Sheep breeding is needed in order to get high-quality wool, as well as delicious milk and meat. Sheep breeding in the world is in great demand, in Russia it has gained particular popularity, because our winters are particularly severe, and you can be saved from severe frost with the help of warm things from sheepskin.
- Features of sheep breeding in Russia
- How to organize feeding
- What should be the premises for the sheep
- How to choose the breed of sheep
- What diseases are characteristic of sheep
- How to trim a sheep
- Milk of a sheep
- How to properly slaughter a sheep
- We draw up a business plan for sheep husbandry
Currently, sheep breeding in Russia is rapidly times There is a logical explanation for this, because this industry of livestock breeding is flexible and does not require significant initial costs. In addition, sheep do not need a lot of space.
If you properly organize sheep husbandry at the very beginning, you can get quite profitable and cost-effective business. We will find out what are the peculiarities of sheep breeding in Russia, how to organize your business, whether it is profitable to breed sheep, and what is the profitability of sheep breeding at present. In general, we will touch on the foundations on which the world development of sheep breeding is based.
Features of sheep breeding in Russia
Sheep breeding is a fairly common occupation in the world.If we consider the development of sheep husbandry by country, the undoubted leader in the industry is such a country, China.
As for the development of sheep husbandry in Russia, it can be dealt with in any corner of our country, starting from the most extreme northern point, ending with the south. Thus, sheep breeding in Russia is spread across all regions of the country. An obstacle can only be the fact that the sheep do not tolerate dampness and high humidity, because in such conditions the sheep can get sick due to weakened immunity and a drop in resistance to disease, which negatively affects sheep breeding.
As mentioned earlier, for normal operation farms (SPK) with breeding sheep do not need an initial investment. As for the success of the business, the positive point is that sheep wool is in demand in the Russian Federation, just like sheep cheese and meat products. Sheep ripens quickly enough, as a result, already at 8 months the lamb can be put on meat – this will ensure quick profit.
Here are the statistics on the development of sheep husbandry by region of the Russian Federation in the table:
|Regions in which sheep husbandry is considered developed||Number of livestock at the beginning of 2017|
|Stage of development of sheep husbandry in Dagestan (leader in the development of this farming industry, region where sheep husbandry is maximally developed)||about 5,400 thousand sheep, which is about 21% of the total number|
|The state of sheep husbandry in Kalmykia||is about 2500 thousand heads|
|The state of sheep husbandry in Stavropols com krai||About 2300 thousand goals|
|Astrakhan region||1600 thousand goals|
|Karachay-Cherkess Republic||About 1200 thousand goals|
How to organize feeding
For the proper organization of goat breeding and sheep breeding in the household, it is important to correctly organize the feeding of domestic animals. This will positively affect the health status of the breeding sheep in the economy, how quickly they will gain weight, and the quality of the wool. Ideally, a breeding sheep should be grazing for the maximum amount of time; fresh greens are ideal food for sheep.
Sheep grazing You can have more than half of the calendar year, about 170 days a year. However, feed from the pasture must be moved carefully, introducing it gradually, so as not to provoke digestive problems. In summer, any green area can be used as pasture, almost any grass will fit for sheep. However, in addition to herbal food, it is important to enrich the feed with vitamins and minerals: this will positively affect the health of sheep. The dosage of such preparations should be calculated strictly according to the instructions, as well as depending on the weight of the sheep or ram.
As for winter nutrition, the main product will be oats and hay, where the sheep breeder should add premixes and fodder. The basis is the consumption rate of about 2-3 kg of selected hay, about 1 kg of straw, as well as feed grain of at least 700 g per 1 individual. In addition, do not forget about the vitamins and minerals in the complex.
What should be the room for the sheep
Sheep and sheep do not need excessive space – on the area you can significantly to save. At the same time, this does not mean that the sheep will be settled so densely that they will not be able to move normally.An overly tight fit will contribute to the development of many diseases, including scabies, various parasites and the early spread of other pathogens.
