Among the orchids, Cymbidium stands out for its unusual flowering and aroma. For the Cymbidium orchid to bloom, it needs proper care. In nature, the flower is found in the tropical forests of Asia, Northern Australia. He was first mentioned by the Chinese philosopher Confucius 2000 years ago and called the flower the king of aromas.
- Variety description
- Preparing for planting
- Planting <
- Diseases and pests
- Pest control
- Pest control
- Conclusion <
Cymbidium (another name is cym or Mechelidaceae) belongs to the genus of evergreen epiphytic plants, the Orchidaceae family. it has about 50 tall and miniature species. The hybrid Cymbidium, which includes thousands of species, has been selected by breeders.
The flower has an elongated stalk. It contains several oval pseudobulbs collected in a bush. They reach a diameter of 15 cm (grade Giant). The leaves are leathery, flat, saber-like or blunt-ended in different shades of green.
Cymbidium orchid, which blooms for 1.5-3 months, does not produce new leaves during this period. The cut branch of Cymbidium costs up to a month. Flower stalks emerge and begin to bloom in 3 years and reach 1.5 m in tall species. Inflorescences have 10 or more fragrant flowers of different sizes, depending on the name of the variety. The bud opens slowly.It is white, yellow, yellow-green, red, pink, brown, purple. Sickle petals. The lip is three-lobed, yellow, lilac. Also, the color is red, brown, black, depending on the variety of cym.
Orchid seeds form in a box after flowering. One bud gives up to 4 million. They look like dust.
Cymbidium lives at home for 4-5 years. The following varieties of Cymbidium orchids are cultivated: dwarf, ivory, mechatyllous, aloe-elite, conspicuous, lanceolate, Daya, Tracy.
Among the hybrid species of Cymbidium orchid, the varieties are yellow (orange), ampel mini cora, ice cascade, red ( red).
Preparing for planting
First, prepare the soil for planting. Cym needs a special ground – a substrate. In ordinary soil, it grows poorly and does not bloom. It needs heavy, water-intensive soil. Mix acidic mixes with coniferous bark are suitable.
The bark for the substrate is mainly prepared by those who already have experience. The procedure is as follows:
- a large piece is inspected, eliminating the trash, the inner layer;
- cleaned from places damaged by pests;
- the pruner is crushed into medium pieces up to 2 cm.
The bark is disinfected or boiled in a water bath and allowed to dry. The substance is mixed with moss sphagnum, leaf soil, charcoal, perlite. Adhere to a ratio of 3: 2: 1: 1: 1.The density is checked as follows: through the finished substrate in 10 seconds. water should leak out.
The Cymbidium plant needs to be planted in a more spacious pot, as soon as its root system ceases to fit in the old one.
Cym is best planted in spring. The place is chosen bright, but without direct sunlight. It looks like a window sill with the radiator turned off under it or a veranda. The room should be ventilated, but without drafts.
Reproduction of Cymbidium by seeds is marked by poor survival rate, as evidenced by the facts, but fans of Cymbidium know how to grow a flower from seeds. The personal experience of orchid growers such as S. Lisitsky proves that it is realistic to grow Cymbidium from seeds at home.
To do this, prepare dishes with tight-fitting lids where you plan to plant the seeds. They are sterilized.
Next, make Knudson’s broth for seeds. The solution is simmered in a water bath until smooth, the components necessary for the recipe are added. The medium should be 4.8-5.2 pH.
Pour the broth into the containers for planting, which immediately close the lids. Bottles with a solution are sterilized on a grid from a pressure cooker, cool. They are stored in the refrigerator for 3-5 months.
The seeds of the Cymbidium orchid are disinfected in a lime solution for 10 minutes, then mixed.After this time, sowing is carried out. In a boiling pan, lower the container with the solution. It is opened, the seeds are transferred from the test tube, closed.
The flasks with seedlings are stored at a temperature of 20-22 ° C. Sowing is considered successful if, after a few days, mucus does not appear, plaque. First, the leaves of the seedlings come out, then the roots.
In the vessels the seedlings grow 1 year. After that, they are planted in a substrate for the Cymbidium orchid.
The propagation of the Cymbidium orchid is carried out by dividing the Sprouts. Each year, the orchid gives them 2. In each case, they are located at the base.
Before and after the planting of new sprouts, the flower is not watered for 2 days. If the room is dry, the plant is sprayed.
Transplanting Cymbidium at home is carried out simultaneously with the planting of sprouts. Division is carried out no more than once every 3 years. Planted as follows:
- The plant is extracted with roots from the pot. The ends of the roots are cut with a sterile knife. Slices are treated with charcoal, cinnamon.
- New bulbs are carefully divided so as not to damage. For every 2-3 sprouts there should be an old bulb.
- The sprout is placed in a new pot. The pot size is medium. From the roots to the bottom should be no more than 5-6 cm. A gap of 2-3 cm is left at the edges.
For flowers use special high pots with drainage holes, similar to vases. In this case, the long root system of the Cymbidium orchid will fit in the pot. It is better to plant Cymbidium in a new purchased flowerpot.
Expanded clay is laid at the bottom. Capacities are chosen transparent, because the roots should receive light. Growing in ordinary pots will give meager flowering. A clay glass has a surface to which the tips of the roots adhere. You will have to break it down when transplanting.
Caring for a Cymbidium orchid at home involves observing the rules of watering, observing the temperature regime, transplanting.
The growth of the flower depends on how you will water Cymbidium, how to care for it. The plant needs lighting all year round. Daylight hours should last 12 hours. In winter, special lamps are used. Lack of light leads to growth retardation, lack of flowering.
During the period of active growth and until the flower has bloomed, it is necessary to water the Cymbidium under the root and spray it abundantly. After irrigation, bulbs wipe it with cotton so that it does not rot.
