all types of scale insects. At the site of the scabbard suction, yellow specks appear on the leaves, which grow in size as the juice is sucked out, then the leaf turns completely yellow, curls and falls off. The plant stops growing, the branches become bare, then the whole bush begins to dry out and the plant dies. In addition to the leaves, the scabbard damages the fruits of tangerines, lemons and oranges.
Brown scale insect (Chrysomphalus dictyospermi). Farmer Burea-Uinsurance.com fturmo
What is the difference between scabbards and false shields?
The shield can be distinguished from the false shield by the following features:
- The shield covering the top of the shield does not grow together with the insect inside. This is easy to determine by ripping off the shield – the pest will remain attached to the plant;
- As a rule (but not always), the scutellum also differs in shape – most often it is flat in scutes, and in pea-shaped scabbards.
Shields – description
Shchitovka, Latin name – Diaspididae… A family of hemiptera insects from the superfamily of worms. There are over 2400 species in the family. The body is covered from above with a wax shield (hence the name of the insect).
All scale insects are distinguished by the fact that they have protective shields and look like plaques on the plant. The oral apparatus of all scabbards is sucking. They differ only in size and color. The scale insect is especially dangerous because, just a few hours after emerging from the eggs, the larvae have already settled throughout the plant and immediately begin to suck out all the juices from it, and the leaf surface is completely covered with scutes.
Brown scale (Chrysomphalus dictyospermi) damages mainly the leaves, settling on their upper side. The scutellum of an adult female is rounded, about 2 mm in diameter, reddish brown or dark brown. The scutellum of the male is smaller and oblong.
False shields – description
False scales differ from real scale insects in that they do not have a wax shell, and the eggs and larvae are protected by the drying skin of a dying female.
Ложнощитовка (Coccidae). Farmer Burea-Uinsurance.com James Clay
False shields, or coccids (Coccidae) Is a family of hemiptera insects from the superfamily of worms. More than 1100 species have been described, of which about 150 species are found in Europe.
Reproduction of scale insects and false scales
Most species of scale insects reproduce by laying eggs, but there are also viviparous species. Pests keep on the lower and upper sides of leaves, shoots and plant trunks. Only young larvae settle, which stick to various parts of the plant, adult insects are not mobile.
With a strong infection, the leaves along the veins and the trunks of plants are covered with a kind of bloom, formed from a large accumulation of scale insects. In damaged plants, growth and development are delayed, the leaves turn yellow and fall off prematurely.
Shields and false shields secrete a sticky liquid – a pad, on which a sooty fungus settles, which further impairs the development of plants.
Scabbards and false scutes damage many indoor plants: palm trees, citrus fruits, oleander, ivy, cyperus, asparagus, aucuba and others.
Adults and larvae function all year round, sucking the cell sap from the plant. Damaged plants turn yellow, develop incorrectly, leaves often fall off, young shoots dry out.
Scabbards are fast-growing pests. Reproduction can be either asexual or conventional. It occurs by laying eggs under the scutellum, and some species are viviparous. After hatching, the scale insect goes through several stages of development. At the initial stage, the scale insects are very mobile, and can quickly spread, in particular, to neighboring plants.
Females are motionless, but males can even fly during their lives. However, the life cycle of the male is very short. They live only a few days, unlike women, who live for several months.
Under good conditions, more females are born, under bad conditions, more males. The composition of the population changes itself in such a way as to improve its mobility and move to a more favorable place for life.
Ficus leaf affected by a false shield. Farmer Burea-Uinsurance.com Karl Magnacca
External signs of plant damage by scale insects
Sometimes brown or light rounded scales appear on the leaves of plants, which are difficult to separate from the leaf. This is the adult stage of the scale insect.
Pseudoscale lesion: leaves that have lost their luster, turned brown and are covered with sticky secretions. The pest sucks out cell sap from leaves, stems and fruits. As a result, yellowish or reddish-brown spots are formed on the damaged areas, which can lead to the death of plant parts.
Especially in late winter and early spring, you need to take care of a well-ventilated place, you also need frequent spraying of plants with water, regular inspection, especially from below.
Measures to combat the shield and false shield
Shields are protected from external influences by a shield, so the fight against them is not easy. The scabbards are cleaned with a toothbrush or a cloth soaked in alcohol or soap solution, you can also use a soap-kerosene emulsion.
Alcohol solution with soap… The mixture consists of 15 grams of liquid soap, 10 ml of denatured alcohol and 1 liter of warm water. However, one must be very careful here, especially for soft-leaved and thin-leaved plants. These species are very sensitive to alcohol, therefore they are not sprayed with liquid, but applied to the insects themselves with a brush. If you really want to use this method, it is best to do a small sensitivity test on one sheet first.
For severe damage, the following chemicals are used:
Actellik. Dissolve the ampoule in 1 liter of water and treat it during the appearance of the pest. Solution consumption up to 2 liters per 10 sq.m. No more than 4 treatments. The waiting period is 3 days.
“Phosbecid”.Treatment with these drugs (they are toxic) is best done outdoors (20 ml per 10 liters of water).
Shields. Farmer Burea-Uinsurance.com Jeffrey W
If the plants are short (up to 30 cm), try watering them under the root with a solution of the drug “Aktara”… This insecticide penetrates plants through the roots and makes all of its above-ground organs toxic to insects for some time. When treating with an insecticide, wipe the windowsill or shelf where the plant stood, as well as the window glass, since small larvae may not be noticed.
To reduce the harmfulness of scale insects and false scale insects, one can also use the fact that the reproduction of many species of these pests is greatly slowed down by a drop in the relative humidity of the air and prolonged exposure to sunlight. Therefore, be moderate with watering, avoid crowding the plants, ventilate the room more often, isolate the infected plant from others, move it to a brighter place.
To quickly get rid of the scabbard, wipe the twigs and stem of the plant with a cotton swab dipped in vodka. This should be done several times, once or twice a week.
Pests are removed with a soft toothbrush and the damaged areas are smeared with onion gruel, then the plant is washed with soapy water or treated with a kerosene-soap mixture. To do this, 25 g of green or 40 g of laundry soap is diluted in 1 liter of water, adding 5 drops of kerosene and shaking thoroughly, lubricate or spray the affected parts of the plant with a mixture or spray from a spray bottle.
A homemade soap-oil emulsion gives a good effect: in a glass of water, beat 5-10 g of soap or powder until foam forms, then add 20-30 g of machine oil. With this composition, after covering the ground in a pot with a film, the whole plant is treated and kept for 6-12 hours. Wash off with cold water. This treatment should be carried out 2-3 times with an interval of 7-10 days.
You can wash the plant with one of the following infusions:
- Garlic infusion from scale insects… Five cloves of garlic are crushed and ground in a mortar, poured into a glass of water and insisted under a lid in a dark place for several hours. Leaves are washed or smeared with a soft brush. For spraying, the infusion is filtered through 3 layers of gauze.
- Onion infusion from scale insects… One medium onion is crushed and infused in a glass of water for several hours. Then everything is like with garlic infusion.
- Pepper infusion from scale insects can be prepared for future use. 50 g of fresh hot pepper is crushed and boiled in 0,5 l of water, added to measure. Then they insist for a day, filter. Store in a closed bottle in the refrigerator.
If it is necessary to process the plant, take 10 g of infusion and 5 g of green (laundry) soap per 1 liter of water.
You always want to keep your carefully grown plants healthy. Protect them from pests and diseases. We hope our simple tips will help you overcome these harmful creatures.