The sheep farmer must create such conditions in the room so that it is not wet and humid. It is also important to monitor cleanliness: as it becomes dirty, you need to clean the shepherd and completely change the flooring. Depending on how meticulously compliance with sanitary and hygienic rules is maintained, the quality of the coat will also change for the better. Also, when constructing the premises, you need to take into account that the walls of sheep farms or farms must be periodically washed, disinfected and bleached, while using limestone.
How to choose the breed of sheep
Of course, the success of sheep breeding will largely depend on the breed chosen. So, in Russia, Belarus and other countries of the former USSR, for breeding, sheep of the Romanovskaya breed, Edilbaevskaya, Texel, Gissar, Altai, Merin, Kuibyshevskaya and Tsigayskaya are most often purchased. Argali, Arkhar and Mouflon refer more to wild sheep, sheep breeding on them is rarely seen.
The above breeds are in high demand, because they have excellent coat and provide excellent tasty and tender meat, which is always in demand.
What diseases are characteristic of sheep
Like all living organisms , sheep are susceptible to disease, so the owner should carefully monitor the slightest changes in the health status of cattle. To understand that something is wrong with a sheep or a ram is possible by such signs:
- lack of appetite;
- poor appearance;
- dry mucous membranes;
- impaired gait, etc.
Among the most common factors that cause painful conditions, it is customary to identify the following:
- nutritional errors;
- viruses or infections;
- inappropriate conditions.
An unhealthy sheep likes to eat its own coat. This suggests that the animal is lacking in the nutrition of certain substances and trace elements. If a large amount of wool enters the sheep’s stomach, it can block the esophagus with bezoars.
Young lambs often suffer from a disease such as dyspepsia.Usually it occurs in young animals due to the fact that the female carrying the offspring did not eat properly. The development of this ailment can be suspected by prolonged diarrhea and a general violation of consciousness. As a treatment, prophylactic hunger is used for 8-10 hours, then the animal is given saline in a volume of 200 ml every 3-5 hours.
How to trim the sheep
For in order to sell sheep wool as expensive as possible, you need to learn how to trim it properly. In general, there is a certain technology, which is not difficult to learn.
How often do you need to cut a sheep? It is necessary to make a haircut, depending on the breed, 1 or 2 times a year. As for young lambs, whose hair is not so coarse, they need to be trimmed strictly once a year in autumn, the breed does not play a role here.
You need to think about cutting when the animal has accumulated a sufficient amount of fat in the hairline, then The haircut process is easier, and the hair is soft and pleasant to the touch. Also, for the convenience of trimming, it is recommended not to allow grazing on the eve of the procedure in contaminated areas, so that the litter does not remain on the wool. Before direct cutting, any foreign objects, such as burdocks or other plant debris, must be removed from the hairline.
For shearing use special machines or they perform the procedure using scissors, of course the first is considered the most convenient and fastest way. Besides the fact that the machine saves your time, as a result of such a haircut it is possible to get a fleece with the longest hair.
The pet is unlikely to be delighted with what is happening, so the sheep need to be immobilized. It is recommended to lay it on the surface, then tightly bandage 3 limbs. It is recommended to start a haircut from the head, then go down to the neck, stomach and groin area. Only after that it is necessary to proceed to cutting the sides and back, where the wool is the most. The machine should be carried out as close to the skin as possible, but at the same time move so as not to cause pain to the animal.
Tips for beginner sheep farmers say that the wool obtained from the abdomen and legs is considered to be of less quality, therefore it needs to be stored separately from a high-quality rune.
After the procedure is completed, you need to dry the coat and then beat off carefully to remove dust and other foreign elements. For the convenience of storage and transportation, the wool needs to be rolled into a roller, having previously collected uneven edges.