When the flower needs to grow green mass, during flowering, the temperature is maintained at 22-25 ° C during the day, 16-18 ° C at night. Swings are required to make the arrow blossom. During rest, the temperature is reduced to 13 ° C.
The plant is fed at the beginning and at the end of the growing season. In winter, fertilizer is not used. Mixtures buy ready-made or diluted with water universal compounds. The composition should contain osmocot.Fertilizer is applied to wet soil.
Nitrogen mixtures are used for young flowers during growth. Top dressing is stopped when the plant is sick.
Diseases and pests
Improper care of the Cymbidium orchid makes the plant vulnerable. Causes of disease and damage:
- lack of light;
- low temperature;
- high humidity.
Visual inspection The flower helps identify parasites. The flower fades, leaves, roots have damage.
The presence of pests in the substrate is checked immediately after buying the flower. The pot is lowered into a basin with water. If the insects begin to crawl out, the orchid is transplanted.
Mosaic of Cymbidium is a viral disease. It is difficult to identify at the beginning of development. The disease is determined by how the Cymbidium plant looks. It ceases to bloom. Sprouts are small, dry. Stains form on the leaves. The virus is transmitted through tools. He gets on other orchids during joint watering. It is determined already at a late stage. The plant in this case is destroyed. The earth and the pot are thrown away.
Gray rot is characterized by the presence of gray-brown spots on the petals. Gradually the flower stalk and buds fade from the disease.
If there is no damage to the stem, the orchid can be saved.
How to reanimate the Cymbidium orchid:
- stop watering;
- stop fertilizing;
- raise the temperature;
- cut off parts of the plant with rot.
Black rot often develops on the basis of damage already existing after the attack of parasites. With the disease, the leaves and roots turn black. Sick parts of the flower are cut off. Sections are treated with Bordeaux fluid. The pot is sterilized, the soil is thrown away. Nearby indoor plants are sprayed with copper.
When the root rot is damaged, the leaves turn brown. The roots soften and rot. The plant ceases to bloom. The pot to the green part is completely immersed in a solution of Fundazole or Topsin with a concentration of 0.2%. Treatment is carried out three times every 2 weeks. It is better to transplant the flower into a new pot.
Fusarium affects the leaves. They become soft, curl. The spores of the pale pink fungus accumulate on the leaves and stem. The resuscitation of the flower is that the pot is immersed in 0.2% Fundazole 3 times a day for 10 days.
Leaf spotting is an infectious disease. Symptoms are wet dark spots. Remove damage, spray with fungicide, do not water for 5 days.
Visual inspection of the flower helps identify parasites.The flower fades, leaves, roots have damage. The presence of pests in the substrate is checked immediately after the purchase of the flower. The pot is lowered into a basin with water. If the insects begin to crawl out, then the orchid is transplanted.
Pests attack the Cymbidium when care and transplantation is not performed correctly. Scale insects settle on it. They look like dark bulges on the leaves. Dendrobionts feed on sap, slowing down growth, so the peduncle does not grow, Cymbidium does not bloom.
The plant is washed under running water. All parasites are cleaned with a toothbrush. The flower is treated with Fitoverm, Actellik. After a week, the process is repeated. Ethyl alcohol, which wipes the leaves, helps. Put a bag on the plant or transfer it to the greenhouse. This increases air humidity.
Aphids settle on young shoots on the back side. Leaves from it become sticky, change shape. The insect eats the juice of the Cymbidium orchid, introducing poison into it. Aphids carry viruses, fungi. To combat it, cym is irrigated with a soap solution, then sprayed with Chlorophos. Onion tincture helps. The onion gruel is mixed with boiling water, insist 6-8 hours. The content of chopped onion should not exceed 10% by weight of the composition. The solution is filtered. The flower is treated 3-5 times a day for 3-4 days.
Mealyworms are recognized by plaque on the pot, soil, roots, flowers. Under the plaque, insects with larvae in a capsule hide. Worms are removed with a toothbrush 2 times a day. Places moisten with a soapy solution.Fitoverm spray the soil, roots, pot. Affected flowers break off. Over the next month, all parts of the orchid are often inspected. If the parasite appears again, the course of procedures is repeated. Among folk remedies use the following solution: 2 tbsp. l olive oil is mixed with 1 liter. water, sprayed with the composition “Cymbidium.”
A spider mite lives on the leaves. They turn yellow, dry out. The pest is dangerous in that it contributes to the fungal infection of the plant. The flower and the stand for it are washed with 1 liter of water from 1 tbsp. l dishwashing detergent, then watered, covered with a transparent bag, left for 3-4 days. Content in a mini-greenhouse increases air humidity. Use the insecticides Neoron, Thiophos.
Flying thrips is determined by the change in shade of the leaves, dots, stripes on them. A silver film also indicates a lesion. They wash the orchid, cut off the damage. Then they are sprayed with Fitoverm, Actellik 2 times with an interval of 10 days.
Also the orchid can be attacked:
Before buying a flower, they inspect for lesions. The main preventive measures for care: sterilization of instruments, moderate spraying, ventilation, the location of the orchid at a distance from other indoor plants.
Observe 60-75% air humidity and watering regime, which protects against aphids, scabies, ticks.Leaves are cleaned once a week with damp cotton wool or a rag. The substrate is washed once a month under running water.
From fungal rot, the orchid is sprayed once a month with a 1% solution of copper sulfate. Use a disinfected substrate.
The Cymbidium orchid is considered the most undemanding in comparison with other orchids. Relative unpretentiousness, hypoallergenicity, aesthetic properties make a choice in favor of this species. Together with orchids such as Cattleya dovianum, the Cumbria plant Cymbidium creates interesting decorative compositions.