In addition to meat and wool, a breeding sheep provides milk, the useful properties of which have been known to mankind since ancient times. Among other things, it has a pleasant sweet taste. If we compare its composition with the most common cow’s milk, then sheep’s milk is several times superior to it in all respects.
Keeping sheep’s milk for a long time will not work: it starts to sour already on the 4th day after milking.
Sheep milk is especially important for allergy sufferers – many refuse cow’s milk in favor of sheep’s milk. Judging by the reviews, sheep’s milk is tastier and tastier, the products made on its basis are obtained the same.
All of these positive properties make the product indispensable in the dairy market, as a result, the sheep farmer has the opportunity to make good money on its marketing.
How to slaughter a sheep
In addition to wool and milk, a sheep gives excellent meat after slaughter. In this procedure, it is important to comply with all sanitary and veterinary requirements, the main technologies and rules, the only way to get a truly high-quality product.
Experienced sheep farmers do not recommend feeding the sheep on the eve of the slaughter. This is explained by the fact that when cutting carcasses, the contents of the intestines will significantly complicate the dismantling of meat, a lot of videos and photos have been taken about it. In addition, such a carcass is difficult to bleed, and undigested food can contaminate meat. There are no restrictions regarding water.
Immediate slaughter of a sheep is carried out when the animal is hung by its legs or placed on a bench. With a sharp movement of a hand, they pierce the neck of an individual with a knife near the auricle, then dissect the main blood arteries that are nearby. The carcass must lie or sag in this state for at least 5-7 minutes, this is necessary in order for the blood to leak.
After this, you need to proceed to cut off the head, ligation of the esophagus and further separation of the skin. This is done correctly, starting from the abdomen, where the first cut is made. After that, cuts are made on the limbs, it is with them that the process of separating the skin from meat begins. To do this, use special knives that minimize the risk of spoiling the skin. After separating the whole skin, you need to leave it alone for a while.
After 2 hours, you can start preserving the skins, and you need to decide in advance which way this will be done. At present, the most common is the mixed type of conservation, or, as it is also called, wet-salted.
It is important to show the sheep to the veterinarian before slaughter: this will help to make sure that the animal is completely healthy and there will be no problems with the sale of its meat .
We draw up a business plan for sheep breeding
A successful business, like any production, should begin with a detailed business plan or project for raising sheep, in which everything will be thought out to the smallest detail. Usually, the most popular breed of sheep, Romanovskaya, is used for miscalculation. As for the premises, this is not the most expensive article, since sheep do not require a lot of space. The place for grazing should be large, because one sheep needs at least 1 ha on average.
The next item of expenditure is the wages of farm or farm workers. Any work must be paid. Based on 300 goals, you will need one veterinarian, one person who will milk the sheep, as well as a shepherd. Next, you need to take care of the points of sale of the products, and immediately you need to think about meat and wool.
Here is an example of calculating a business plan for raising sheep, in which an economy consisting of 300 animals is taken as an example:
- Rent of land for construction-about 50 thousand rubles. per year.
- Construction of a winter shepherd for animals, taking into account all the necessary equipment – about 80 thousand rubles.
- Salary for employees – 500 thousand rubles. per year.
- Purchase of feed per year at cost – 120 thousand rubles.
- Force majeure expenses – 140 thousand rubles.
In total, about 900 thousand rubles are obtained, which must be invested initially, and this without taking into account the cost of the animal itself.
As for the income that the sheep farmer receives, the profit will be in the following articles:
- Meat production – about 500 thousand rubles. for a hundred goals.
- Sale of live weight – about 600 thousand rubles. per hundred sheep.
- Production and sale of wool – about 120 thousand rubles.
In total, the profit comes from keeping the sheep breeding and properly organized production of about 1.22 million rubles.Thus, the beginning sheep farmer can clearly see how quickly all the costs are paid off.
In conclusion, we can say that sheep breeding and goat breeding are a profitable and profitable business that you can do all year round.